Vocabulary ii day i


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Vocabulary ii day i

  1. 1. Vocabulary II Prof. John Whitlam
  2. 2. Lexicology & Lexicography • Lexicology – the study of words and the lexicon • Lexicography – the cataloguing of the lexicon in dictionaries
  3. 3. Lexicology • What is a word? – the nature of words • Morphology - the forms and elements of words • Lexical semantics – the meaning of words • Semantic relations – how words relate to one another • Collocation and phraseology – how words combine with one another • The lexicon as a system
  4. 4. What is a word? Single indivisible unit* of language with a discrete meaning *unit = combination of sounds NB: A single “word” in the semantic/phonetic sense may correspond to more than one written word: e.g. washing machine, cara de pau
  5. 5. One word or more? • English: to the man • Portuguese: ao homem • Danish: til manden • Arabic: ‫لل‬‫رجل‬ lir-rajul (li+al+rajul) • Turkish: Brezilyalılaştıramadıklarımızdan mısınız? Você é um daqueles que não conseguimos abrasileirar?
  6. 6. Brezilyalılaştıramadıklarımızdan mısınız? Brezilya - Brasil Brezilyalı – brasileiro Brezilyalılaş – virar brasileiro Brezilyalılaştır – fazer virar brasileiro > abrasileirar Brezilyalılaştırama – não possível abrasileirar Brezilyalılaştıramadık – que não possível abrasileirar Brezilyalılaştıramadıklar – aqueles que não possível abrasileirar Brezilyalılaştıramadıklarımız – aqueles que não possível nós abrasileirarmos > que não conseguimos abrasileirar Brezilyalılaştıramadıklarımızdan – um daqueles que não conseguimos abrasileirar Brezilyalılaştıramadıklarımızdan mı? – um daqueles que não conseguimos abrasileirar? Brezilyalılaştıramadıklarımızdan mısınız? –Você é um daqueles que não conseguimos abrasileirar?
  7. 7. Lexemes • Are dog and dogs the same word, or two different words? • Are speak, speaks, speaking, spoke and spoken five different words, or one? Lexeme DOG has two word forms: dog, dogs Lexeme SPEAK has five word forms: speak, speaks, speaking, spoke, spoken
  8. 8. Morphemes • Morpheme: minimal meaningful unit of language dogs consists of two morphemes: root morpheme dog inflectional morpheme -s independently consists of four morphemes: root morpheme depend derivational morphemes in- -ent -ly
  9. 9. Inflectional Morphemes • Inflectional morphemes produce different forms of the same lexeme e.g. speaks, speaking, spoke, spoken • Use of inflectional morphemes is determined by inflectional rules, which in turn are determined by syntax – the role of the word in the sentence: morphosyntactics
  10. 10. Derivational Morphemes • Derivational morphemes produce new lexemes e.g. write > writer, rewrite, writings • Use of derivational morphemes are determined by rules of word formation • Derivational morphemes (affixes: prefixes and suffixes) have a meaning. These meanings can be difficult to describe in words, but are instinctively understood by native speakers through ANALOGY
  11. 11. Prefixes in English 1 Prefixes Examples Portuguese A. Negative prefixes un-, in-, non-, de-, dis- unzip, illegal, non-smoker, decode, dislike des-, in-, não, dis- , pouco B. Latin prefixes anti-, co-, inter-, post-, pre-, pro-, re-, semi-, sub-, super-, etc. NB: arch- hyper- hypo- anti-American, co-pilot, international, post-war, prefabricated, pro-Chinese, rebuild, semicircle, subconscious, supersonic anti-, co-, inter-, pós-, pré-, pró-, re-, semi-, sub-, super-, etc. NB: arqui-, arque-, arce- hiper- hipo-
  12. 12. Prefixes in English 2 C. English prefixes Examples Portuguese mis- misjudge, misspell, mistake mal, de forma errada out- outgrow, outlive, outnumber, outwit (superar, exceder, ultrapassar) over- 1. overeat, overdo, overweight 2. overcome, overtake 3. overfly, overpass 1. (em excesso, de forma exagerada) 2. (superação) 3. (por cima) under- 1. undernourished, underfunded 2. undergo, undertake 3. underline, underpin 1. (insuficiência) sub- 2. (incumbência, submissão) 3. (por baixo)
  13. 13. Exercise 1 1. hipermercado 2. pós-operatório 3. desadicionar (no orkut, FB) 4. pouco convincente 5. arquirrival 6. misinformation 7. Not to be outdone, our neighbors also bought a new car. 8. Don’t overdo it. 9. “John Lewis – never knowingly undersold” 10. The apartment had to be deroached.
