Fellmann11e ch11


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Fellmann11e ch11

  1. 1. Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
  2. 2. Human Geography Chapter 11 Urban Systems & Urban Structures Hong Kong Photo Copyright 2003 by Jon C Malinowski Insert figure CO11 © PhotoLink/Getty RF
  3. 3. An Urbanizing World <ul><li>Megacities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conurbation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When metropolitan complexes eventually meet and bind together at their outer margins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive metropolitan regions </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e <ul><li>Merging Metropolises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Megalopolis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regions of continuous urbanization made up of multiple centers that have come together at their edges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A nearly continuous urban string that stretches from Boston to southern Virginia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Settlement Roots <ul><li>Brief Histories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People are gregarious and cooperative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of community for protection and cooperative effort </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rural Settlements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communal dwelling became the near-universal rule with the advent of sedentary agriculture </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  5. 5. Origins and Evolution of Cities <ul><li>The Nature of Cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities are among the oldest marks of civilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The words “city” and “civilization” have the same Latin root, civis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities originated in – or diffused from – the culture hearths that first developed sedentary agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinterlands are the productive areas surrounding a population center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those individuals who were not involved in farming were free to specialize in other activities – metal working, pottery making, cloth weaving, perhaps – producing goods for other urbanites </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  6. 6. The Nature of Cities <ul><ul><li>All cities perform functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities generate income necessary to support themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each city is part of a larger economy that has reciprocal connections </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 11.9 © Pixtal/age fotostock RF
  7. 7. Origins and Evolution of Cities <ul><li>The Location of Urban Settlements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site Characteristics: Break-of-Bulk, Head-of-Navigation, Railhead, Defensive Elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situational Characteristics: Raw Materials, Markets, Agriculture </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  8. 8. The Location of Urban Settlements <ul><ul><li>In order to adequately perform the tasks that support it, the cities must be efficiently located: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Centrality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical characteristics of the site - water transportation was an important localizing factor when the major American cities were established </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before the advent of railroads in the middle of the 19th century, all major American cities were associated with waterways </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  9. 9. Origins and Evolution <ul><li>The Economic Base </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Export activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Money flowing into the community is the result </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non Basic Sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Producing goods for residents of the urban unit itself </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not generate new money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for the internal functioning of the urban unit </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  10. 10. Origins and Evolution, (cont.) <ul><li>The Economic Base </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Base Ratios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiplier Effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As a settlement increases in size, the number of non-basic personnel grows faster than the number of new basic workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Functional Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation Centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special-function Cities </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  11. 11. Central Places <ul><ul><li>Walter Christaller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a framework for understanding urban interdependence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed his theory in rather idealized circumstances: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A plain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farm population would be dispersed in an even pattern </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People would be uniform; that is, they would possess similar tastes, demands, and incomes </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  12. 12. Central Places <ul><ul><li>Walter Christaller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A series of hexagonal market areas that cover the entire plain will emerge </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There will be a central place at the center of each of the hexagonal market areas. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The largest central places will supply all of the goods and services the consumers in that area demand and can afford </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The size of the market area of a central place will be proportional to the number of goods and services offered from that central place </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  13. 13. Systems of Cities <ul><li>Urban Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>World Cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban centers that are control points for international production and marketing, and for international finance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rank-Size and Primacy </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Influence Zones </li></ul><ul><li>Network Cities </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  14. 14. Inside the City <ul><li>Defining the City Today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suburb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central City </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanized Area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metropolitan Area </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 11.19 Photo by Mark Bjelland
  15. 15. Inside the City <ul><li>Patterns of Urban Land Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Central Business District </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A single point at which the maximum possible interchange could be achieved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside the Central Business District </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Models of Urban Form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentric Zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sector Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple-Nuclei Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral Models </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  16. 16. Social Areas of Cities <ul><li>Social Status </li></ul><ul><li>Family Status </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Controls </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  17. 17. Changes in Urban Form <ul><li>Suburbanization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metropolitan Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnoburbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edge Cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exurbs and Sprawl </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decline of the Central City </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population Shift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abandonment by Commerce and Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different Experience in Western U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central City Renewal and Gentrification </li></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 11.32 Photo by Lynn Betts, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service
  18. 18. World Urban Diversity <ul><li>Western Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidly Growing Non-Western Cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial and Non-Colonial Antecedents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban Primacy and Rapid Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squatter Settlements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planned Cities </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 11.34 © Digital Vision/PunchStock RF