Modern art part 1

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  • Humankind seems to have originated in Africa
    Paleolithic – old stone age – profile view of animals (side that shows the most information)
    Sculptures are mainly of women thought to be because of their child-bearing capabilities and therefore the survival of the species
    Transient society
  • Found accidentally
    Hands were signatures?
    The images brought hunters luck, helped them control the animals, served as teaching tools, insured the survival of the herds?
  • 3 major periods
    Pharoahs were living gods in Old Period
  • Religion based around resurrection of the soul –Ka was persons spirit that re-entered body after death preparations
    Pharoahs took worldly goods with them to the afterlife
    Pyramids built as tomb for pharoahs and monument to the gods
    Menkaure’s Pyramid
    The Sphinx – ½ man, ½ lion represented pharoahs
  • Birthplace of western civilization
    Political ideals similar to contemporary democracy
    Poetry, drama, philosophy
    *Buddha, Great Wall of China, Rome founded
  • Archaic(rigid) – Early Classical(movement), High Classical –Late Classical – Hellenstic( dramatic)
  • Modern art part 1

    1. 1. ART 3 • • • • • Modern Art Unit “What is it?” “A kindergardner could make that!” “Why would anyone do THAT?” -Jackson Pollock-Action Painter
    2. 2. Factors That Influence Art In Any Culture • Geography • Economics • Religion Politics Society
    3. 3. Pre-Historic Artwork was created to record history and as a form of expression Painting: Cave Paintings Sculpture: Fetishes Architecture: Post and Lintel
    4. 4. PREHISTORIC 35,000 BCE-2000 BCE • Pre-historic art discovered from up to 35,000 years ago • Artwork was created to record history and as a form of expression** • Cave paintings were oldest form of paint in a watercolor medium* • Creation of post and lintel architectural forms – doorway structures* • Caves of Lascaux - oldest known cave paintings
    5. 5. Altamira Spain
    6. 6. Fetish – protective spirit
    7. 7. Stonehenge • • • • Post and Lintel - based on religion Giant carved stones - megaliths - based on religion Fetishes - small carved stones Petroglyphs - stone carvings
    8. 8. EGYPTIAN: Art of continuity, stability, and order Painting: Wall Painting, Heiroglyphics Sculpture: Pharoahs, Sphinx Architecture: Pyramids
    9. 9. EGYPTIAN 3000-800 BC Art of continuity, stability, and order** -Pyramids, obelisk, heiroglyphics* Religion based on resurrection of the soul in the spirit world -Pharoahs were living gods in Old period -Art had “rules” and did not change = established by priests for continuity, order, and eternity**-
    10. 10. Wall Painting
    11. 11. Heiroglyphics/wall carving, pharoahs, and sphinx
    12. 12. Pyramids
    13. 13. Obelisk & Heiroglyphics
    14. 14. GREEK Physical beauty over perfection Painting: Vase Painting Sculpture: Idealized Realism of God, Heros, Athletes Architecture: 3 Decorative Orders, Temples
    15. 15. GREEK 800-100 BC • Physical beauty over perfection=perfection of state through perfection of individual** • Golden mean - Ideal proportion: developed by Greeks and used by Renaissance artists to modern day for composition* • Architecture, sculpture, columns, vases* • Idealized realism and emotion
    16. 16. Pottery - Vases
    17. 17. Greek Sculpture Idealized Realism – Archaic, Contrapposto, Gods, Athletes
    18. 18. 3 Orders of Decorative Style*
    19. 19. Greek Architectural Orders
    20. 20. Acropolis
    21. 21. Parthenon on the Acropolis
    22. 22. ROMAN: Known for realism and character in their sculpture – incorporated Greek developments – great architectrual and engineering achievements Painting: Wall paintings/Frescoe Sculpture: Realistic busts/Virism Architecture: Arch, Aqueduct, Colloseum, Pantheon
    23. 23. ROMAN 500 BC-300AD Known for realism and character in their sculpture – incorporated Greek developments – great architectrual and engineering achievemnts** • • • • • • Greatest contribution was architecture and engineering Government Arch - rounded doorway – KEYSTONE* Dome* Aqueduct Colliseum – gladiator games AD80
    24. 24. Pompeii Frescoes
    25. 25. Roman Sculpture • • • • • Sculpture was known for its ordinary people = Realism and character** Minimum of idealizing** Admired Greek art Jesus, Mohammed
    26. 26. Sculpture portraits
    27. 27. Invention of Concrete
    28. 28. Vaults
    29. 29. Pantheon
    30. 30. Sarcophagus – burial of the dead with onset of Christianity
    31. 31. Architecture and the arch • Roman aqueduct* • Arch of Constantine
    32. 32. Roman Dome • Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (Istanbul) Turkey built 532-537
    33. 33. Roman Arche
    34. 34. MEDIEVAL: Age of Faith Painting: Illuminated Manuscripts Mosaics Sculpture: Ireland’s High Crosses Architecture: Monasteries, Basilica Plan
    35. 35. EARLY CHRISTIAN MEDIEVAL/Dark Ages AGE OF FAITH: 500-1000AD • Religious subject matter** • Bible, illuminated manuscripts, mosaics, castles* • Mosaics=compositions made up of tiny bits of stone or glass - forerunner to stained glass windows • Present day languages, universities, libraries, bookmaking, “Age of Faith”, monasteries
    36. 36. Illuminated Manuscripts Illustrated pages of the bible Modern-day illustration
    37. 37. Mosaics
    38. 38. Ireland’s Crosses
    39. 39. Monasteries
    40. 40. Basillica Plan
    41. 41. Catacombs
    42. 42. Pendentive
    43. 43. Hagia Sophia
    44. 44. ROMANESQUE In the Roman Manner (describes early medieval Euopean church architecture) Intense period of church building Painting: Murals Sculpture: Portals, Reliquaries Architecture: Pilgrimage Churches Castles
    45. 45. ROMANESQUE 1050-1200AD • • • • Intense period of church** building - the beginning of churches as we know them today *Cathedrals were dark and heavy, with few windows Based on Basillica plan Unchecked warfare led to evolvement of castles
    46. 46. Basillica plan - Basillica
    47. 47. Castles
    48. 48. Cathedral interiors-Romanesque • Crypt of cathedral: Burgandy, France • Interior: Toscany, Italy • Churches in middle of villages surrounded by walls for protection
    49. 49. Mural replace Mosaics in Churches
    50. 50. Sculpture - Cloister
    51. 51. Sculpture -Reliquaries
    52. 52. Sculpture -Portals
    53. 53. Romanesque sculpture Sculpture – relief carvings used to tell stories of the bible • Bas relief carvings: Notre Dame • Statue: Notre Dame
    54. 54. Pilgrimage Churches
    55. 55. Castles
    56. 56. GOTHIC: Name given by later critics meaning vulgar and barbarian** because era did not hold true to Greek and Roman ideals Painting: Stained Glass Windows Sculpture: Church “Items” - Pulpit Architecture: Pointed Arch, Flying Buttresses, Cathedrals
    57. 57. GOTHIC 1100-1400 Name given by later critics meaning vulgar and barbarian** because era did not hold true to Greek and Roman ideals • • • Move towards lightness and grace** Growth of trade and cities End to feudal system: main interest Still Christianity Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales
    58. 58. Gothic-Stained Glass Windows* • Added light to cathedrals • Stories of the bible • Minerals added to molten glass to attain bold colors
    59. 59. Gothic - Frescoe pigment applied to wet plaster development of this painting technique
    60. 60. Gothic Sculpture – Low Relief
    61. 61. Pulpit – Baptistery, Pisa
    62. 62. Gothic architecture *pointed arche, *stained glass
    63. 63. Gothic architecture *flying buttresses
    64. 64. Gothic Rib Vault
    65. 65. Sculpture -Portals
    66. 66. Nave elevations of 4 French Cathedrals
    67. 67. Gothic - Gargoyles
    68. 68. Cathedrals – St Denis
    69. 69. RENAISSANCE: Re-Birth: return to the classics of Greek and Roman art Painting: Perspective – 3 geniuses Sculpture: Gates of Paradise Architecture: Florence Cathedral
    70. 70. RENAISSANCE • • • • • • • • • Re-Birth: return to the classics of Greek and Roman art** High Renaissance: Ninja Turtles! – the 3 biggies *Artistic geniuses: Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael *Age of painting *Oil Paint- invention of oil paint: completely opens up the world to painting *Perspective - creating depth on a 2-d surface Artists raised to own class, instead of craftsmen Philosophers, writers, scientists, and artists - principles based on science and math **Ballet/tap invented, invention of printing press, 12-note music scale
    71. 71. Sculpture – Baptistery Doors of Florence Cathedral - Ghiberti
    72. 72. Sculpture – Donatello -first free-standing nude since antiquity -emphasis on naturalisme
    73. 73. Painting - Altarpieces
    74. 74. Botticelli – Birth of Venus -first painting of full-length female nude since antiquity -established image of female beauty
    75. 75. Masaccio - Perspective in frescoes
    76. 76. Mantegna - Perspective
    77. 77. Book of Hours
    78. 78. Architecture - Brunelleschi Florence Cathedral Dome
    79. 79. Brunelleschi • Florence cathedral
    80. 80. High Renaissance LEONARDO DaVINCI • Artistic masters/geniuses** - 3 BIGGIES • Math genius • Scientific inventor
    81. 81. Leonardo DaVinci • The Last Supper Milan convent • St. Jerome - Vatican museum
    82. 82. DaVinci - scienific studies • Distance from Sun to Earth and size of the Moon • Geometric Figure
    83. 83. Michaelangelo Buonoratti • Sculptor • Painter • Artist to the Pope
