The  Water Cycle  <ul><li>Water constantly moves among the oceans, the atmosphere, the solid Earth, and the biosphere. </l...
 
<ul><li>Water Cycle Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Ev ap oration  – liquid water gains enough energy to become water vapor, w...
<ul><li>The Earth’s Water balance  – the amount of  precipitation  equals the amount of  evaporation </li></ul>
<ul><li>Streams </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity pulls water  downhill </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum velocity is in the  center  of t...
 
<ul><li>Streams transport sediment in three ways:  dissolved load ,  suspended load , and  bed load , rolling or scooting ...
 
<ul><li>Natural levees  – form parallel to the channel, when the stream overflows its banks and the velocity immediately s...
Factors influencing stream velocity   <ul><li>Gradient –  the slope </li></ul><ul><li>The steeper the slope, the more ener...
 
<ul><li>Stream Channel –  course  the water flows </li></ul><ul><li>The smoother the channel, the easier water can flow </...
<ul><li>Discharge – the  volume  of water flowing past a certain point in a given unit of time. </li></ul><ul><li>As the s...
 
Stream Profile   <ul><li>Headwaters  – young streams, mountain streams, steep, V-shaped valleys, rough stream beds increas...
 
<ul><li>Mature Stream   – downward erosion diminishes and lateral erosion dominates to begin to create a floodplain and me...
 
Oxbow Lakes
<ul><li>Rejuvenated  Streams – old age streams uplifted and made young again.  Downcutting again occurs and causes entrenc...
<ul><li>Meanders  – stream that flow on floodplains move in sweeping bends, eroding sideways </li></ul><ul><li>The sideway...
 
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Running Water and Groundwater

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Running Water and Groundwater

  1. 2. The Water Cycle <ul><li>Water constantly moves among the oceans, the atmosphere, the solid Earth, and the biosphere. </li></ul>
  2. 4. <ul><li>Water Cycle Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Ev ap oration – liquid water gains enough energy to become water vapor, water evaporates from the oceans to a lesser extent the continents </li></ul><ul><li>Condensation – water vapor cools and becomes liquid water </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation – rain or snow falls to the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration – water absorbed by plants is released to the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltration – the movement of surface water into rock or soil through cracks and pore spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Run-off – excess precipitation flows into streams, rivers and lakes </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>The Earth’s Water balance – the amount of precipitation equals the amount of evaporation </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>Streams </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity pulls water downhill </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum velocity is in the center of the channel </li></ul><ul><li>The work of stream includes erosion , transportation , and deposition </li></ul><ul><li>Base level is the lowest point to which a stream can erode . Sea level is the ultimate base level. Lakes are temporary base levels </li></ul><ul><li>Dams create a temporary base level. Upstream of the dam, the stream loses velocity and sediment deposits, forming a delta. After the dam, the increased velocity of the stream erodes the channel. </li></ul>
  5. 8. <ul><li>Streams transport sediment in three ways: dissolved load , suspended load , and bed load , rolling or scooting along the bottom of the stream. </li></ul><ul><li>Deposition – well-sorted material deposited by a stream is called alluvium </li></ul><ul><li>Delta – when a stream enters a still body of water, its velocity stops abruptly and the sediment drops out forming a delta </li></ul>
  6. 10. <ul><li>Natural levees – form parallel to the channel, when the stream overflows its banks and the velocity immediately slows and deposits the sediment </li></ul>
  7. 11. Factors influencing stream velocity <ul><li>Gradient – the slope </li></ul><ul><li>The steeper the slope, the more energy the stream has as it flows downhill </li></ul>
  8. 13. <ul><li>Stream Channel – course the water flows </li></ul><ul><li>The smoother the channel, the easier water can flow </li></ul>
  9. 14. <ul><li>Discharge – the volume of water flowing past a certain point in a given unit of time. </li></ul><ul><li>As the size of the stream increases, there is less friction, and the water flows more easily. To calculate stream discharge you multiply the velocity of the stream by the area. </li></ul><ul><li>The velocity of a stream is actually greatest at the mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Even though the gradient decreases from the headwaters to the mouth of the stream, the discharge increases . </li></ul>
  10. 16. Stream Profile <ul><li>Headwaters – young streams, mountain streams, steep, V-shaped valleys, rough stream beds increase friction, cold, downcutting due to erosion is rapid, little or no floodplains, waterfalls and rapids </li></ul>
  11. 18. <ul><li>Mature Stream – downward erosion diminishes and lateral erosion dominates to begin to create a floodplain and meanders, the gradient is much lower and the profile is much smoother </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth – old age, floodplain is several times wider than meander belt, sifts rapidly, floodplain dotted with oxbow lakes and old cutoffs. Natural levees, backswamps, and yazoo tributaries are features. </li></ul>
  12. 20. Oxbow Lakes
  13. 21. <ul><li>Rejuvenated Streams – old age streams uplifted and made young again. Downcutting again occurs and causes entrenched meanders and new higher floodplains </li></ul>
  14. 22. <ul><li>Meanders – stream that flow on floodplains move in sweeping bends, eroding sideways </li></ul><ul><li>The sideway movement occurs because the maximum velocity of the stream is on the outside of the bend, causing erosion of the outer bank. This is called the cut bank. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced erosion on the inside meander results in the deposition of sediment and is called the point bar. </li></ul>

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