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Climate regions


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Climate regions

  1. 1. Climate Regions
  2. 2. What is Climate? Weather is the day-to-day changes in atmospheric conditions Climate is long-term weather conditions Temperature and precipitation are the most important expressions of climate
  3. 3. What aspects of the environment areinfluenced by climate?  Vegetation  Animal life  Soils  Landforms  Water resources
  4. 4. Ecosystems What is an ecosystem? An area of interaction between plants, animals,and their environment Unique ecosystems evolve as a result of differing climate conditions Climatology studies the climate regions that have evolved in response to different moisture and temperature conditions
  5. 5. What is the Impact of Climate Upon People’s Lives? Regions of climatic handicap have few people  deserts, rainforests, polar regions Climate influences agriculture - the choice of crops grown and animals raised Tourism and recreation Water resources Climate and disease
  6. 6. Does Climate Affect Temperament? Aristotle - the nations in cold places are full of spirit but deficient in intelligence and skill Jean Bodin - Northern peoples physically vigorous but mentally slow  Hot South - lazy, but politically passive and satisfied living under despots  Temperate zone - ideal mix of intelligence and industry favoring monarchy Buckle - Mild, moist British climate favors the steady work and perseverance of the English
  7. 7. Does Climate Repeat Itself? Koppen’s Climate Region Map
  8. 8. Can we make any generalizations? Latitude  Single most important factor-Why? Maritime versus continental locations Windward coasts have cooler summers and warmer winters Precipitation related to pressure and wind belts High pressure – dry, Converging winds - rainy Mountains have different climates  Mountains are cooler than lowlands
  9. 9. Greek’s Climate RegionsLatitude Frigid Temperate Torrid Temperate Frigid
  10. 10. Maritime and Continental Climates Continental climates are under the influence of winds from the continental interior Crescent City New York Maritime climates are Chicago under the influence of Continental westerly winds climate dominated by continentalCold California temperaturesCurrent bringscoolertemperatures to thecoast in summer
  11. 11. Herbertson’s Climate Regions
  12. 12. Herbertson’s Regionsv Isotherms reflect influence of land and seav Polar climates cooler than 50 F in the warmest monthv Tropical climates warmer than 65 F all year - winterlessv Middle latitude climates are changeable
  13. 13. Pressure and Wind BeltsWhat is the climate of each of these pressure and wind belts?  Polar High  Polar Easterlies  Polar Front  Westerlies  Subtropical High  N E Trade Winds  Intertropical Convergence Zone  SE Trades
  14. 14. What happens to all these pressureand wind belts? They shift north and south with the overhead sun Do they shift as far north and south as the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn? No, about 5º N and 5º S
  15. 15. Where in the World is it Raining Today ? The world’s rainy places coincide with global pressure and wind belts
  16. 16. Three Major Rain Belts The Northern Hemisphere Polar Front  Midlatitude Cyclonic Storms - low pressure The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)  Trade winds converge along the equatorial low  Convectional lifting produces cumulus clouds The Southern Hemisphere Polar Front  Midlatitude Cyclonic Storms - low pressure
  17. 17. Animation Showing Monthly Rainfall
  18. 18. Mean Annual PrecipitationSTH STH STH STH STH
  19. 19. Africa’s Climate Regions Tropic of Cancer Equator
  20. 20. North America Climates
  21. 21. Koppen’s Climate Classification Most widely used map of climate regions Empirical-quantitative approach that uses climate statistics compiled over 30 years Designed with plants in mind Each climate is defined according to set values of mean monthly precipitation and mean monthy temperature
  22. 22. Koppen’s Climate Regions
  23. 23. Koppen Classification (A) Tropical rainy climates  Every month over 64.4 F (B) Dry climates  Evaporation exceeds precipitation
  24. 24. Koppen Classification (C) Mild, humid climates  Coldest month below 64.4 F but above 26.6 F (D) Snowy-forest climates  Coldest month below 26.6 F but warmest month over 50F (E) Polar climates  Warmest month below 50 F
  25. 25. Why is the Bay Area rainy inwinter and dry in summer? The jet stream and the Polar Front move into the Bay Area in winter The Subtropical High dominates our weather in Summer
  26. 26. Global Regions of Mediterranean and Marinewest-coast “C” climates.Mediterranean Climate Zones: West coasts ~30-40° Latitude
  27. 27. Global Regions of Moist Subtropical Climate East coasts ~25-35° Latitude.
  28. 28. East vs. West Coast ClimatesMediterranean Climate in Moist subtropical climate inMonterey, CA Charleston, South Carolina.
  29. 29. West Coast Precipitation Dry summer wet winter ~30-40° Dry all year ~20-30° Dry summer wet winter ~30-40°
  30. 30. Reality Check Most climates between the tropics of Cancer and  Does the U.S. have any A Capricorn are: (tropical moist) climates? Which major climate group is  Does the U.S. have a BWh (hot not in the Southern desert)? hemisphere?  What major climate group Which major group forms the dominates Canada and cold summer climates of the Russia? Arctic?  What climate makes up most of Which climates are dry? Western Europe? What climate dominates  What climate is not classified Australia? using Koppen?
  31. 31. Berkeley and San Jose ClimographsAnnual rainfall – 22.3 inches Annual rainfall – 14.6 inches
  32. 32. Review Questions 1. What do clouds need in addition to saturation? Cloud condensation nuclei 2. Consider the topographic profile diagrammed below. CPrevailing winds A B Ocean This would induce what “type” of lifting? What is the process that causes condensation? How would the amount of precipitation at A, B, and C compare?
  33. 33. CPrevailing winds A B Ocean rain shadow Point B above is said to be in the ________________ of the mountain shown. What type of local wind is commonly experienced at B? Is it a hot or cold wind? Chinook wind. It’s a hot wind.
  34. 34. What is the cause of the seasons? Tilt of earth’s axis as it orbits the sun Revolution Parallelism