Chapter eight

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Chapter eight

  1. 1. Title Page Photo “ I've lived in good climate, and it bores the hell out of me. I like weather rather than climate.” — John Steinbeck (Brainquote.com)
  2. 2. <ul><li>Climate Classification </li></ul><ul><li>The Purpose of Classifying Climates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To understand distribution of climates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To compare climates of different places </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Early Greek Classification Schemes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature and latitude </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Major climate zones of the Old World, as recognized today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equatorial warm wet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical hot dry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subtropical warm temperate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Midlatitude cool temperate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High-latitude cold </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-2 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The K öppen Classification System </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a numerical basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Teaching tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple to comprehend and to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows an orderly pattern over the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives some indication of climate origin (genesis) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Modified K öppen System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Five major climate groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Groups A, B, C, D, and E </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>14 individual climate types </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special category of highland (H) climate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-3 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Climatic Regions of the World </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-4 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Tropical Humid Climates (Group A) </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of A Climates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within 0 – 25 º of equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-6 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-8 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Distinctive Features of A Climates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average daily temperature greater than annual temperature range </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>No true winter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Winter” in tropics refers to the “low-sun” half of the year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Summer” refers to the “high-sun” half of the year </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High temperatures prevail every month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A climates are distinguished by the monthly pattern of rainfall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>f = year-around rainfall </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>m = year-round rainfall, but with a brief drier period </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>w = wet summer and dry winter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Tropical Wet Climate (Af) </li></ul><ul><li>Main locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within 5 –10º of equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amazon basin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Congo basin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islands of East Indies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monotonous (“seasonless”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Night is the season of the tropics” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High humidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Afternoon convective thundershowers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High annual rainfall, evenly distributed during year </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Dominant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ITCZ influence entire year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animated Drawing (toggle forward-back-forward) </li></ul></ul>Af Convective precipitation 30ºN 30ºS 0º 10ºS 10ºN cT NH summer wet season Trades Trades SH winter dry season cT NH winter dry season Trades Trades SH summer Wet season
  13. 13. <ul><li>Climographs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-7 </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Main locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 – 25 º of latitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most extensive of A climates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjacent to Af climates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most widespread in Africa, South America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Asia and northern Southeast Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clear-cut seasonal alternation of wet and dry periods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower precipitation than other A climates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tropical Savanna (AW) </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Dominant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ITCZ dominates during summer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cT or cP air mass dominates during winter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-11 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Climographs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-10 </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Tropical Monsoon (AM) </li></ul><ul><li>Main locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most prominent area is west-facing coasts of India, southeastern Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller areas scattered in tropical latitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very high rainfall totals in summer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief (1-4 months), drier period in winter </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Dominant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ITCZ movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jet Stream fluctuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental pressure changes </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Climographs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-12 </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Dry Climates (Group B) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-14 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribution of B Climates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtropical Dry Climates within 20 –35º of latitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Midlatitude Dry Climates within 35-55º of latitude </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Distinctive Features of B climates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover 30% of the total land area of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More area than any other climate group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry conditions prevail all year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potential evapotranspiration is greater than precipitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two main sub-types based on precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BW is extremely arid (desert) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BS is steppe (semi-arid) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The two sub-types are further subdivided based on temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>h is for the hot subtropical desert (BWh, BSh) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>k is for the cold midlatitude desert (BWk, BSk) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Subtropical Desert (BWh) </li></ul><ul><li>Main locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centered at latitudes 25–30º </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western sides of continents, including coasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extend into continental interiors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sonora-Colorado </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sahara </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arabian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peru-Atacama </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kalahari-Namib </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation: extremely arid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scarce (most nearly rainless regions on Earth) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unreliable (extremely long periods without rain) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intense (brief, but heavy convective downpours) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very hot summers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enormous daily temperature range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal equatorward extensions: advection fog off-shore </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Dominant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidence from subtropical highs (STHs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-15 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>Cold ocean currents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equatorward extensions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-17 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><ul><ul><li>Cool, foggy west coast deserts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-18 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Climographs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-16 </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Subtropical Steppe (BSh) </li></ul><ul><li>Main locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fringing BWh except on west coasts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to BWh but more moderate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation: semiarid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dominant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to BWh </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Climographs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-20 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>(Richard A. Crooker photos)
  30. 30. <ul><li>Midlatitude Desert (BWk) </li></ul><ul><li>Main locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western interior of United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patagonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-14 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation meager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erratic, mostly showery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some winter snow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hot summers, cold winters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very large annual temperature range </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large daily temperature range </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dominant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain shadow effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance from sources of moisture </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Climographs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-21 </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Midlatitude Steppe (BSk) </li></ul><ul><li>Main locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fringing BWk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to BWk (more moderate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation: semiarid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dominant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to BWk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-14 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Climographs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-22 </li></ul></ul>Photograph Source: U.S. Geological Surveyhttp://www.usgs.gov/125/articles/conservation.html Photo: U.S. Great Plains, South Dakota
