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Global Climates   Chapter 7
Trivia of the Day
What is Climate?
What is Climate?   Climate is the condition of the lower    atmosphere in a particular region on    Earth that is the ave...
How is Climate Determined?
How is Climate Determined?   Climatic elements considered when    determining the climate of a region:    • Temperature  ...
How is Climate Determined?   Climatic elements considered when    determining the climate of a region:    • Temperature  ...
How is Climate Determined?   Climatic elements considered when    determining the climate of a region:    • Temperature  ...
How is Climate Determined?   Climatic elements considered when    determining the climate of a region:    • Temperature  ...
Additional Conditions Considered:
Additional Conditions Considered: • Air pressure, wind, air mass   movements, and global atmospheric   circulations are al...
Additional Conditions Considered:  • Air pressure, wind, air mass    movements, and global atmospheric    circulations are...
Additional Conditions Considered:  • Air pressure, wind, air mass    movements, and global atmospheric    circulations are...
Why do we care?   Climate and vegetation influence animal    habitats   Climate, vegetation, and animals together    pro...
Aristotle and Climate Classification
Aristotle and Climate ClassificationWhat about the Incas/Mayas/Aztecs? What about Murmansk, Russia?
Köppen-GeigerClimate Classification (1900-1940)
Köppen-GeigerClimate Classification (1900-1940)
Köppen-GeigerClimate Classification (1900-1940)
(Köppen only had five original categories—the Highland classificationwas added later)
Characteristics of the Major Climate              GroupsA Tropical Humid—Avg. temp. of each month is > 64ºF (18ºC)B Dry—Ev...
24 Subclassifications               of the Climate Groupsf   No dry season [German feucht, or “moist”]m Monsoon; a short d...
The Modified KöppenClassification System
Would you want to live here?   This place exhibits a Csb climate   The C = mild midlatitudes    • temperatures above 50º...
Would you want to live here?   This place exhibits a Csb climate   The C = mild midlatitudes    • temperatures above 50º...
Modified Köppen Climate Map
Climograph                               Climate                               classificationTemperature                  ...
A Climates—In Brief
A Climates: Tropical Humid          Tropical Rain Forest          Tropical Monsoon          Tropical SavannaAvg. temperatu...
Typical Daily Precipitation forTropical Rain Forest (Af) Climates
Tropical Monsoon (Am) and  Tropical Savanna (Aw)
B Climates—In Brief
B Climates: Dry              Subtropical Desert              Midlatitude Desert              Subtropical Steppe           ...
Influence of the Subtropical Highs       on Dry (B) Climates
The Atacama Desert: A Double Whammy  of Ocean Currents andTopography
BSh—Subtropical (hot) Steppe (semi-arid)
BSk—Midlatitude (cold) Steppe (semi-arid)
BWh—Subtropical (hot) Desert
BWk—Midlatitude (cold) Desert
The Four Dry Climate TypesSubtropical    Subtropical    Midlatitude     Midlatitude(hot) Desert   (hot) Steppe   (cold) De...
C Climates—In Brief
C Climates: Mild Midlatitude              Humid Subtropical—no dry season, hot summer              Humid Subtropical—dry w...
C Climates: Mild MidlatitudeAvg. temp. of coldest month between 27ºF (-3ºC) and 64ºF (18ºC)Avg. temp. of warmest month > 5...
Csb—Mediterranean(dry, warm summer)
Csa—Mediterranean (dry, hot summer)
C-climates
Cfa—Humid Subtropical
Cfc—Marine West Coast
D Climates: In Brief
D—Severe Midlatitude Climates     Humid Continental     (hot or warm summers)     Subarctic     (cool summers or very cold...
D—Humid Continental
Winter In A Humid Continental Climate
D—Subarctic
Summer in Subarctic Climate Zone:Taiga (Eurasia)/Boreal Forest (Canada)
E—Polar Climates Polar—tundra Polar—ice cap
E Climates—Tundra
Tundra: Lowland and Alpine
E Climates—Ice Sheet/Ice Cap
Ice Cap—The Arctic
Ice Sheet—The Antarctic
H—Highland Climates
Highland Climates
Global Climate Change    Please watch the following videos:   Al Gore: New thinking on the climate crisis:    http://www....