  14. 14. English Suffixes 1 Suffix Examples Portuguese equivalent -able, -ible probable, horrible -ável, -ível -al 1. national, natural 2. proposal, approval 1. -al 2. proposta, aprovação -dom boredom, kingdom (qualidade; domínio) -ee employee, interviewee -ado, -ido -er 1. writer, smoker 2. stapler, printer -dor, -nte -dor, -dora -ess actress, waitress -a, -iz, -esa etc. -ful 1. fearful, powerful 2. teaspoonful, cupful 1. -oso 2. (quantidade) -hood childhood, motherhood -dade etc. -ic tragic, logic -ico, -ica -ical alphabetical, logical -ico -ics politics, statistics -ica
  15. 15. English Suffixes 2 Suffix Examples Portuguese equivalent -ify identify, modify -ificar -ish greenish, smallish (mais ou menos) -ism Leninism, feminism -ismo -ist artist, saxophonist -ista -ity immunity, paternity -idade -ize Americanize, nationalize -izar -less homeless, useless in-, sem- -ly 1. quietly, importantly 2. friendly, monthly -mente -al etc. -ness kindness, closeness -eza, -dade, -ência etc. -ship ownership, professorship (qualidade/cargo de) -ado -sion, -tion decision, creation, nation -são/-ção -th depth, width, strength (qualidade) -y spotty, greeny, moody -oso
  16. 16. Productive Affixes in English • Productive prefixes: un-, non-, de-, dis- re- Colloquial: hyper-, mega-, super-, uber- • Productive suffixes: -able/-ible, -ee, -er, -hood, -ify, -ish, -ism, -ist, -ize, -less, -ly, -ness, -ship, -sion/-tion, -y
  17. 17. Words ending in -ic academic, acoustic, acrobatic, (a)esthetic, agnostic, alcoholic, algebraic, altruistic, an(a)emic, an(a)esthetic, angelic, antarctic, antibiotic, anti-Semitic, antiseptic, apathetic, apologetic, aquatic, Arabic, archaic, arctic, aristocratic, aromatic, arthritic, artistic, athletic, atmospheric, atomic, authentic, autocratic, automatic, ballistic, basic, bombastic, bureaucratic, cathartic, catholic, caustic, ceramic, chaotic, characteristic, chronic, civic, concentric, cosmetic, cosmic, cryptic, cubic, democratic, demonic, despotic, diabetic, didactic, diplomatic, dogmatic, domestic, dramatic, drastic, dynamic, eccentric, eclectic, ecstatic, elastic, electronic, emphatic, encyclop(a)edic, endemic, energetic, enigmatic, enthusiastic, epic, epidemic, epileptic, erotic, erratic, ethnic, euphoric, exotic, fantastic, frantic, gastric, generic, genetic, geriatric, gigantic, Gothic, graphic, hectic, heroic, hieroglyphic, Hispanic, histrionic, hydraulic, hydroelectric, hygienic, hypnotic, Icelandic, idiomatic, idiotic, idyllic, intrinsic, italic, journalistic, laconic, lethargic, linguistic, lunatic, magnetic, majestic, melodramatic, metallic, microscopic, monolithic, mosaic, narcotic, neurotic, nomadic, obstetric, oceanic, Olympic, operatic, optimistic, organic, paralytic, pathetic, patriotic, pedantic, pessimistic, phlegmatic, phonetic, photogenic, photographic, plastic, pneumatic, prolific, prosaic, psychic, public, romantic, rustic, sadistic, scenic, scientific, semantic, septic, Slavic, specific, sporadic, static, supersonic, symbolic, sympathetic, synthetic, systematic, therapeutic, tragic, vitriolic, volcanic
