The Earth’s Diverse Ecosystems
Factors That Influence Climate <ul><li>The distribution of life on Earth is dramatically affected by weather and climate <...
The Sun <ul><li>Solar energy drives both weather and climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It drives the wind, ocean currents, and...
The Sun <ul><li>Before solar energy reaches Earth's surface it is modified by the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ozone l...
Satellite Image of  Antarctic Ozone Hole Antarctica South America The “hole”
Physical Factors that Affect Climate <ul><li>Include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s curvature and tilt </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Curvature and Tilt <ul><li>The amount of sunlight that strikes a given area of Earth’s surface has a major effect on avera...
Earth’s Curvature, Tilt Make Seasons & Climate Short days; Long nights; Winter  Long days; Short nights; Summer  Reversed ...
Air Currents and Climatic Regions <ul><li>Air rises & cools near equator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes much rain </li></ul>...
Air Currents and Climatic Regions <ul><li>Saharan & Arabian deserts are @ 30° N </li></ul><ul><li>South African Desert is ...
Ocean Currents <ul><li>Water heats and cools more slowly than land or air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces temperature extrem...
Ocean Currents <ul><li>Continents and Earth's rotation produce circular  gyres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gyres rotate clockwis...
Ocean Circulation Patterns: Gyres N. Pacific Gyre S. Pacific Gyre N. Atlantic Gyre S. Atlantic Gyre
Continents and Mountains <ul><li>Regular bands of uniform climate would form if not for presence of continents  </li></ul>...
Continents and Mountains <ul><li>Variations in elevation within continents further complicate climate zones </li></ul><ul>...
Effects of Elevation on Temperature Low   ( Altitude)   High Equatorial   (Latitude)  Polar
Continents and Mountains <ul><li>Mountains also modify rainfall patterns  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When moist air is forced o...
 
The Sierra Nevada Rain Shadow West East 100 50 0 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Average Annual Precipitation (cm) Altitude (m)...
Conditions Required for Life <ul><li>Four fundamental resources are required for life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients from...
How Is Life on Land Distributed? <ul><li>Distribution of terrestrial organisms is limited primarily by water availability ...
Terrestrial Biomes <ul><li>Terrestrial communities are dominated and defined by their plant life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pla...
The Distribution of 11 Biomes
Rainfall & Temp. Affect Biome Distribution High   ( Temperature)   Low Dry   (Rainfall)  Wet
Tropical Rain Forest
Tropical Rain Forest Biome <ul><li>Temp 77-86 °F (25-30 °C) </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall 100-160 in (25-40 cm)/y </li></ul><...
Tropical Deciduous Forest <ul><li>Further from equator </li></ul><ul><li>Pronounced wet & dry seasons; deciduous trees </l...
Savanna
The African Savanna <ul><li>Grasses dominate; scattered trees and thorn forests </li></ul><ul><li>Short rainy season </li>...
Deserts
The Desert Biome <ul><li>Usually found between 20-30° N & S latitude </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 10 in. (25 cm) rain annua...
Chaparral
The Chaparral Biome <ul><li>Often in coastal regions bordering deserts </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 30 in. rain annually, but a...
Grasslands
Grasslands <ul><li>10-30 in. (25-75 cm) rain annually </li></ul><ul><li>Usually in centers of continents </li></ul><ul><li...
Temperate Deciduous Forests
The Temperate Deciduous Forest Biome <ul><li>30-60 in. (75-150 cm) rain annually, most during summer </li></ul><ul><li>Mos...
Temperate Rain Forest
The Temperate Rain Forest Biome <ul><li>Abundant rain </li></ul><ul><li>Soil seldom frozen </li></ul><ul><li>Usually coast...
Taiga
The Taiga (or Northern Coniferous Forest) Biome  <ul><li>Northern coniferous forests </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Canada and...
Tundra
The Tundra Biome <ul><li>Treeless region bordering Pacific Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>< 10 in. rain annually </li></ul><ul><l...
Survey of Aquatic Ecosystems <ul><li>71% of Earth's surface </li></ul><ul><li>Water moderates temperature </li></ul><ul><l...
Freshwater Ecosystems <ul><li>Less than 1% of Earth's surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers, streams, ponds, lakes, marshes...
Lake Life Zones <ul><li>Littoral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well lit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Marine ecosystems <ul><li>70% of Earth's surface </li></ul><ul><li>Bays, wetlands (salt marshes, estuaries), open ocean </...
Ocean Life Zones <ul><li>Photic zone (photosynthesis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intertidal; Alternately covered </li></ul></ul...
Near-Shore Ecosystems Estuaries: where rivers meet the ocean Kelp beds: in photic zone
Coral Reefs & Open Ocean <ul><li>Coral Reefs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bodies of corals & algae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ma...
Hydrothermal Vent Communities <ul><li>Found where sea floor is spreading (>250 m deep) </li></ul><ul><li>First discovered ...