GEOG 100--Lecture 09--Global Climates
GEOG 100--Lecture 09--Global Climates
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GEOG 100--Lecture 09--Global Climates

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GEOG 100--Lecture 09--Global Climates

  1. 1. Global Climates Chapter 7
  2. 2. Trivia of the Day
  3. 3. What is Climate?
  4. 4. What is Climate? Climate is the condition of the lower atmosphere in a particular region on Earth that is the average of at least 30 years worth of weather conditions in that place.
  5. 5. How is Climate Determined?
  6. 6. How is Climate Determined? Climatic elements considered when determining the climate of a region: • Temperature • Moisture
  7. 7. How is Climate Determined? Climatic elements considered when determining the climate of a region: • Temperature • Moisture  Precipitation, humidity, cloudiness, surface water, evaporation conditions • Related to temperature
  8. 8. How is Climate Determined? Climatic elements considered when determining the climate of a region: • Temperature • Moisture  Precipitation, humidity, cloudiness, surface water, evaporation conditions • Related to temperature • Vegetation and soil conditions
  9. 9. How is Climate Determined? Climatic elements considered when determining the climate of a region: • Temperature • Moisture  Precipitation, humidity, cloudiness, surface water, evaporation conditions • Related to temperature • Vegetation and soil conditions  May be used to determine climatic conditions where unclear
  10. 10. Additional Conditions Considered:
  11. 11. Additional Conditions Considered: • Air pressure, wind, air mass movements, and global atmospheric circulations are also considered  These are related to latitude, altitude, ocean circulation, topography, and spatial distribution of land and sea
  12. 12. Additional Conditions Considered: • Air pressure, wind, air mass movements, and global atmospheric circulations are also considered  These are related to latitude, altitude, ocean circulation, topography, and spatial distribution of land and seaAlso factored in:
  13. 13. Additional Conditions Considered: • Air pressure, wind, air mass movements, and global atmospheric circulations are also considered  These are related to latitude, altitude, ocean circulation, topography, and spatial distribution of land and seaAlso factored in: • Extreme weather conditions (flooding, drought, hurricanes, tornadoes, etc.)
  14. 14. Why do we care? Climate and vegetation influence animal habitats Climate, vegetation, and animals together provide usable resources for humans These conditions influence (but do not ultimately determine) the manner in which people may inhabit a region
  15. 15. Aristotle and Climate Classification
  16. 16. Aristotle and Climate ClassificationWhat about the Incas/Mayas/Aztecs? What about Murmansk, Russia?
  17. 17. Köppen-GeigerClimate Classification (1900-1940)
  18. 18. Köppen-GeigerClimate Classification (1900-1940)
  19. 19. Köppen-GeigerClimate Classification (1900-1940)
  20. 20. (Köppen only had five original categories—the Highland classificationwas added later)
  21. 21. Characteristics of the Major Climate GroupsA Tropical Humid—Avg. temp. of each month is > 64ºF (18ºC)B Dry—Evaporation exceeds precipitationC Mild Mid-Latitude—Average temperature of the coldest month is between 27ºF (-3ºC) and 64ºF (18ºC) Average temp. of the warmest month is > 50ºF (10ºC)D Severe Mid-Latitude—The warmest month is > 50ºF (10ºC) The coldest month is < 27ºF (-3ºC)E Polar—No month has an average temp. > 50ºF (10ºC)
  22. 22. 24 Subclassifications of the Climate Groupsf No dry season [German feucht, or “moist”]m Monsoon; a short dry season is opposed by heavy rains in other monthsw Winter dry season (low-sun season)a Hot summersb Warm summersc Cool summersd Very cold wintersW Desert [German wüste, or “desert”]S Steppe (semiarid)h Low-latitude (subtropical) dry climate [German heiss, or “hot”]k Midlatitude dry climate [German kalt, or “cold”]s Summer dry season (high-sun season)T Tundra climatesF Ice cap climates (frost)
  23. 23. The Modified KöppenClassification System
  24. 24. Would you want to live here? This place exhibits a Csb climate The C = mild midlatitudes • temperatures above 50ºF (10ºC) in summer • winters are short and mild, with little frost The s = summer dry season (winter precipitation) The b = warm summer • warmest summer months below 72°F (22°C)
  25. 25. Would you want to live here? This place exhibits a Csb climate The C = mild midlatitudes • temperatures above 50ºF (10ºC) in summer • winters are short and mild, with little frost The s = summer dry season (winter precipitation) The b = warm summer • warmest summer months below 72°F (22°C)Welcome to the lovely Mediterranean climate ofSanta Barbara, California!