  35. 35. <ul><li>Mild Midlatitude Climates (Group C) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-23 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribution of C Climates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equatorward margin of the middle latitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within 25-40º of latitude with some poleward extensions </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Distinctive Features of C climates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long summers, usually hot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short winters, relatively mild </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No year-round moisture deficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some climates have seasonal shortages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three subtypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean (Csa, Csb) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humid subtropical (Cfa) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marine west coast (Cfb, Cfc) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Mediterranean Climates (Csa, Csb) </li></ul><ul><li>Main locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western side of continents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30–40º of latitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Chile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern tip of Africa (Cape Town) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia (Perth & Adelaide) </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild, wet winters, dry summers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two sub-types based on summer temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a – hot summer (interior location) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b – cool/mild summer (coastal location) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-26 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Dominant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STH subsidence in summer (forces cyclonic storms poleward) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Westerly winds and cyclonic storms shift equatorward in winter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate annually </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winter maximum (midlatitude cyclonic storms) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Climographs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-24 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Humid Subtropical (Cfa, Cwa) </li></ul><ul><li>Main locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern sides of continents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>25–30º of latitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southeastern United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Brazil and Uruguay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small areas in Africa and Australia </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summers, warm to hot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winters, mild to cold </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant, mostly as rain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summer maximum </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Climographs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-27 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Marine West Coast </li></ul><ul><li>Main locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western sides of continents, mainly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>40–65º </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western and central Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oregon to Alaska </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Zealand and eastern Australia </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very mild winters for latitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate to abundant, mostly in winter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many rainy days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Much cloudiness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dominant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Westerly flow and oceanic influence year-round </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Climographs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-30 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Severe Midlatitude Climates (Group D) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-31 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribution of D Climates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only in Northern Hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within 35 –70º of latitude </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Distinctive Features of D climates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large annual temperature range </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continentality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold winter, relatively short summer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summer maxima </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant to meager amounts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diminishes toward inland and poleward </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Main Subtypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humid Continental </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subarctic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Humid Continental (Dfa, Dfb, Dwa, Dwb) </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N. Hemisphere only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>35 –55º of latitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern sides of continents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-31 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warm/hot summers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large annual temperature range </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate to abundant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summer maxima </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dominant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Westerly winds and storms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Midlatitude cyclones in winter in North America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monsoons in Asia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Climographs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-32 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Sub Arctic (Dfc, Dfd, Dwc, Dwd) </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Hemisphere only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latitudes 50–70º </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Across North American and Eurasia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long, dark, very cold winters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brief, mild summers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enormous annual temperature range </li></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meager </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summer maxima </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light snow in winter, little melting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dominant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pronounced continentality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternating… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Westerlies and cyclonic storms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prominent anticylcones </li></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Climographs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-35 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Polar Climates (Group E) </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of E Climates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poleward of 70º of latitude </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>Distinctive Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coldest summers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest annual average </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large annual temperature range </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small daily temperature range </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraordinarily dry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low precipitating, mostly snow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation is nil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two subtypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tundra </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ice Cap </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Tundra (ET) </li></ul><ul><li>Main Locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fringes of Arctic Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small coastal areas in Antarctica </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-36 </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long, cold dark winters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brief, cool summers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very sparse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly snow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dominant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance from sources of heat and moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme seasonal contrasts in sunlight/darkness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar anticyclones (A and cP air masses) </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Climographs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-37 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Ice Cape (EF) </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antarctica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long, cold, dark winters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold, windy summers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very sparse, all snow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-36 </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>Dominant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distances from sources of heat and moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme seasonal contrasts in sunlight/darkness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar anticyclones (A and cP air masses) </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Climographs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-38 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>Highland Climate (Group H) </li></ul><ul><li>Locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High uplands (mountains and plateaus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-40 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex local variation in small areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical climate zonation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-42 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><ul><li>Changeability of weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-43 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dominant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slope aspect and slope angle </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>Climographs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-41 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>Global Patterns Idealized </li></ul><ul><li>General Models of the Climate Distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idealized seasonal precipitation patterns and climates along the west coasts of continents (Fig. 8-44). </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><ul><li>Idealized Global Pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-45 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  69. 69. <ul><li>Climatic Distribution in Africa: A Practically Perfect Example </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fig. 8-45 and Fig. 8-46 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  70. 70. <ul><li>The modified K öppen system recognizes six major climatic zones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical humid (A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry (B) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild midlatitude (C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe midlatitude (D) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar (E) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highland (H) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A model of climate distribution on a hypothetical continent helps use predict what the climate should be like at a particular location. </li></ul>

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