The End
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The Diverse Ecosystems APBio

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  • The Diverse Ecosystems APBio

    1. 1. The Earth’s Diverse Ecosystems
    2. 2. Factors That Influence Climate <ul><li>The distribution of life on Earth is dramatically affected by weather and climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather: short-term fluctuations in temperature, humidity, cloud cover, wind, and precipitation; affects individual organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate: long-term patterns of weather; limits distribution of species </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. The Sun <ul><li>Solar energy drives both weather and climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It drives the wind, ocean currents, and global water cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solar energy reaching outer atmosphere includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultraviolet (UV): short wavelengths; high energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible light: intermediate wavelengths; used for photosynthesis, vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrared (IR): long wavelengths; low energy; radiant heat </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. The Sun <ul><li>Before solar energy reaches Earth's surface it is modified by the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ozone layer : stratosphere (middle layer) rich in ozone (O 3 ) absorbs much of sun's UV, converting it to heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust, water vapor, and clouds scatter light, reflecting some back into space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenhouse gases selectively absorb IR energy and trap heat in atmosphere </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Satellite Image of Antarctic Ozone Hole Antarctica South America The “hole”
    6. 6. Physical Factors that Affect Climate <ul><li>Include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s curvature and tilt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air currents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean currents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continent and mountain position </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Curvature and Tilt <ul><li>The amount of sunlight that strikes a given area of Earth’s surface has a major effect on average yearly temperatures </li></ul>
    8. 8. Earth’s Curvature, Tilt Make Seasons & Climate Short days; Long nights; Winter Long days; Short nights; Summer Reversed when on other side of Sun
    9. 9. Air Currents and Climatic Regions <ul><li>Air rises & cools near equator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes much rain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical rain forests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rising air travels N & S from equator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Descends @ 30° N & S </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very dry air causes deserts there </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repeated again at 60° & 90° (poles) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Air Currents and Climatic Regions <ul><li>Saharan & Arabian deserts are @ 30° N </li></ul><ul><li>South African Desert is @ 30° S </li></ul><ul><li>Congo rain forest is @ 0° </li></ul>
    11. 11. Ocean Currents <ul><li>Water heats and cools more slowly than land or air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces temperature extremes in coastal areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ocean currents are driven by winds and by direct heating of water by the sun </li></ul>
    12. 12. Ocean Currents <ul><li>Continents and Earth's rotation produce circular gyres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gyres rotate clockwise in Northern Hemisphere; opposite in South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gulf Stream moves warm water from Caribbean up eastern shore of North America and over to Western Europe; warmer, moister climate as result </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Ocean Circulation Patterns: Gyres N. Pacific Gyre S. Pacific Gyre N. Atlantic Gyre S. Atlantic Gyre
    14. 14. Continents and Mountains <ul><li>Regular bands of uniform climate would form if not for presence of continents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continents heat and cool more quickly than surrounding oceans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continents have irregular shapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These factors alter flow of wind and water, resulting in irregular ecosystem distribution </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Continents and Mountains <ul><li>Variations in elevation within continents further complicate climate zones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At higher altitudes air is thinner and retains less heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature drops about 3.5 ºF for every 1000 feet rise in elevation </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Effects of Elevation on Temperature Low ( Altitude) High Equatorial (Latitude) Polar
    17. 17. Continents and Mountains <ul><li>Mountains also modify rainfall patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When moist air is forced over a mountain, it expands and cools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooler air holds less moisture, thus rain or snow falls on windward side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As air moves down far side of mountain, it warms but stays dry, forming a local dry area called a rain shadow </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. The Sierra Nevada Rain Shadow West East 100 50 0 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Average Annual Precipitation (cm) Altitude (m) 150
    19. 20. Conditions Required for Life <ul><li>Four fundamental resources are required for life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients from which to construct living tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy to power that construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid water to serve as medium for metabolic reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate temperatures in which to carry out these processes </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. How Is Life on Land Distributed? <ul><li>Distribution of terrestrial organisms is limited primarily by water availability and temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water and temperature are unevenly distributed in space and time </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Terrestrial Biomes <ul><li>Terrestrial communities are dominated and defined by their plant life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants are precisely adapted to climate of region (they can't escape their conditions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large land areas with similar environmental conditions and characteristic plant communities are called biomes </li></ul></ul>
    22. 23. The Distribution of 11 Biomes
    23. 24. Rainfall & Temp. Affect Biome Distribution High ( Temperature) Low Dry (Rainfall) Wet
    24. 25. Tropical Rain Forest