  18. 18. Words ending in -ical allegorical, analytical, anatomical, anthropological (all -logical words), astronomical, Biblical, biographical, botanical, chemical, cyclical, cylindrical, cynical, diabolical, ecumenical, empirical, evangelical, farcical, geological, grammatical, hypocritical, hypothetical, hysterical, identical, illogical, lackadaisical, metaphorical, methodical, mythical, mythological, nautical, nonsensical, numerical, paradoxical, pharmaceutical, physical, physiological, practical, psychological, quizzical, radical, satirical, spherical, surgical, technical, technological, typical, tyrannical, umbilical, vertical, zoological
  19. 19. Words ending in -ic/-ical 1 • Either -ic or -ical with no change of meaning: ecclesiastistic(al), geographic(al), geometric(al), ironic(al), logistic(al), philosophic(al), poetic(al), rhythmic(al), stoic(al), symmetric(al), typographic(al) • Noun ends in –ic(s), adjective ends in –ical: aeronautics/aeronautical, arithmetic/arithmetical, cleric/clerical, clinic/clinical, critic/critical, ethics/ethical, fanatic/fanatical, heretic/heretical, logic/logical, lyric/lyrical, mathematics/ mathematical, mechanic/mechanics/mechanical, medic/medical, music/musical, mystic/mystical, optics/optical, rhetoric/rhetorical, sceptic/sceptical, statistic/statistics/statistical, tactic/tactical, theatrics/theatrical, topic/topical, tropic/tropical • NB: periodical/periodic(al)
  20. 20. Words ending in -ic/-ical 2 • Both forms exist with distinct meanings: classic (típico, consagrado, admirado) x classical (relativo à música clássica ou à antiguidade romana e grega) comic (escrito como comédia) x comical (muito engraçado) economic (relativo à economia) x economical (barato, parcimonioso) electric (movido à eletricidade, eletrizante) x electrical (relativo à eletricidade ou a aparelhos eletricos) historic (muito antigo; marcante, que faz história) x historical (relativo à história) magic (que tem poder mágico ou que envolve mágica) x magical (irreal, onírico) metric (relativo ao sistema métrico de medidas) x metrical (relativo ao metro poético) politic (prudente, diplomático) x political (relativo à política)
  21. 21. Exercise 2 1. um erro clássico 2. prédios históricos 3. uma noite mágica 4. um fogão elétrico 5. um pianista clássico 6. um estudo histórico 7. um anel mágico 8. um defeito elétrico 9. uma vitória histórica 10. uma cena cômica
  22. 22. How does the lexicon develop and expand? • Existing words take on new meanings e.g. mouse, to click, to like, bookmark • New words are created e.g. internet, dongle, docudrama • Words are borrowed from other languages e.g. samba, capoeira, favela, caipirinha • Words and meanings fall into disuse and die out
  23. 23. How are new words created? • Conversion (e.g. from noun to verb: to hand, to book, to house, to friend) • Derivation (write > writer, rewrite, writing) • Composition (toothbrush, ghost-writer etc.; write back, write in, write off, write out) • Invention (dongle, docudrama, edutainment)
  24. 24. Word types • Root words (house, book, hand, car, write etc.) • Derived words (handy, writer, rewrite, bookish etc.) • Compound words (houseboat, bookshelf, race car, ghost-write etc.) • Shortenings and abbreviations (lab, flu, photo, MP, OK etc.)
  25. 25. Content Words vs. Form Words • Content words – most of the words of the language which have a more or less clearly defined meaning even in isolation e.g. car, house, impossible, to create etc. • Form words – words which are almost empty of meaning in isolation, but which structure the relations between content words e.g. the, that, not, a(n), of, will etc.
