Semi modals


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This is a presentation about semi-modal verbs. It includes all the necessary rules about their use and examples as well as speaking activities encouraging group work.

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Semi modals

  1. 1. SEMI-MODALS  We call semi-modal verbs the ones that are used BOTH as modal verbs AND as main verbs.  Those are the following: be able to, have to/don't have to, need (to), dare (to) Let's see now how they are used !
  2. 2. Be able to + infinitive  Ability (in all simple tenses) Note: We use it to talk about ability in the past especially in affirmative and interrogative/question where could cannot be used.  e.g. I am not able to drive a car. Were you able to do your homework? I was able to finish the project on time.
  3. 3. Talk about your abilities! Think of more!
  4. 4. When I was a baby,...(lack of ability in the past)
  5. 5. Ability in the Past What else were you able to do at the same age?
  6. 6. Ability in the Future! What will you be able to do?
  7. 7. Have to + infinitive  Obligation (can be used in all simple tenses instead of must)  e.g. I have to tidy my room this weekend. I had to go shopping with mum on Saturday.
  8. 8. Not have to + infinitive  To show that something is unnecessary (used in all simple tenses) e.g. Mum, I don't have to study today. It's Sunday ! I didn't have to go to school yesterday .
  9. 9. Role play between an employer and an employee! You haven't been a good employee and your boss is about to fire you. Use have to and not have to!
  10. 10. Needn't, don't/doesn't need to +infinitive  To show that something is unnecessary Note: As a main verb it is followed by an infinitive with to. e.g. I need to speak to Tom. BUT as a modal verb it is followed by an infinitive without to and is NOT used in the affirmative. e.g. Need she check this report? You needn't come with me.
  11. 11. BE CAREFUL ! e.g. Need we buy more food? Yes, we must. OR No, you needn't. (NOT : Yes, we need.) Must I explain it again? Yes, you must. No, you needn't/don't have to. (NOT: No, you mustn't. )
  12. 12. Didn't need to + infinitive  To show that something was unnecessary and didn't happen in the past e.g. She didn't need to take a taxi because she had her own car. (She didn't take a taxi)
  13. 13. Needn't have + past participle  To show that something was unnecessary in the past but it happened  You needn't have brought any bread. I've already bought some. (She brought bread !)
  14. 14. Santa, wasn't necessary...How else could you say that?
  15. 15. Dare  To show that someone is (not) afraid of something As a main verb, it is followed by an infinitive with to in the affirmative. In the negative and interrogative to is optional. e.g. He is a man who dares to fight for his rights. He doesn't dare (to) ask for more money. Do you dare (to) be honest with him?
  16. 16. Dare As a modal verb it is followed by an infinitive without to and is not usually used in the affirmative. e.g. I daren't tell him it was my fault. Dare she deal with them alone? ALSO: How dare you say that to me? Mum, can I start wearing make-up? Don't you dare !
  17. 17. Worth knowing ! Remember ! Need and dare are usually used as main verbs in American English. Expressions similar to modal verbs: be + to + infinitive ( e.g. These are to be sent today) be supposed + to + infinitive ( e.g. You were supposed to bring it back on Monday. ) be likely + to + infinitive (e.g. She is likely to be back tonight)
  18. 18. Role play ! You have just found out your friend has lied to you about something important . Use as many modals as you can ! Two teams on board and the winner is the one which used the most modals.