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  1. 1. The RunningWater and Groundwater
  2. 2. The Water Cycle 6.1 Running Water Water constantly moves among the oceans or the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, the lithosphere, and the biosphere. This unending circulation of Earth’s water supply is the water cycle.
  3. 3. The Water Cycle 6.1 Running Water  Processes involved in the cycle are • infiltration—the movement of surface water into rock or soil through cracks and pore spaces • transpiration—the release of water into the atmosphere from plants through the ground • precipitation • evaporation • runoff
  4. 4. The Water Cycle
  5. 5. 6.1 Running Water Running water represents the single most important agent sculpturing our planet's landscapes.
  6. 6. Stream 6.1 Running Water - The stream channel is the course the water in a stream follows. A natural body of running water flowing on or under the earth.
  7. 7. Longitudinal profile of a stream
  8. 8. Rivers with Many Meanders
  9. 9. Erosion 6.2 The Workof Streams  Streams generally erode their channels, lifting loose particles by abrasion, grinding, and by dissolving soluble material.
  10. 10. Floods and Flood Control 6.2 The Workof Streams  A flood occurs when the discharge of a stream becomes so great that it exceeds the capacity of its channel and overflows its banks.  Measures to control flooding include artificial levees, flood control dams, and placing limits on floodplain development.
  11. 11. Ohio River Flooding
  12. 12. Drainage Basins 6.2 The Workof Streams  A drainage basin is the land area that contributes water to a stream.  A divide is an imaginary line that separates the drainage basins of one stream from another.
  13. 13. 6.3 GROUND WATER As a resource, groundwater represents the largest reservoir of freshwater that is readily available to humans. About 0.6% of the world's water found underground. It provides: 50% of the world's drinking water 40% of the water used for irrigation 26% of industry's needs
  14. 14. Distribution and Movement ofWaterUnderground 6.3 WaterBeneaththe Surface  Much of the water in soil seeps downward until it reaches the zone of saturation.  The zone of saturation is the area where water fills all of the open spaces in sediment and rock. • Groundwater is the water within this zone. • The water table is the upper level of the saturation zone of groundwater.
  15. 15. Movement ofWater Underground 6.3 WaterBeneaththe Surface  Movement • Groundwater moves by twisting and turning through interconnected small openings. • The groundwater moves more slowly when the pore spaces are smaller.
  16. 16. Springs 6.3 Water Beneath the Surface  A spring forms whenever the water table intersects the ground surface. • Intermittent hot springs  Hot Springs  Geysers • Water is 6–9ºC warmer than the mean air temperature of the locality. • Water is heated by cooling of igneous rock. • Water turns to steam and erupts.
  17. 17. GeyserEruption Cycle
  18. 18. Wells 6.3 WaterBeneaththe Surface  A well is a hole bored into the zone of saturation. • An artesian well is any formation in which groundwater rises on its own under pressure. • Pumping can cause a drawdown (lowering) of the water table. • Pumping can form a cone of depression in the water table.
  19. 19. Cone of Depression
  20. 20. Groundwater Contamination
  21. 21. Caverns 6.3 WaterBeneaththe Surface  Erosion forms most caverns at or below the water table in the zone of saturation.  A cavern is a naturally formed underground chamber.  Travertine is a form of limestone that is deposited by hot springs or as a cave deposit.
  22. 22. Dissolving of Groundwater Creates Caverns
  23. 23. Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens  Earth Science-Pearson Santiago Canyon
  24. 24. Groundwater is a hidden resource, while running water is the water we see such as in rivers, streams and etc. they both have the greatest impact on people. Running water are being used as source of energy, public and industrial use, travel(navigation) while Ground water represents the largest reservoir of freshwater that is readily available to humans.
  25. 25. We should take good care and maintain the cleanliness of our running and ground water as it provides as with our necessities. Our body is composed mainly of water for about 65%.Water is also considered as the UNIVERSAL SOLVENT. And if we continue to degrade our water supply there might not be enough in the near future.
  26. 26. WIKIPEDIA,THE FREEENCYCLOPEDIA EarthScience-Pearson Santiago Canyon Prentice HallEARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens