Origins and applications of bibliometrics Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science Game-changers in bibliometrics New twists on an old theme – new metrics Free resources for bibliometric indicators/rankings etc. Caveats!
What is bibliometrics? We all know that we need to cite our work. Plagiarisim, etc. Measurement of who cited whom. Scholarly applications include: Communication Influence Research Patterns Evolution of Knowledge Impact, Productivity, Prestige
ISI Indexes”: Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, Arts and Humanities Index “father of citation analysis” developed the first bibliometric index tools
Usually for authors or groups of authors, articles, or sometimes journals
Measures “impact” of a journal (not an article) within a given subject Basically “how fast are ideas spreading from this journal to other publications?”
Cannot be used to compare cross disciplinary (per Garfield himself) due to different rates of publication and citation, Five year impact factor added Two year time frame not adequate for non-scientific disciplines Coverage of some disciplines not sufficient in the ISI databases Is a measure of “impact” a measure of “quality
The San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA), initiated by the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) together with a group of editors and publishers of scholarly journals, recognizes the need to improve the ways in which the outputs of scientific research are evaluated. The group met in December 2012 during the ASCB Annual Meeting in San Francisco and subsequently circulated a draft declaration among various stakeholders. DORA as it now stands has benefited from input by many of the original signers listed below. It is a worldwide initiative covering all scholarly disciplines. We encourage individuals and organizations who are concerned about the appropriate assessment of scientific research to sign DORA.
Journals employ several strategies to artificially raise the impact factor, which initiates a positive feedback loop by incentivizing more scientists to submit to them. Some editors have been caught trying to induce authors to increase the number of citations from their journal to further raise the impact factor. One investigation found that a collaboration of Brazilian journals had agreed to highly cite each other’s articles to fraudulently raise each of the journals’ impact factors.
Traditional: Journal Impact Factor, Citation Count, half-life Citation count does not indicate patterns in citing references over time or distributed across publications Journal Impact Factor and half life measure only very recent impact
One hit wonder in the green line, sustained career in the red line Blue line is x=y
Yellow page is ranked as more relevant because many pages contain links to it. A lot of pages link to the blue page, which makes it more influential in the yellow pages’ ranking.
Web of Science: 1970’s, Eugene Garfield, panel of expert reviewers for inclusion of journals Scopus: 1996, panel of reviewers, beware if non Elsevier, all cited references may not be linked yet Google Scholar: 1990’s, no panel of reviewers, whatever the world puts up on the web
“influence” of more heavily cited journals citing journal X lends a higher eigenfactor score to journal x Also available through WoS now too
From thompson Reuters Quick and dirty” articles on hot researchers, trending research topics, institutions and journals Promotes analytical products being sold by Thompson; no longer free Hit or miss information, not searchable
“current “average prestige per paper”/does scimago use eigenvector Uses scopus data Citation time window is 3 years (instead of 2 JIF and 5 Eigenvector) Corrects for self citations Because it is per paper, it accounts for differences in journal size
Does the citation pattern matter or just the count? Does the database being used cover my subject as thoroughly as possible? To what degree does my subject area rely on non-journal scholarly publications?
Bibliometrics: Oldies, Goodies, Freebies SLA 2014
Oldies, (new) Goodies, and Freebies
Special Libraries Association Annual Conference
Sunday, June 8, 2013
Vancouver, BC, Canada
Elaine M. Lasda Bergman
Senior Assistant Librarian
University at Albany
• Citation count
• Impact Factor
• Immediacy Index
• Citation Half-Life
Origins of Bibliometrics
• Number of times cited
• Does not take into account
– Materials not included in citation database
– Self citations (possibly)
Photo source: http://pixabay.com/static/uploads/photo/2011/06/17/14/25/abacus-7935_640.jpg
Journal Impact Factor
Journal Citation Reports
Number of citations to a journal in a given year
from articles occurring in the past 2 years
Divided by the number of scholarly articles
published in the journal in the past 2 years
• Domain/Discipline Specific
• 2 Year Time Frame
• Adequacy of Journal Coverage
• Impact = Quality???
Newer, Bigger Concerns with JIF