  26. 26. Modified Köppen Climate Map
  27. 27. Climograph Climate classificationTemperature LocationPrecipitation
  28. 28. A Climates—In Brief
  29. 29. A Climates: Tropical Humid Tropical Rain Forest Tropical Monsoon Tropical SavannaAvg. temperature of eachmonth exceeds 64ºF (18ºC)
  30. 30. Typical Daily Precipitation forTropical Rain Forest (Af) Climates
  31. 31. Tropical Monsoon (Am) and Tropical Savanna (Aw)
  32. 32. B Climates—In Brief
  33. 33. B Climates: Dry Subtropical Desert Midlatitude Desert Subtropical Steppe Midlatitude SteppeEvaporation exceeds precipitation
  34. 34. Influence of the Subtropical Highs on Dry (B) Climates
  35. 35. The Atacama Desert: A Double Whammy of Ocean Currents andTopography
  36. 36. BSh—Subtropical (hot) Steppe (semi-arid)
  37. 37. BSk—Midlatitude (cold) Steppe (semi-arid)
  38. 38. BWh—Subtropical (hot) Desert
  39. 39. BWk—Midlatitude (cold) Desert
  40. 40. The Four Dry Climate TypesSubtropical Subtropical Midlatitude Midlatitude(hot) Desert (hot) Steppe (cold) Desert (cold) Steppe
  41. 41. C Climates—In Brief
  42. 42. C Climates: Mild Midlatitude Humid Subtropical—no dry season, hot summer Humid Subtropical—dry winter, hot summer Humid Subtropical—dry winter, warm summer Marine West Coast—no dry season, warm summer Marine West Coast—no dry season, cool summer Mediterranean—dry, hot summer Mediterranean—dry, warm summerAvg. temp. of coldest month between 27ºF (-3ºC) and 64ºF (18ºC)Avg. temp. of warmest month > 50ºF (10ºC)
  43. 43. C Climates: Mild MidlatitudeAvg. temp. of coldest month between 27ºF (-3ºC) and 64ºF (18ºC)Avg. temp. of warmest month > 50ºF (10ºC)
  44. 44. Csb—Mediterranean(dry, warm summer)
  45. 45. Csa—Mediterranean (dry, hot summer)
  46. 46. C-climates
  47. 47. Cfa—Humid Subtropical
  48. 48. Cfc—Marine West Coast
  49. 49. D Climates: In Brief
  50. 50. D—Severe Midlatitude Climates Humid Continental (hot or warm summers) Subarctic (cool summers or very cold winters)
  51. 51. D—Humid Continental
  52. 52. Winter In A Humid Continental Climate
  53. 53. D—Subarctic
  54. 54. Summer in Subarctic Climate Zone:Taiga (Eurasia)/Boreal Forest (Canada)
  55. 55. E—Polar Climates Polar—tundra Polar—ice cap
  56. 56. E Climates—Tundra
  57. 57. Tundra: Lowland and Alpine
  58. 58. E Climates—Ice Sheet/Ice Cap
  59. 59. Ice Cap—The Arctic
  60. 60. Ice Sheet—The Antarctic
  61. 61. H—Highland Climates
  62. 62. Highland Climates
  63. 63. Global Climate Change Please watch the following videos: Al Gore: New thinking on the climate crisis: http://www.ted.com/talks/ al_gore_s_new_thinking_on_the_climate_crisis.ht ml Al Gore warns on latest climate trends (2009): http://www.ted.com/talks/ al_gore_warns_on_latest_climate_trends.html 52

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