Climate classification

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Climate classification

  1. 1. Climates and Climate Classification
  2. 2. Climate• Climate is weather over time• Climatology is the study of climate• Climatic regions are areas with similar weather statistics
  3. 3. Earth’s Climate System and Its Classification• Climate Components• Classification of Climatic Regions• A Climate Classification System
  4. 4. Climate Components• Insolation• Temperature• Pressure• Air Masses• Precipitation
  5. 5. Earth’s Climate System
  6. 6. Climate Classification -- Two Approaches• Empiric – Classes are based on observations and the effects of the phenomena – Examples include Koeppen and Thornthwaite• Genetic – Classes are based on causes of the phenomena – Examples include Air-Mass, Synoptic Classifications, etc.
  7. 7. The Elements of Climate• Based on – Temperature – Precipitation – Pressure – Wind Direction/Speed – Cloud Cover – “Climate proxies”
  8. 8. Climographs
  9. 9. The Koeppen System• The Major Climates – The Tree Climates • A - Tropical Rainy Climates • C - Midlatitude Rainy Climates (mild winter) • D - Midlatitude Rainy Climates (cold winter) – Trees Don’t Grow Here • B - Dry Climates • E - Polar Climates
  10. 10. Generalized Climate Regions
  11. 11. Koeppen System: Principal Climate Types• Tropical – Af - Tropical Wet (Rains all year) – AW - Tropical Wet/Dry (Dry Winter Season) – Am - Tropical Monsoon (Shorter Dry Season)• Dry – BW - Desert (BWh - hot desert, BWk, cold desert) – BS - Steppe (semi-arid) BSh - hot steppe, BSk, cold steppe)• Mesothermal – Cfa, Cwa - Humid Subtropical – Csa, Csb - Mediterranean – Cfb, Cfc - Marine West Coast
  12. 12. Koeppen System: Principal Climate Types• Microthermal – Dfa, Dfb Dwa, Dwb - Humid Continental – Dfc, Dwc, Dfd, Dwd - Subarctic• Polar – ET - Tundra – EF - Ice Cap (Remember, Eternally Frozen!)• Highland Climates
  13. 13. Koeppen System: The Particulars• First Letter - – Designates Major Type (A, B, C, D, E)• Second Letter – If with A, C, or D climates, denotes seasonality of precipitation (f - all year, w=dry winter, s=dry summer) – If with B, denotes whether hot (h) or cold (k)• Third Letter – Designates different temperature regimes and sometimes other parameters like fog frequency, etc.
  14. 14. The Factors Forming the Koeppen SystemFigure 6.5
  15. 15. Tropical Climates
  16. 16. Tropical Climates• ~ 12 hours a day throughout the year• There is a greater daily energy change than there is annual energy change• Influenced by the migration of the ITCZ• No temperature constraints on growth leading to large species diversities
  17. 17. Movement of the ITCZ Figure 4.11
  18. 18. Tropical Rain Forest (Tropical Wet) (Af) Figure 6.6
  19. 19. Tropical Monsoon (Am) Figure 6.7
  20. 20. Tropical Savanna(Tropical Wet-Dry) (AW) Figure 6.8
  21. 21. Dry, Arid, and Semiarid Climates• Desert Characteristics• Low-Latitude Hot Desert Climates• Midlatitude Cold Desert Climates• Low-Latitude Hot Steppe Climates• Midlatitude Cold Steppe Climates
  22. 22. Dry, Arid, and Semiarid Climates
  23. 23. Low-Latitude Hot Desert (BWh) Figure 6.21
  24. 24. Low-Latitude Hot Steppe (BSh) Figure 6.23
  25. 25. Midlatitude Cold Desert (BWk) Figure 6.22
  26. 26. Midlatitude Cold Steppe Figure 6.24
  27. 27. Mesothermal Climates• Humid Subtropical – Hot, Humid Summer• Marine West Coast – Mild All Year, No Dry Season• Mediterranean – Dry Summer
  28. 28. Mesothermal Climates
  29. 29. Humid Subtropical Hot-Summer (Cfa) Figure 6.9
  30. 30. Marine West Coast (Cfb, Cfc)Figure 6.11
  31. 31. Marine West Coast (Cfc)Figure 6.12
  32. 32. Mediterranean Climates (Csa, Csb)Figure 6.14
  33. 33. Microthermal Climates• Humid Continental Hot-Summer Climates• Humid Continental Mild-Summer Climates• Subarctic Climates
  34. 34. Microthermal Climates
  35. 35. Humid Continental Hot-Summer (Dfa, Dwa)
  36. 36. Humid Continental Mild-Summer (Dfb, Dwb) Figure 6.16
  37. 37. Subarctic (Dfc, Dwc) Figure 6.17
  38. 38. Subarctic (Dfd, Dwd) Figure 6.18
