Grammar ii adverbs and adjectives


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Grammar ii adverbs and adjectives

  1. 1. Grammar II – Day 2 Adverbs and Adjectives
  2. 2. Day 2 • Position of adverbs: adverb + adjective; adverb + verb; front, mid or end position • Adverb collocation • Adverbs with two forms • Just and its several meanings • Intensifying adverbs and verbs • Quite + adjectives • Participles in adverb clauses • Subordinate adverbial clauses Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  3. 3. Day 2 • Adjective order • Limit adjectives • Gradable adjectives • Intensifying adjectives • Participles as adjectives • Participles as reduced relative clauses • Subordinate adjectival clauses Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  4. 4. There are several types of adverb • Manner: quickly, gently, sincerely • Place: here, outside, upstairs • Point in time: yesterday, tonight • Indefinite time: already, still, yet • Frequency: always, never, seldom • Comment: clearly, obviously, naturally • Linking: however, so, although • Degree/intensifier: very, nearly, really
  5. 5. Same adverb, different type • Some can be both comment and manner – I can see the yacht clearly – Clearly, you need to cut down on the junk food
  6. 6. Sensibly • He (A) discussed the design with her (B). A – It was wise B – In a sensible way
  7. 7. Honestly (B)I don't think the mayor is capable of answering the questions (A). (honestly) A – In a honest way B – I'm telling the truth
  8. 8. Obviously • He (B) realized she wasn't (A) well. A- Of course she wasn't B- Of course he did
  9. 9. Kindly The pilots (B) agreed to speak to the journalists (A). A – In a kind way B – it was kind of them
  10. 10. Adverb position • Immediately before the adjective or past participle being qualified – We were deeply disappointed with his performance • Usually after the predicate (verb + object) being qualified – I love the classic composers very much
  11. 11. Adverb position • There are 3 main positions in the English sentence: front, mid and end – Today, we're studying adverbs – We sincerely hope you can make it to the ball – She speaks five languages fluently
  12. 12. Adverb position • The position changes in accordance with the type of adverb • Front position: Point in time, Comment, Linking – Tomorrow we're going to Paris – Obviously, I got it wrong – It was raining, so we went back home
  13. 13. Adverb position • Mid-position: Manner, Indefinite time, Frequency, Comment – She quickly tidied her room and ran to catch the bus – Sorry, but I still don't understand – I seldom drink tea in the morning – I apparently got it wrong
  14. 14. Adverb position • End position: Manner, Place, Point in time – She tidied up quickly – They're playing outside – We'll be leaving in the morning
  15. 15. Adverbs to express completion • They come in mid-position – I have completely forgot about the party – We have almost completed the course
  16. 16. Adverb order • With more than one adverbial in the end position, we use the manner, place, time order: – We watched the sun rise slowly and majestically above the horizon. – I waited for you at home yesterday. Why didn't you call?
  17. 17. Exercise 1: correct or incorrect? • I've already seen the film - CORRECT • You very nearly killed me! What were you thinking? – (spoken example, very colloquial, for the purpose of emphasis) • I'll naturally pay you back as soon as I get paid – INCORRECT (NATURALLY, I’LL PAY YOU BACK...) • We just sat around at home lazily watching the day go by. - CORRECT • The team last night played superbly well. – INCORRECT (LAST NIGHT, THE TEAM PLAYED... Or ... THE TEAM PLAYED SUPERBLY WELL LAST NIGHT) • I got a nearly full score on the test. INCORRECT (I NEARLY GOT...
  18. 18. Adverb collocation • There seems to be a semantic link between adverbs and certain verbs and adjectives, e.g. deeply is normally used to express intense feelings: – Deeply regret – Deeply embarrassing – Deeply hurt
  19. 19. Exercise 2: what's the adverb + adjective/verb combination in each sentence? • If we admit something, we feel free to do so. FREELY ADMIT • When we recommend something or someone, we make high recommendations HIGHLY RECOMMEND • Any sort of damage is usually severe in terms of impact. SEVERLY DAMAGE • If you're in a hurry to get to the office, you can take a brisk walk instead of trying the subway. BRISKLY WALK(ING)
  20. 20. Exercise 2: what's the adverb + adjective combination in each sentence? • Missing someone is always a sad affair. SADLY MISS/SORELY MISS • Anxiety and despair go hand in hand; so the need to be desperate is more than natural. DESPERATELY NEED/ SORELY NEED • When giving an opinion about a controversial issue, there is no way we can not have strong feelings about it STRONGLY FEEL • Partial insurance is no insurance whatsoever; accept nothing but full coverage FULLY INSURANCE
  21. 21. Exercise 3: Match a verb on the left with an adverb on the right • Scream (Hysterically) • Gaze (Longingly, Passionately) • Love (Passionately) • Break something (Deliberately) • Work (Conscientiously) • Apologize (Profusely) • Passionately • Profusely • Longingly • Hysterically • Conscientiously • Deliberately
  22. 22. Adverbs with two forms • One with the –ly suffix, one without. The meanings are not directly related – We work hard – We hardly recognized her with the new hairdo.
