Urbanization in Jamaica: A Presentation to the Government


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Urbanization in Jamaica: A Presentation to the Government

  1. 1. Compiled and Presented by: Dexter R. Williams
  2. 2. Urbanization is defined by the United Nations as movement of people from rural to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration. (www.wikipedia.org )
  3. 3.  Availability of White Collar Jobs  Proper Infrastructure – roads, water, electricity, etc.  Availability of social facilities – health, education, recreation, postal services and police stations  A wide Variety of Entertainment and Nightlife facilities. (Modules in Social Studies 4th Ed., Rampersad Ramsawak & Ralf Umraw, 2005, Printed in Trinidad)
  4. 4.  Scarcity of jobs except in agriculture which most people consider to be low paying, laborious, risky and menial.  Lack of (or poor) infrastructure  Poor social facilities – education, health and security.  Lack of Entertainment and Recreational Facilities.
  5. 5. An examination of the Caribbean region will reveal that there are high densities of population in the cities and their suburbs such as Port of Spain in Trinidad, Bridgetown in Barbados, Kingstown in St. Vincent, Castries in St. Lucia and New Kingston in Jamaica. (Modules in Social Studies 4th Ed., Rampersad Ramsawak & Ralf Umraw, 2005, Printed in Trinidad)
  6. 6. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1970 2005 2030 (projected) Percentage of the Total Population In Jamaica Urban Population Rural Population By UN Human Settlement Programme
  7. 7. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1921 1943 1960 1970 1982 1991 2001 PercentageoftheTotal Population Kingston, St. Andrew, (since 1970)Portmore Data obtained from the Caribbean Environment, Mark Wilson Page 116
  8. 8.  Shortage of housing facilities and development of slums.  Rising unemployment levels leading to poverty.  Rising pollution levels – Land, Air, Water.  Natural environment cleared for housing development.  Pressure on social facilities due to overcrowding.  Rise in crime rate, and deviant and criminal behaviours  Traffic congestion  Increase in pests and diseases due to unsanitary conditions
  9. 9. Squatter settlements in Kingston, Jamaica Civil conflict in Kingston
  10. 10.  Skilled labourers leaving the area – teachers, doctors, engineers.  Government and private sector pays less attention to the development of rural areas – infrastructure, health, education, businesses and industries.  Rural areas remain undeveloped.
  11. 11. FIX UP THE SLUMS  Restructure the slums & ghettoes into organized, low income housing schemes. Linear settlement; frequent garbage collection and frequent street and drain cleaning  Build high rise buildings, which accommodates more residents using less land space.  Attract new industries to these suburbs by marketing them as ‘brown field sites’.
  12. 12. ENGAGE THE COMMUNITIES  On going social work: sensitizing about environmentally friendly practices, family life, education, work ethics, etc.  Increase community policing.  Skills and Entrepreneurship training.
  13. 13. FIX UP THE TOWN  Enlarge schools, hospitals, post offices, police stations.  Build high rise car park buildings to accommodate plenty vehicles, while using less land space.  The improvement of public transportation – decreasing the high volumes of traffic on the roads.
  14. 14. [An integrated approach must be taken in encouraging persons to reside in rural Jamaica.]  Solving Rural Problems  Educating the citizens about the issue of urbanization and the benefits of living in the rural area.
  15. 15.  Improvement of rural infrastructure – roads, water supply, telecommunications, electricity, internet.  Providing new and improving the social facilities in rural areas – health, entertainment .  Assisting farmers to improve production by providing loans, fertilizers, seeds etc.  Promote rural areas as ‘green field sites’ thus attracting industries, recreation and town development.
  16. 16.  Educate rural residents that there are many similar problems in the urban areas just the same. For example: Urban-Rural Differences in St. Lucia Urban Rural Unemployment 19% 19% Has been crime victim 8% 4% Percentage of population in each area, 2004 Data obtained from the Caribbean Environment, Mark Wilson Page 114
  17. 17. Advantages of rural life:  More peaceful  Less risk of crime and disorder  More spacious living conditions  Rental and living costs lower  Familiar surroundings, with family and old friends  Less pollution  Even without a job, food and shelter are available ( the Caribbean Environment, Mark Wilson Page 115)
  18. 18. Any Questions? THANK YOU