  26. 26. The meaning of words • Until 1930s, people only interested in the development of words over time: etymology and evolution of meaning • Synchronic study of meaning only began in 20th century with Saussure • Saussure took structuralist approach: the meaning of a word is understood by how it differs from the meaning of other words in the lexicon
  27. 27. Ferdinand de Saussure • Swiss linguist 1857-1913 • Each word is a sign • Each sign consists of a signifier (phonetic or written representation) and a signified (the thing, action or quality referred to) • Signifiers are arbitrary – that’s why there are different languages • Signified is also arbitrary – how the world is classified is not fixed, but done using language, so native speakers of different languages see the world in different ways
  28. 28. Signifier vs. Signified
  29. 29. The signified is also arbitrary 1 cиний siniy голубой goluboy
  30. 30. The signified is also arbitrary 2 English Bonfire Night, homecoming queen, letter jacket, root beer, sorority, binge drinking Portuguese feijoada, roda de samba, forró universitário, farofeiro, favela
  31. 31. What is meaning? The meaning of a word is made up of: • denotative component • connotative components
  32. 32. Denotative components lonely -------- » [alone, without company] notorious -------- » [widely known] celebrated -------- » [widely known] to glare --------» [to look] to glance --------» [to look] to shiver --------» [to tremble] to shudder--------» [to tremble]
  33. 33. Connotative components lonely -------- » [alone , without company] {sad} solitary -------- » [alone , without company] {out of choice} notorious -------- » [widely known] {for doing bad things} celebrated -------- » [widely known] {for outstanding achievement} to glare --------» [to look] {angrily} to glance --------» [to look] {briefly} to stare --------» [to look] {insistently, for some time} to shiver --------» [to tremble] {continuously, usually with cold} to shudder--------» [to tremble] {once, with fear or disgust}
  34. 34. Connotation Types Connotation Type Examples Intensity surprise, astonish, amaze, astound Duration stare, gaze, peer vs. glance, peep Emotive lonely vs. solitary Evaluative (value judgement) notorious vs. celebrated, eyes sparkle vs. eyes glint/glitter Causative shiver (with cold) vs. shudder (with disgust), to blush (with embarrassment) vs. to redden (with anger) Manner walk vs. stroll, amble, trot etc. Attendant circumstances peep (secretly, from a hiding place) vs. peer (in darkness, at a distance) Attendant features beautiful vs. handsome vs. pretty Stylistic (register) meal vs. bite to eat, repast, blow-out; to leave vs. to clear off, to leg it, to depart, to withdraw
  35. 35. Exercise 3 What are the connotations of the following words: • think, ponder, reflect, deliberate, meditate, muse, ruminate, brood • laugh, chuckle, chortle, guffaw, giggle, titter, snicker (Brit: snigger), roar, crack up, piss yourself
  36. 36. Register • Neutral – words that do not have a particular register (e.g. toilet, bottom) • Colloquial – words that are only appropriate in informal speech/writing (e.g. loo, bum/butt/buns) • Slang – words restricted to certain groups and/or certain very informal situations (e.g. bog, arse/ass) • Taboo – swear words (e.g. shitter, arsehole/asshole) • Formal – words that are only used in formal contexts (e.g. lavatory, WC; buttocks, rear) • Literary – words that are only used in literary contexts (e.g. privy, derrière) • Specialist – words relating to a specific field (e.g. toilet bowl, glutes)
  37. 37. Euphemism Euphemism Non-euphemism public convenience, bathroom, restroom, comfort station toilet backside, behind, derrière buttocks pass away die family planning contraception privates, private parts genitals overweight fat homely, plain unattractive differently abled disabled, handicapped sleep with, go to bed with have sex with tired and emotional drunk freaking, frigging, flipping fucking
  38. 38. Exercise 4 1. to be economical with the truth 2. intellectually challenged 3. to powder your nose 4. to see a man about a dog 5. bathroom tissue 6. correctional facility 7. enhanced interrogation 8. adult entertainment 9. sanitation worker 10. gentlemen’s club
  39. 39. Synonyms • Ideographic synonyms – same denotation, different connotation (e.g. arremessar, jogar, tacar) • Stylistic synonyms – same denotation, different register (e.g. colocar x botar) • Absolute synonyms – identical in denotation, connotation and register (e.g. colocar, pôr)
  40. 40. Synonymic Groups Dominant (unmarked) synonym no connotations Marked synonyms with connotations surprised astonished, amazed, astounded, stunned, flabbergasted, gobsmacked shout yell, bellow, roar, scream, shriek look stare, glare, gaze, peer, peep, gawp tremble shiver, shudder, quiver, shake, quake make create, manufacture, turn out, fabricate, produce shine flash, blaze, gleam, glisten, sparkle, glitter, shimmer, glimmer angry furious, enraged, mad, apoplectic, pissed fear panic, terror, dread, apprehension
  41. 41. Conclusions • Languages have a neutral core vocabulary which is purely denotative and unmarked • Absolute syonyms are a temporary phenomenon in language – generally, no two words share exactly the same denotation and connotation • One element of meaning is the contrast with other words in the lexicon • Translators should match not only the denotative meaning of a word or expression, but also the connotative elements. Bilingual dictionaries only do this to a certain extent. • Teachers should teach not only the denotative meaning of a word or expression, but also make students aware of its connotations. Translation helps here.