  23. 23. Other adverbs with two forms • Easy – easily • Late – lately • Sure – surely • Wrong- wrongly • Most – mostly • Wide - widely
  24. 24. Adverbs with two forms • The first in the pair doubles as an adjective and adverb – That was an easy test! – Hey take it easy! – You could have easily taken him down – Is he just going to walk free? – Don't forget to redeem your free gift – He talked freely about his illegal activities in public.
  25. 25. Exercise 4: Rephrase the sentence below without changing the meaning • The need for a stiff penalty for late deliveries will be highly unlikely. • It’s virtually improbable that we will need to apply a stiff penalty for late deliveries. • The necessity for a stiff penalty for late deliveries will be highly unlikely.
  26. 26. Exercise 4: Rephrase the sentence below without changing the meaning • I distinctly remember their saying that it would not be a problem to meet the deadline. • I clearly remember them saying that it would be fine to meet the deadline. • I clearly remember when they said (that) it would not be a problem to meet the deadline.
  27. 27. Exercise 4: Rephrase the sentence below without changing the meaning • I sincerely hope the company honors its impeccable reputation. • Honestly, I hope the company honors/upholds its unmistakable/untainted/flawless/spotless reputation.
  28. 28. Exercise 4: Rephrase the sentence below without changing the meaning • We eagerly await the outcome of next week's board meeting. • We anxiously await/are looking forward to the outcome of next week's board meeting. • We can barely/hardly wait for the outcome of next week's board meeting.
  29. 29. Exercise 4: Rephrase the sentence below without changing the meaning • That no one can accurately predict market trends is understandable, but I felt the need for more meticulous planning. • It’s understandable/reasonable/justifiable/comprehensible that no one can precisely predict market trend, but I felt the need for more detailed planning, (however/though).
  30. 30. Attitude adverbs and adverbials 3 umbrella categories
  31. 31. Certainty/Expectation • Astonishingly • Disturbingly • Inevitably • Naturally • Predictably • Not surprisingly • Obviously • Without a doubt • As might be expected • Clearly • Of course • Undoubtedly
  32. 32. Evaluation/Importance • Apparently • Disturbingly • Unfortunately • Fortunately • Interestingly • Quite rightly • (Even) More importantly • Significantly
  33. 33. Generalization • As a general rule • By and large • Typically • Generally speaking • On the whole
  34. 34. Exercise 5: Rephrase with an adverb • NOT SURPRISINGLY, Crime rates have risen in line with unemployment figures. That doesn't surprise me. • FORTUNATELY, there is a very satisfactory solution to the problem.That's a good thing. • Technology will cause more problems than it solves, APPARENTLY (so people say). • Older people don't adapt so easily to new technology, AS A RULE – (at least that's a general rule). • INTERESTINGLY/STRANGELY, children often pick up new skills for themselves. That really interests me.
  35. 35. Just • The adverb just has several meanings: – This house is just right for us. (Exactly) – But he's just a boy! (Only) – I've just tried phoning you. (A short time before) – I'm just getting dressed. (Right now) – I just want you to leave right now. I'd just like an egg for breakfast, please. (Simply, only) – You're just as bad as my father. He can't see a football match on TV. (Equally, no less)
  36. 36. Just • As it has several meanings, it can occupy the three main adverb positions in a sentence : – Just looking at him and you can tell who he looks like. – Do you think you could just do what I tell you? – In the end we managed to get there before they closed the doors – just. (Spoken English)
  37. 37. Exercise 6: Add just to the sentences • Italian's JUST as difficult as Spanish. • JUST Leave me alone, will you? • That picture looks JUST right on the wall. • It's starting to rain. Do you JUST happen to have an umbrella? • We've got JUST enough time to get to the airport • I've JUST seen a terrible accident. • Stop talking and JUST eat up! • He wasn't badly hurt. It was JUST a small bruise.
