Fellmann11e ch4


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Fellmann11e ch4

  1. 1. Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
  2. 2. Human Geography Chapter 4 Population: World Patterns, Regional Trends Source: Library of Congress Insert figure CO4 © Goodshoot/Fotosearch
  3. 3. Population Growth <ul><li>Implications of the Numbers </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  4. 4. Population Geography <ul><li>Provides the background tools and understanding of population data such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex distribution of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patterns of fertility and mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helps us understand how the people in a given area live, how they may interact with one another, how they use the land, what pressure on resources exists, and what the future may bring </li></ul><ul><li>Differs from demography, the statistical study of human population, in its concern with spatial analysis – the relationship of numbers to area </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  5. 5. Some Population Definitions <ul><li>Birth Rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crude Birth Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fertility Rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Fertility Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacement Level Fertility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Death Rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crude Death Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infant Mortality Rate </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  6. 6. Some Population Definitions <ul><li>Crude Birth Rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The annual number of live births per 1000 population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is “crude” because it relates births to total population without regard to the age or sex composition of the population </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 4.2 © Photodisc/Getty RF
  7. 7. Some Population Definitions <ul><li>Total Fertility Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The average number of children that would be born to each woman if, during her childbearing years, she bore children at the current year’s rate for women that age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A more refined statement than the crude birth rate for showing the rate and probability of reproduction among fertile females </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 4.6
  8. 8. Some Population Definitions <ul><li>Crude Death Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called mortality rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The annual number of deaths per 1000 population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the past, a valid generalization was that death rate varied with national levels of development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristically, highest rates were found in the less developed countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nowadays, countries with a high proportion of elderly people, such as Denmark and Sweden, would be expected to have higher death rates than those with a high proportion of young people </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  9. 9. Some Population Definitions <ul><li>Infant Mortality Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ratio of deaths of infants aged 1 year or under per 1000 live births. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infant mortality rates are significant because it is at these ages that the greatest declines in mortality have occurred, largely as a result of the increased availability of health services </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 4.8
  10. 10. Some Population Definitions <ul><li>Maternal Mortality Ratio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal deaths per 100,000 live births </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal mortality is the single greatest health disparity between developed and developing countries </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure TA 4.2
  11. 11. Population Pyramids <ul><li>A graphic device that represents a population’s age and sex composition </li></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 4.9
  12. 12. Population Pyramids <ul><li>A rapidly growing country has most people in the lowest age cohorts; the percentage in older age groups declines successively, yielding a pyramid with markedly sloping sides. </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of Natural Increase of a Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derived by subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural means that increases or decreases due to migration are not included </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  13. 13. Population Growth <ul><li>Rate of Natural Increase </li></ul><ul><li>Doubling Times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The time it takes for a population to double if the present growth rate remains constant </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 4.14
  14. 14. The Demographic Transition <ul><li>The Western Experience </li></ul><ul><li>A Divided World Converging </li></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 4.16
  15. 15. The Demographic Transition <ul><li>An attempt to summarize an observed voluntary relationship between population change and economic development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traces the changing levels of human fertility and mortality presumably associated with industrialization and urbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High birth and death rates will gradually be replaced by low rates </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  16. 16. The Demographic Transition <ul><li>First Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High birth and high but fluctuating death rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wars, famine, and disasters took heavy tolls </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e <ul><li>Second Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Falling death rates due to advances in medical and sanitation practices; improved foodstuff storage; urbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High birth rates because large families are still considered advantageous </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Demographic Transition <ul><li>Third Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth rates decline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People begin to control family size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The advantages of having many children in an agrarian society are not so evident in urbanized, industrialized cultures </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e <ul><li>Fourth Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by very low birth and death rates </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Demographic Equation <ul><li>Population Relocation </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration Impacts </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  19. 19. World Population Distribution <ul><li>Pattern of Unevenness </li></ul><ul><li>Ecumene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanently inhabited areas of the earth’s surface </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e <ul><ul><li>Nonecumene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The uninhabited or very sparsely occupied zone, does include the permanent ice caps and large segments of the tundra and coniferous forest of northern Asia and North America </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Population Density <ul><li>Density Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overpopulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carrying Capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic Density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The calculation of the number of people per unit area of land, usually within the boundaries of a political entity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The figure can be misleading since it is a national average density that does not reveal any information about type of territory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some sparsely populated areas are largely undevelopable </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  21. 21. Population Density <ul><li>Physiological Density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ratio between the total population and the amount of land under cultivation in a give unit of area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An expression of population pressure exerted on agricultural land </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e <ul><li>Agricultural Density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ratio between the number of agriculturalists (farmers) per unit of farmable land in a specific area </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Carrying Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of people an area can support on a sustained basis given the prevailing technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population Data and Projections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population Projections </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  23. 23. Population Controls <ul><li>Malthus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A British economist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1798 he published “An Essay on the Principle of Population and It Affects in the Future Improvement of Society” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The world’s population was increasing faster than the food supplies needed to sustain it </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e <ul><ul><li>Population increases at what he called a geometric rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The means of subsistence growth at an arithmetic rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population growth might be checked by hunger or other tragic events </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Population Prospects <ul><li>Demographic Momentum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a high proportion of the population is young, the product of past high fertility rates, larger and larger numbers enter the childbearing age each year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aging </li></ul>Human Geography 11e