  42. 42. False Friends 1 1. These days, environmental concerns are high on the agenda. O primeiro-ministro tem uma agenda muito cheia. 2. The president had not anticipated the outcry the decision would cause. O presidente antecipou para segunda-feira sua reunião com ministros. 3. The man was charged with assault. O homem foi condenado por assalto à mão armada. 4. This cannot be done without Her Majesty’s assent. Um rapaz cedeu o assento à senhora idosa. 5. The magician asked a member of the audience to assist him with the trick. O senador assistiu ao casamento da filha de um aliado político.
  43. 43. False Friends 2 6. It is safe to assume that the phone company is to blame for the mistake. Não vou assumir a culpa por uma coisa que eu não fiz. 7. I’m not sure I’m going to be able to attend tomorrow’s meeting. Você acha que ela vai atender ao nosso pedido? 8. The party was a very casual affair and I felt rather overdressed. Não passou de um encontro casual. 9. The casualties were taken to a nearby hospital. O gol contra pode ter sido uma casualidade, mas já é o terceiro marcado por este jogador. 10. The government is proposing a comprehensive set of reforms. Eu achei que você fosse ser mais compreensivo.
  44. 44. False Friends 3 11. How can peace be achieved when neither side is prepared to compromise? Os dois países se comprometeram a encontrar uma solução pacífica. 12. Do you already have your costume for the Carnival parade? O casamento foi combinado pelos pais, como é o costume do país. 13. He was charged with obtaining money by deception. Ela não conseguiu esconder sua decepção. 14. Security cameras are supposed to deter intruders. Os seguranças resolveram deter o intruso. 15. It’s a disgrace the way people are treated in public hospitals. Não sou de me comprazer com a desgraça alheia.
  45. 45. False Friends 4 16.One of the robbers creates a diversion while the other steals the bag. A Internet pode ser uma fonte inesgotável de conhecimentos e diversão. 17.She’s very well educated. Ela é muito bem-educada. 18.The couple exchanged e-mails and eventually arranged to meet. Os participantes trocam e-mails e eventualmente marcam um encontro. 19.The minister’s exit from office has sparked a political crisis. O ministro não obteve êxito com a nova política. 20.The policeman was exonerated of any blame for the shooting. O policial foi exonerado por ter atirado contra o suspeito.
  46. 46. False Friends 5 21. It felt more secure to be in familiar surroundings. Muitas crianças não vivem num ambiente familiar estável. 22. There are many grand buildings and monuments in Paris. É um prédio grande com uma agència de viagens no térreo. 23. Environmental protection should be an integral part of all government policy. As famílias têm assistência médica integral. 24. You can’t buy liquor unless you have ID. Depois do jantar, pedimos um licor. 25. I don’t think I can manage another piece of cake. Massa maneja o carro com grande habilidade.
  47. 47. False Friends 6 26.There was a notice on the door saying “Back in 5 mins”. Foi uma notícia que surpreendeu a todos. 27.I like reading historical novels. Gosto de novelas de época. 28.It’s an offence to park on a double-yellow line. Nos países árabes, é uma ofensa mostrar a sola do pé. 29.Here’s a photo of my parents. Essa é uma foto de alguns dos meus parentes. 30.He has a peculiar accent. Where’s he from? Os sul-africanos tèm um sotaque peculiar.
  48. 48. False Friends 7 31.The price of petrol has gone up again. O preço do petróleo voltou a subir. 32.Many gay teenagers have suffered prejudice at school. Muitos comerciantes sofreram prejuízo com o quebra-quebra. 33.She doesn’t call me anymore now she’s preoccupied with her new baby. A mãe estava preocupada com o bebê, que não mamava direito. 34.This cake contains no preservatives or artificial flavorings. A Igreja católica condena o uso do preservativo. 35.He pretends to be a professional footballer. Ele pretende ser jogador profissional.
  49. 49. False Friends 8 36. She’s a physics professor. Ela é professora de Física. 37. The discussion was resumed after lunch. A discussão foi resumida na ata. 38. It was an emotional reunion. Foi uma reunião acalorada. 39. I was robbed as I was coming out of the bank. A minha carteira foi roubada dentro do banco! 40. I don’t know how he supports that family of his. Não sei como ele suporta aquela família dele. 41. She was very sympathetic and said she would try to help me. Ela foi muito simpática e disse que ia me ajudar. 42. The government introduced a tax on financial transactions. O banco cobra uma taxa por cada movimento da conta.