  38. 38. Intensifying adverbs • In most of these combinations, however, there seems to be no specific reason for their collocation
  39. 39. Totally Absolutely Quite Agree Totally Disagree Completely Fully Perfectly Understand Seriously Sincerely Believe Completely Strongly Entirely Really Thoroughly Greatly Forget Disapprove Depend Like Enjoy Appreciate
  40. 40. Impossible combinations Sincerely agree Quite disagree Totally remember Fully think Completely adore Fully destroy Strongly like
  41. 41. Intensifying adverbs • The type of adverb depends on the type of adjective with which it might combine: – With gradable adjectives: very, awfully, rather, extremely, terribly, fairly, really, pretty, quite – With limit adjectives: absolutely, completely, utterly, totally, entirely, pretty, really, simply, quite
  42. 42. Weak Limit Extreme 1 Extreme 2 Irritated Angry Furious Livid Significant Important Essential Vital Content Happy Delighted Ecstatic Pretty Beautiful Gorgeous Stunning Sizeable Big Enormous Gigantic
  43. 43. Intensifying adverbs • In general, the native speaker does not make the following combinations: – totally essential, entirely determined, completely furious • Combinations that are (no-brainers) always possible: – Very + gradable adjectives e.g. very happy/tired/big – Absolutely + limit adjectives e.g. absolutely enormous/delicious/delighted – Really + gradable and limit adjectives e.g. really angry/surprised/amazed
  44. 44. Exercise 7: Complete the following paragraph with an appropriate adverb • I feel I must write to you on the following matter. I DO/TRULY/QUITE/HONESTLY believe that there is far too much sport of all kinds shown on LTC television today. I STRONGLY disapprove of the non-stop coverage, of football, golf, and cricket on all your channels. I DO/SINCERELY admit sport plays a major role in our society, but this is unacceptable. Sundays are already COMPLETELY/FULLY taken up by sport. I CERTAINLY/REALLY/SURELY/DO hope you will listen to those who are not sports fanatics and provide some alternative entertainment.
  45. 45. The adverb Quite • The meaning of quite is phonologically determined, i.e. based on stress – With gradable adjectives and stress on quite = Ok, but not as good as I expected: The restaurant was quite good, but I wouldn't go back
  46. 46. The adverb Quite – With gradable adjectives and with stress on the adjective = It was better than I expected: The film was quite good. You'll really like it – With a limit adjetive and stress on both words = up to the top (with exaggerated rising intonation): Are you quite sure?
  47. 47. Adverbial clauses • He went to party dressed as a monkey. • She sat by the fire reading a book. • Opening his suitcase, he took out a revolver. • Released from its cage, the lion prowled around. • Having finished lunch, we set off.
  48. 48. Adverbial clauses • Being a mean person, he never spent more time than he had to. • Weakened by years of bad health, she could hardly sit up in bed. • It rained every day for two weeks, completely ruining our holiday. • Taken regularly, aspirin can reduce the risk of a stroke.
  49. 49. Exercise 8: Simultaneity, Consequence, Reason, Condition, Sequence • Living in London, I appreciate the pros and cons of city life. REASON • He cut himself opening a can of sardines. SIMULTANEITY • Having read the minutes of the meeting, I wrote my university final paper. SEQUENCE • Having read the minutes of the meeting, I understood the problems. REASON/CONSEQUENCE
  50. 50. Exercise 8: Simultaneity, Consequence, Reason, Condition, Sequence • Cooked in a white wine sauce, rabbit meat can be succulent. CONDITION • Knowing my love of chocolate, she hid it in the top cupboard. REASON • Wrested from his parents' arms as a child, he's always had difficulty establishing relationships. REASON/CONSEQUENCE • Browsing in the neighborhood newsstand, I came across this great book on computing skills. SIMULTANEITY
  51. 51. Adjectives - Position • Attributive use: before noun or pronoun • Predicative use: separated from noun or pronoun following linking verbs - be, seem, appear, look: The current economic situation looks grim, to say the least.