    84. 84. Sistine Chapel Ceiling
    85. 85. Detail - Sistine Chapel Ceiling
    86. 86. Michaelangelo - sculptor
    87. 87. The Pieta
    88. 88. Raphael
    89. 89. Portraiture • Double Portrait • Self-Portrait
    90. 90. Religion • St. Paul Preaching in Athens • St. Paul and the Dragon
    91. 91. Giorgionne - Landscape
    92. 92. Michelangelo – Architecture -Laurentian Library Vestibule
    93. 93. NORTHERN RENAISSANCE Renaissance ideals in Germany** Albrecht Durer – Germany
    94. 94. Oil paint invented in Flanders, expressionism, satire*
    95. 95. Durer - Printmaking
    96. 96. Merode Altarpiece - Campin
    97. 97. MANNERISM- 1500s • Italian = manner or style** • Revolt against the Renaissance- art of 16th century** • Art appealing to the emotions – • -Distortion, acidic use of colors, twisted positionioning, dramatic contrasts • Protestant Reformation*
    98. 98. Tintoretto
    99. 99. Entombment
    100. 100. El Greco
    101. 101. BAROQUE -1600s • • • • • • • : Exaggerated motion, overt emotion, drama, vivid contrast** Pushed by the Catholic church in response to the Protestant Reformation using direct and emotional involvement: Counter Reformation* Aristocracy concerned with impressing visitors – opulent Shakespeare, Bach, Opera, Miltions Paradise Lost, Contrapposto* French Salon Soceity, Louis XIV, Palace of Versaille* -Rule by Divine Right
    102. 102. Rubens • -Richness of color and ornamentation with emphasis on dynamic works that presented imagery in the most dramatic way possible
    103. 103. Bernini
    104. 104. Bernini • “Faun Teased by Children” “Neptune and Dolphin
    105. 105. Velasquez
    106. 106. Caravaggio
    107. 107. Caravaggio • Boy Bitten by a Lizard • David with the Head of Goliath
    108. 108. Borromini - architecture
    109. 109. Louis XIV
    110. 110. Palace of Versaille
    111. 111. DUTCH ART – 1600s • • • • “Genre Painting” - scenes from everyday life** No market for religious paintings Expressive work* Patrons wanted works portraying their lives
    112. 112. Rembrandt van Rijn
    113. 113. Vermeer
    114. 114. Hals
    115. 115. ROCOCCO-1750 France Reaction against grandeur of Baroque-King Louis XIV • Subjects of love and romance, playful and witty • Ornamental and decorative** • Like Baroque, with greater control and elegance • Academies (schools), Salons (art shows)* • French: rocaille=stone, coquilles=shells • Barroco=irregular pearl
    116. 116. Academies and Salon Shows Academies = established art schools such as the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris. Provided instruction and sponsored exhibitions and exerted great control over the art scene Salons = annual exhibitions sponsored by the acedemies which were subsidized by the government and supported limited range of artistic freedom. The shows focused on traditional subjects and highly polished techniques.
    117. 117. Watteau • “The Pilgrimmage to Cythura” • “Meeting in Open Air”
    118. 118. Fragonard • “The Swing” • “Loveletter”
    119. 119. NEO-CLASSICAL late 1700s • Return to the classics of Greek and Roman art** • Emphasis on subject and realistic style • David’s “Oath of the Horatti” • Era ushered in with the French Revolution • Emphasized line, order, and cool detachment
    120. 120. Death of Marrat
    121. 121. ROMANTICISM Late 1700’s – mid 1800’s • • • • • • • Reaction to the Industrial Revolution Revolt against aristocactic social and political norms. *Strong emotion as an authentic source of the aesthetic experience – horror, terror, awe Intuition and emotion over enlightened rationalism** French revolution Exotic themes Beethoven, Chopin, Wagner
    122. 122. ROMANTICISM • Awe-inspiring *“fake” compositions based on nature** • Art periods become shorter and start to run together, and artists span many “schools” due to longer life • Ideas came from writers and philosophers
    123. 123. Goya - Spanish
    124. 124. William Blake
    125. 125. Gericault
    126. 126. Gericault - French
    127. 127. Delacroix - French
    128. 128. Delacroix
    129. 129. Turner - English
    130. 130. Thomas Cole
    131. 131. Bierstadt
    132. 132. REALISM 1850-1900 • • • • • • Reaction against Romanticism Re-evaluation of reality where artists felt that only the things of ones own lifetime are real Depicted everyday life and the out-of-doors* Disaproved of historical and fictional subjects because they were not real and visible and therefore not of the present world Painting in “pleine aire”* Beginning of new techniques*
    133. 133. Courbet
    134. 134. Millet – The Gleaners
    135. 135. Daumier
    136. 136. Eduard MAnet
    137. 137. Bouguerreau

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