World climates

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characteristics of the world climates

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World climates

  1. 1. WORLD CLIMATES
  2. 2. WEATHER AND CLIMATE • Weather is the atmospheric conditions here and now. • Climate is an average of conditions in a particular place over time
  3. 3. A COUNTRY’S CLIMATE DEPENDS ON FOUR MAIN FACTORS • Latitude is the distance of a location from the equator. The hottest temperatures are found at the equator. As you move further away from the equator towards the polar regions, less and less sun is received during the year and the climates become colder and colder. Altitude is the height above sea level or the height above the earth's surface. The higher the altitude, the lower the temperature will be. On average for every 1,000 metres higher you go the temperature will fall about 6.5 °C. Proximity to the sea affects the temperature of a place because the sea temperature changes slower than land temperature. So the sea will keep coastal areas warmer than inland area during the winter and cooler than inland areas during the summer. • Currents exist in all the oceans. Currents that move water from tropical areas towards the poles (North Atlantic Drift starts in the Gulf of Mexico) are known as warm currents. Those currents moving from northern (or southern) colder seas, nearer the poles towards the equator are known as cool currents, an example is the Canaries current
  4. 4. CLIMATE ELEMENTS • Temperature is how hot or cold the atmosphere is - ie, how many degrees Celsius (centigrade) it is above or below freezing (0°C) • farenheit and celsius scale
  5. 5. • Precipitation is the term given to moisture that falls from the air to the ground • pluviometer
  6. 6. • Atmospheric pressure (or air pressure) is the weight of air resting on the earth's surface. Pressure is shown on a weather map, often called a synoptic map, with lines called isobars. • Low pressure occurs when air becomes warmer. The air molecules expand, become lighter and it rises. • High pressure occurs when air becomes colder. The air molecules contract, become denser, heavier and sink towards the earth.
  7. 7. barometer
  8. 8. • Wind is the movement of air masses from high pressure areas (high) to low pressure areas (low). The effect of this movement of air is to rebalance the pressure in the atmosphere.
  9. 9. MAIN CLIMATIC ZONES
  10. 10. WORLD CLIMATE ZONES AND BIOMES
  11. 11. World climates Koeppen’s classification
  12. 12. TROPICAL ZONE
  13. 13. EQUATORIAL CLIMATE • Characteristics • Constant high temperatures. • Lowest annual temperature range of any climate. • Evenly distributed, heavy precipitation. • Lots of cloud cover and high humidity
  14. 14. Rainforest Biome • Biome: A biome is a large geographical area of distinctive plant and animal groups, which are adapted to that particular environment
  15. 15. Tropical dry-wet • Characteristics • wet season in summer,dry periods in winter. • Rainfall less than equatorial and monsoon. • Highest temperature ranges of low latitude wet climates
  16. 16. Savanna Biome
  17. 17. Monsoon • Characteristics • Heavy rain season; short dry season. • Highest temperature just before rainy period.
  18. 18. Desert • Characteristics • Among the driest places on earth • Low relative humidity • Irregular rainfall • Highest percentage of sunshine of any climate • Large daytime temperature range • Highest daytime temperature of any climate • Annual precipitation less than 250 mm
  19. 19. Desert Biome
  20. 20. TEMPERATE ZONE
  21. 21. Humid subtropical • Characteristics • High humidity; summers like humid tropics. • Frost with polar air masses in winter. • 1000 to 2000 mm of year precipitation, decreasing inland. • Monsoon influence in Asia
  22. 22. Mediterranean • Characteristics • Mild, moist winters, • Dry summers • High percentage of sunshine
  23. 23. Chaparral biome
  24. 24. Humid continental • Characteristics • Warm Summer Subtype: • Hot humid summers; occasional winter cold waves. • Large annual temperature ranges. Ie. Chicago • Cool Summer Subtype: • Moderate summers; long cold winters. • Large annual temperature ranges. • Less precipitation than warm summer subtype • Ie. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  25. 25. Deciduous forest biome
  26. 26. Marine west coast • Characteristics • Mild winters, mild summers. • Low annual temperature range. • Heavy cloud cover; high humidity.
  27. 27. Biome: deciduous forest
  28. 28. Dry midlatitude climate • These dry climates are limited to the interiors of North America and Eurasia. • Cold winters and warm or hot summers. A small amount of rain falls during this season. • Annual temperatures range widely. Reno, Nevada, USA 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 J F M A M J JL A S O N D months rainfall(mm) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 temperature(degreesC)
  29. 29. Grassland biome
  30. 30. POLAR ZONE
  31. 31. Subartic climate • Characteristics • Brief, cool summers; long, hard cold winters. • Largest annual temperature ranges. • Lowest temperatures outside of Antarctica.
  32. 32. Biome: Taiga
  33. 33. Tundra • Characteristics • At least 9 months average below freezing. • Low evaporation; precipitation usually below 300 mm.
  34. 34. Biome: Tundra
  35. 35. World biomes Tundra Deciduous Forest Savanna Taiga Chaparral Rainforest Grasslands Desert Alpine Desert-scrub
  36. 36. CLIMATE AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES
  37. 37. POPULATION
  38. 38. CLIMATE AND FARMING
  39. 39. TROPICAL CLIMATES BURNING RAINFOREST TOBACCO PLANTATION
  40. 40. MONSOON CLIMATE
  41. 41. TEMPERATE CLIMATES WEST COAST VINEYARDS CALIFORNIA
  42. 42. HUMID CONTINENTAL CLIMATE GRASSLAND AREA

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