    25. 26. Tropical Rain Forest Biome <ul><li>Temp 77-86 °F (25-30 °C) </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall 100-160 in (25-40 cm)/y </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity: 50-67% of all Earth’s species </li></ul><ul><li>6% of land area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40% now gone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>losing 70 acres/min </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> 25000 species go extinct annually </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dominated by large, broadleaf, evergreen trees </li></ul><ul><li>Vertically structured </li></ul>
    26. 27. Tropical Deciduous Forest <ul><li>Further from equator </li></ul><ul><li>Pronounced wet & dry seasons; deciduous trees </li></ul>
    27. 28. Savanna
    28. 29. The African Savanna <ul><li>Grasses dominate; scattered trees and thorn forests </li></ul><ul><li>Short rainy season </li></ul><ul><ul><li><12 in. (30 cm) annually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long, severe droughts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>African savanna with many large animals </li></ul><ul><li>Many species in danger of extinction </li></ul>
    29. 30. Deserts
    30. 31. The Desert Biome <ul><li>Usually found between 20-30° N & S latitude </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 10 in. (25 cm) rain annually </li></ul><ul><li>Plants often spaced very evenly </li></ul><ul><li>Boom & bust population growth after rain </li></ul><ul><li>Very fragile ecology </li></ul>
    31. 32. Chaparral
    32. 33. The Chaparral Biome <ul><li>Often in coastal regions bordering deserts </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 30 in. rain annually, but all during cool months </li></ul><ul><li>Summers hot & dry </li></ul><ul><li>Small trees & large bushes </li></ul>
    33. 34. Grasslands
    34. 35. Grasslands <ul><li>10-30 in. (25-75 cm) rain annually </li></ul><ul><li>Usually in centers of continents </li></ul><ul><li>No trees except along rivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic severe droughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent fires </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most fertile soil in world </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed by overgrazing </li></ul>Shortgrass Prairie Sagebrush Desert or Shortgrass Prairie
    35. 36. Temperate Deciduous Forests
    36. 37. The Temperate Deciduous Forest Biome <ul><li>30-60 in. (75-150 cm) rain annually, most during summer </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly deciduous trees, bare in winter </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf litter on soil </li></ul><ul><li>High diversity of animals </li></ul>
    37. 38. Temperate Rain Forest
    38. 39. The Temperate Rain Forest Biome <ul><li>Abundant rain </li></ul><ul><li>Soil seldom frozen </li></ul><ul><li>Usually coastal </li></ul>
    39. 40. Taiga
    40. 41. The Taiga (or Northern Coniferous Forest) Biome <ul><li>Northern coniferous forests </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Canada and Eurasia </li></ul><ul><li>Winters long and cold </li></ul><ul><li>Evergreen coniferous trees with needle-like leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Plant & animal diversity low </li></ul>
    41. 42. Tundra
    42. 43. The Tundra Biome <ul><li>Treeless region bordering Pacific Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>< 10 in. rain annually </li></ul><ul><li>Permanently frozen soil (permafrost) </li></ul><ul><li>Very fragile, scars last for centuries </li></ul>
    43. 44. Survey of Aquatic Ecosystems <ul><li>71% of Earth's surface </li></ul><ul><li>Water moderates temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Energy (top) and nutrients (bottom) affect life </li></ul>
    44. 45. Freshwater Ecosystems <ul><li>Less than 1% of Earth's surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers, streams, ponds, lakes, marshes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life zones: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>based on access to lights/nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vary by depth/clarity of water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Human impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eutrophication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accelerated via addition of nutrient wastes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results in oxygen depletion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid rain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates appearance of oligotrophy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almost sterile </li></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 46. Lake Life Zones <ul><li>Littoral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well lit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities most diverse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limnetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too deep for roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well lit, so supports phytoplankton </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Profundal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too deep for photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposers </li></ul></ul>Littoral Zone Limnetic Zone Profundal Zone
    46. 47. Marine ecosystems <ul><li>70% of Earth's surface </li></ul><ul><li>Bays, wetlands (salt marshes, estuaries), open ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal marine ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the most abundant life and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercially important (crabs, shrimp, fish, recreation, petroleum) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wetland destruction equals rain forest destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half of U.S. wetlands have been destroyed </li></ul></ul>
    47. 48. Ocean Life Zones <ul><li>Photic zone (photosynthesis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intertidal; Alternately covered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near tidal; below low tide but shallow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelagic; open ocean to 200 ft </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aphotic zone (no photosynthesis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Below 200 ft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by drift from photic zone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrothermal vents </li></ul>
    48. 49. Near-Shore Ecosystems Estuaries: where rivers meet the ocean Kelp beds: in photic zone
    49. 50. Coral Reefs & Open Ocean <ul><li>Coral Reefs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bodies of corals & algae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many fish & invertebrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delicate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Ocean: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most life in photic zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swim or float </li></ul></ul>
    50. 51. Hydrothermal Vent Communities <ul><li>Found where sea floor is spreading (>250 m deep) </li></ul><ul><li>First discovered in 1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Vents spew superheated, nutrient-rich water </li></ul><ul><li>Chemosynthetic sulfur bacteria primary producers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One survives @ 248°F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur is oxidized for energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others eat the bacteria, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>248 new species and 22 new families </li></ul>
    51. 52. The End

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