  39. 39. Polar Climates (ET, EF)• Tundra Climate• Ice Cap and Ice Sheet Climates – Polar Marine Climate
  40. 40. Polar and Highland Climates
  41. 41. Hypothetical Climate Modelhttp://www.colorado.edu/geography/class_homepages/geog_1001_s06/HypoContinent.pdf
  42. 42. Reality
  43. 43. Climate Classification – The Genetic Approach• Based on what causes climates, not based on categories determined by observations• For example….
  44. 44. General Atmospheric Circulation and Climate Regimes Polar Transitional Arid TropicalFigure 4.13
  45. 45. Genetic Classification Scheme:An Air-Mass Dominance Example Wet All Year Wet /Dry Dry All Year Equatorial Low Subtropical High Warm 1 2 3 mT cTSeasonal 6 4 5 mP cP Cold 7 8 9 Subpolar Low Polar High
  46. 46. Climates and Water Resource Issues
  47. 47. “When the well is dry, we know the worthof water…” - Benjamin Franklin Robert W. Christopherson Charlie Thomsen
  48. 48. Water Resources– Soil - Water budget concept– Water availability– Soil moisture availability
  49. 49. Ocean and Freshwater DistributionFigure 5.3
  50. 50. Hydrologic Cycle Model - RevisitedFigure 7.1
  51. 51. The Hydrologic Cycle• A Hydrologic Cycle Model – More Evaporation over Oceans than over Land – More Precipitation over land than over oceans – Amount of water advected to the land equals the amount runoff back to the oceans• Surface Water – Only .333% of all surface fresh water is available for human use. – 11.20% of all fresh water is available for human use in groundwater and soil moisture
  52. 52. The Soil-Water Balance EquationFigure 7.2
  53. 53. Surface-Moisture EnvironmentFigure 7.2
  54. 54. Remember…• If the air rises, it’s more likely to rain (or snow…)• Where it sinks, it’s less likely to rain (or snow…)• The less rainfall you have… – The less reliable it is• So, a climate with a dry season, isn’t necessarily guaranteed a wet season either! – Monsoon climates – Steppe and Savannah Climates – Deserts (obviously)
  55. 55. Precipitation in North AmericaFigure 7.4
  56. 56. Potential EvapotranspirationFigure 7.6
  57. 57. LysimeterFigure 7.5
  58. 58. Types of Soil Moisture Figure 7.7
  59. 59. Sample Water BudgetFigure 7.9
  60. 60. Sample Water BudgetsFigure 7.10
  61. 61. Annual Global River RunoffFigure 7 .11
  62. 62. Groundwater Resources• Groundwater Profile and Movement• Groundwater Utilization• Pollution of Groundwater Resources
  63. 63. Groundwater PotentialFigure 7.12
  64. 64. Groundwater CharacteristicsFigure 7.13
  65. 65. Groundwater CharacteristicsFigure 7.13
  66. 66. High Plains Aquifer OverdraftFigure 1
  67. 67. Our Water Supply• Water Supply in the United States• Instream, Nonconsumptive, and Consumptive Uses• Future Considerations
  68. 68. U.S.Water Budget 1. Three-fourths of what falls is evaporated 2. We withdraw and consume one-third of what is left on a one-time basis 3. Some of the water is exchanged into groundwater which might not be recoverableFigure 7.17
  69. 69. Water Withdrawal by SectorFigure 7.18
  70. 70. Global Water ScarcityFigure 7.19
  71. 71. Future Considerations• There’s plenty of water (if you like salt with your water!) and we don’t loose any of it…• On a local basis, water resource scarcity is a very real issue• Too much water and the water becomes polluted• Too little water and the water becomes polluted• Water scarcity globally are major issues where: 1. The water is used mostly for agriculture and thus for growing the food supply and… 2. Where competing regions are sharing the same water supply
  72. 72. Global Climate Change• Global Warming• Climate Models and Future Temperatures• Consequences of Global Warming• Political Action to Slow Global Warming
  73. 73. Global Temperatures
  74. 74. 1998 Temperature Anomalies
  75. 75. CO2 Sources
  76. 76. GCM Model
  77. 77. 2070-2100 Temperature ForecastVersus 1961-1990 Global Average
  78. 78. “You want proof?”
  79. 79. Then there’s the other side of the argum
  80. 80. Stephen Schneider (1945-2010) Comment
  81. 81. What thinkest thou?

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