A REPORT ON PHILIPPINE AGENDA 21 Atienza, Alysia Belicano, Roxanne Calamagohoy, Agnes
• Sustainable development is development that meets the needsof the present without compromising the ability of futuregenerations to meet their own needs.• Development that meets the need of the present withoutcompromising the ability of the future generation to meet theirown needs. (Brundtland, 1987)• It is the harmonious integration of a sound and viableeconomy ; responsible governance ; social cohesion; andecological integrity to ensure that development is a life-sustaining process.
Economic Development Environment Protection Social Reform People’s Empowerment
SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT Unless we see and explicitly acknowledge the spiritual in nature, human beings and society in our framework of development, we can never do justice to the strong sense of Philippine spirituality that permeates Philippine Agenda 21. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Existing measures of human development, such as the Human Development Index (HDI), which are limited to health, education and income, indicate some improvement over time. This improvement has in part been achieved through greater empowerment of the populace.
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT • Promoting resource access and upholding property rights • Promoting environmental awareness, inculcating environment ethics and supporting environment management action POLITICAL DEVEL0PMENT • Empowering the people • Maintaining peace and order ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT • Maintaining a sustainable population • Maintaining productivity and profitability of environment and natural resources
ECOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT • Adopting environmental management weapons in policy and decision making • Protecting the environment and conserving natural resources
Agenda 21 is an action plan of the United Nations (UN) related to sustainable development and was an outcome of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development(UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. It is a comprehensive blueprint of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the UN, governments, and major groups in every area in which humans directly affect the environment. It recognizes that sustainable development is primarily the responsibility of governments, and this will require national strategies, plans and policies. The efforts of nations need to be linked by international cooperation through such organizations as the United Nations. The broadest public participation, and the active involvement of the non-governmental organizations and other groups should also be encouraged.
The objectives of Agenda 21 require substantial assistance for developing countries. They need this additional support to cover the incremental costs of actions to deal with global environmental problems, and to accelerate sustainable development. Money is also needed to allow international bodies to implement the recommendations of Agenda 21.
At the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, over 160 countries, including the Philippines, pledged to pursue sustainable development as embodied in Agenda 21. This global agenda attempted to find the balance between development fueled by the rapid integration of nations into the world economy and the impacts of this process on the environment and society. As a demonstration of this commitment, the Philippine Government under the Ramos administration created the Philippine Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD). Subsequently the PCSD convened a nation-wide process to produce PA21. During the consultations, it became clear that PA21, to be truly sustainable, had to find a creative response to the opportunities and challenges of globalization.
is the nations blueprint for sustainable development. In concreting the vision, it describes a path for individuals, families, households and communities; an action plan for each ecosystem (coastal/marine, freshwater, upland, lowland, and urban); and across ecosystems in consideration of the interaction of the various lifescapes and landscapes found therein. The path is grounded on respect and active advocacy for the empowerment of the various social groupings of society to manage the economy, critical resources, society and culture, politics and governance and in the arena of foreign relations.
PHILIPPINE AGENDA 21 (PA 21) IS OUR OWN NATIONALAGENDA FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. IT IS BASICALLYMADE UP OF: - The Principles of Unity - The Action Agenda - The Implementation Strategies
Philippine Agenda 21 advocates a fundamental shift in development thinkingand approach. It departs from traditional conceptual frameworks thatemphasize sector-based and macro concerns. Philippine Agenda 21 promotesharmony and achieves sustainability by emphasizing. A scale of intervention that is primarily area-based. The national and global policy environment builds upon and supports area-based initiatives. Integrated island development approaches where applicable. This recognizes the archipelagic character of the Philippines which includes many small island provinces.
People and integrity of nature at the center of development initiatives. This implies the strengthening of roles, relationships, and interactions between and among stakeholders in government, civil society, labor and business. Basic sectors have an important role to play in achieving equity and managing the ecosystems that sustain life.
Primacy of Developing Full Human Potential This putsman at the center of all development efforts.Holistic Science and Appropriate Technology. Impliesdevelopment of appropriate technology to solve developmentproblems with due consideration to its impact to society andecology.Cultural, Moral and Spiritual Sensitivity. Considers theinherent strengths of local and indigenousknowledge, practices and beliefs, while respecting culturaldiversity, moral standards and the spiritual nature of theFilipino society.
National Sovereignty. Self-determination at the nationallevel to pursue social and ecological concerns in itsgovernance to achieve human, environmental and foodsecurity.Gender Sensitivity. Recognize the importance ofcomplementary roles and empowerment of both women andmen in development.Peace, Order and National Unity. Makes sure that theright of everyone to a peaceful and secure existence isrespected.
SocialJustice, Inter-and Intra-Generational Equity and Spatial Equity. Equal distribution of resources to everyone (including future generations) and the provision of equal access to development opportunities and benefits to all. Participatory Democracy. Puts value and support to the participation of all in the decision-making process. Institutional Viability. Since SD is everyone’s concern, institutional structures should promote joint responsibility, unity and partnership among all.
Viable, Sound and Broad-based Economic Development. Requires working for development that is based on stable economy, where everyone equally shares the benefits of progress. Sustainable Population. Needs to maintain a number of people that can be supported by the limited capacity of our natural resources. Ecological Soundness. Requires that we recognize the earth as a common heritage that belongs to all of us, and everyone should care for its capacity to support us and the future generations.
Bio-geographical Equity and Community-Based Resource Management. Means entrusting to the people residing near or within an ecosystem the primary right to manage its resources. Global Cooperation. Requires international solidarity of every nation’s effort to build a better life and safer environment.
PA 21 envisions a better quality of life for all Filipinos through the development of a just, moral and creative, spiritual, economically vibrant, caring, diverse yet cohesive society characterized by appropriate productivity, participatory and democratic processes, and living in harmony and within the limits of the carrying capacity of nature and the integrity of creation.
Poverty Reduction: Poverty is a central concern of sustainable development. Consistent with this, the various consultations for the updating of PA 21 have yielded poverty reduction agenda that includes measures to create an enabling economic environment for sustained and broad-based growth; improve employment, productivity and income; and attain food security.
Social Equity: Social equity should mean allocation of resources on the bases of efficiency and equity to achieve balanced development. Efficiency and equity mean the channeling of resources to developing areas where greater economic benefits accumulate and where there is greater need, distribution being dependent on the practicality and urgency of needs.
Empowerment and Good Governance: Empowerment is a precondition of informal choices. Good governance is a necessary precondition to empowerment, as empowerment is to good governance. These two are a defining element of each other.
Peace and Solidarity: The cycle of poverty and conflict goes on as the costs of war escalate in terms of various kinds of destruction while withholding funds for basic services, resulting in more poverty and underdevelopment.
Ecological Integrity: In general, the path towards enhancing the integrity of the country’s ecological domain will have to involve heightened and sustained implementation of environmental laws, as well as the continued pursuit of resource conservation, and environmental restoration/enhancement programs.