  52. 52. Predicative adjectives • Afloat • Afraid • Alive • Alone • Asleep
  53. 53. Another predicative adjective Clergymen are answerable to a higher authority
  54. 54. Difference in meaning • The treasurer was present at the last board meeting • The present treasurer had trouble getting the accounts in order CURRENT • Robin Harris was late • The late Robin Harris was a honorary member of the association DECEASED • Too many people in the world are still poor • What will become of those poor people who have lost their homes due to the landslides? PITIFUL
  55. 55. Exercise 9: Translate the sentences • Great men are not always wise. (Grandes homens nem sempre são sábios) • Peter and Paul were faithful in many ways. (Peter e Paul eram/foram leais de várias maneiras) • A good name is priceless. (Um nome limpo não tem preço) • We should be reasonable irrespective of the circumstances (Devemos ser sensatos independentemente/a despeito das circustâncias) • The sword is quick and powerful. (A espada é rápida e poderosa) • The rich man is wealthy beyond imagination. (O homem rico tem posses inimagináveis) • The sky grew dark as the storm approached. (O céu escurecia à medida que a tempestade se aproximava) • His trumpet sounds squeaky. (O trompete dele soa estridente) • This is shoddy. Isn't it poor? (Isso é uma porcaria, não é?) • The hamburger tasted greasy. (O hambúrguer estava gorduroso)
  56. 56. Position of Adjectives • Adjectives occupy the last position before the noun phrase: determiners: both, all, half, the, this, these, that, those, my etc. ordinals: last, next, other, first, second quantifiers: few, lot of, little, numerals adjectives
  58. 58. It’s a rose. (sweet-smelling; exquisite; apricot-colored) It’s a exquisite, sweet-smelling, apricot-colored rose
  59. 59. She’s wearing trousers. (leather; black, shiny; tight- fitting) She’s wearing shiny, tight-fitting, black, leather trousers
  60. 60. I met a student. (young; trendy; art; Venezuelan) I met a trendy, young, Venezuelan, art student
  61. 61. We drove out of the city to see some cottages. (thatched; old; beautiful; two-storey) We drove out of the city to see some beautiful, old, thatched, two-storey cottages
  62. 62. Exercise 11: Translate the sentences to English • Delicioso pão integral caseiro (Delicious, home-made, whole wheat bread). • Uma simpática idosa escocesa (A friendly old Scottish lady). • Uma linda camisa de seda listrada em vermelho e branco (A beautiful red-and-white-stripped silk shirt). • Um lindo menino gorducho e agitado (A cute, chubby, lively boy). • Uma graciosa sala de estar iluminada e arejada com pé- direito alto (A lovely, bright, breezy, high-ceilinged living room).
  63. 63. Exercise 11: Translate the sentences to English • Um inestimável quadro impressionista do século XIX. (A priceless, nineteenth-century, impressionist painting) • Um velho e sujo banquinho metálico de jardim (A dirty old metal garden stool). • Uma linda escrivaninha vitoriana (A beautiful Victorian desk). • Uma encantadora casa de campo caiada. (A charming whitewashed country house) • Uma pequena copa em forma de L.(A small L-shaped dining room)
  64. 64. The negative prefix 'un' The use of the negative prefix 'un' plus an adjective occurs with a much higher frequency in English, the phrase not always being simple or practical to translate.
  65. 65. China's prime minister, Wen Jiabao, said recently that structural problems are causing unsteady, unbalanced, uncoordinated, and unsustainable development. Newsweek, 5/9/09 O primeiro-ministro chinês Wen Jiabao, afirmou recentemente que problemas estruturais vem ocasionando desenvolvimento instável, desequilibrado, descoordenado e insustentável. Newsweek, 5/9/09
  66. 66. Semantically, the prefix can cause ambiguity, as it can mean "the opposite of" or "that never was".
  67. 67. • An unbuttoned shirt (In Portuguese "uma camisa desabotoada" or "uma camisa nunca abotoada/nova em folha") • Other examples – uncovered, unfastened, undone, undressed etc.
  68. 68. I regret to say that of a workmate, but his behavior was absolutely unprofessional. - unprofessional > amador - unprofessional> anti-profissional, anti-ético
  69. 69. Whereas her big sister´s room was a stew of unclosed books, unfolded clothes, unmade bed, unemptied ashtrays, Briony's was a shrine to her controlling demon. (Atonement, 2001) Enquanto o quarto da sua irmã era uma mistura de livros abertos, roupas para serem dobradas, uma cama desarrumada, cinzeiros cheios, o de Briony era um templo para sua obsessão por controle. (Atonement, 2001)
  70. 70. Defining or Non-defining relative clauses • Which gives essential information? • Which is separated by commas? • In which do we use that? • In which can the relative pronoun be omitted?
  71. 71. Examples • Chocolate is something (that) nearly everyone likes • People that smoke normally damage their health • Tortilla, which is made from eggs and potatoes, is a typical Spanish dish • Toby, whose job is difficult, spends his weekends relaxing
  72. 72. Exercise 10: Find and correct the errors • My mother who's a doctor works in a maternity hospital • Ligaments join bones in the human body are made of strong tissue • Do you know anyone I can ask about this? • The pharmacist gave me this medicine said it would help • Distance running is a sport that requires no special equipment • Dr. James, that has written several books on the subject, is a dietician
  73. 73. Relative pronouns in academic English • It is a rare condition of which little is known • Professor Harris, with whom the team worked, found a cure for the disease
  74. 74. Quantifiers in non-defining relative clauses • Questionnaires were sent to 500 people, one third of whom completed them