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Ns5 Lecture 1 Part 1

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Ns5 Lecture 1 Part 1

  1. 1. ECOSYSTEM
CONCEPTS

 and
ECOLOGY
 Basic

 Concepts
and

 Principles
 2
Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila

  2. 2. •  Earth
is
the
only
planet
where
there
is
life.
 •  Why
does
Earth
have
wind,
clouds,
and
rain?
 •  Why
does
Earth
have
weather
elements
which
 the
moon
and
other
planets
do
not
have?
 •  The
most
important
factors
that
make
weather
 changes
possible
are
sun,
air,
and
water
 3
Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila

  3. 3. • 
Earth’s
perfect
size
and
mass,
 crucial
to
a
planet’s
ability
to
 develop
an
atmosphere
and
 sustain
life
 • 

“Another
fascina;ng
 coincidence
is
that
only
 atmospheres
with
between
ten
 and
twenty
percent
oxygen
can
 support
oxida;ve
metabolism
 in
a
higher
 organism”









(Nature’s
 Des+ny)
 • 
Our
exis;ng
magne;c
field
 creates
a
kind
of
“force
field”
 around
our
planet,
protec;ng
 us
from
direct
interac;on
with
 the
sun’s
solar
wind—which
 could
blow
away
our
 atmosphere
and
with
it
the
 ability
to
sustain
life
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 4

  4. 4. •  Community
of
living
things
on
the
Earth
 •  Sum
of
all
ecosystems
on
Earth
 •  Living
organisms
of
the
biosphere
depend
on
 one
another
and
on
the
other
divisions
of
the
 Earth’s
physical
environment:
 – ATMOSPHERE

(gaseous
envelope)
 – HYDROSPHERE
(water
supply)
 – LITHOSPHERE

(crust:
soils
and
rocks
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 5

  5. 5. •  The
Earth
environment
is
the
home
(habitat)
 of
all
forms
of
life
including
humans.
 •  All
life
forms
depend
on
the
proper
 func;oning
of
our
environment!
 •  To
appreciate
the
intricacies
and
importance
 of
the
environment,
however,
it
is
necessary

 that
certain
ecological
principles
be
explained
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 6
 Humans are biological organisms, all our activities have a bearing on ecology “Just
as
we
humans
are
constrained
by
the
laws
of
physics
when
we
build
airplanes
and
 bridges,
we
should
also
be
constrained
by
the
principles
of
ecology
when
we
alter
the
 environment”

  6. 6. •  Coined
by
Ernst
Haeckel
(1869)
 •  “oikos”
–
house
 •  “logos”
‐

study
of
 •  EARTH

is
like
a
great
estate
in
which
the
living
organisms
 and
the
physical
environment
interact
in
an
immense
and
 complicated
web
of
rela;onships
 •  ECOLOGY,
then,
is
the
study
of
the
interac;ons
among
 organisms
and
between
organisms
and
their
physical
 environment
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 7

  7. 7. •  Rela;onship
with
Ecology
 – Study of the interrelationship between living organisms and their animate and inanimate environment
 •  Ecology
is
the
basic
tool
of
environmental
science
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 8

  8. 8. ECOSYSTEM
–
basic
 unit
and
probably
 the
most
 important
concept
 in
ecology
 Two
Types
of
System:
 1. Open
system
–
 presence
of
inputs
 and
outputs
 (maUer
and
 energy)
 3. Closed
system
–
no
 exchange
of
maUer
 and

energy
 (usually
arXficially
 made,
e.g.
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 9

  9. 9. •  NEGATIVE
FEEDBACK
MECHANISM
 –  Brings
the
system
back
to
the
ideal
state
 –  Devia;on‐counterac;ng
inputs
 •  Homeosta;c
Plateau
‐
min/max
area
within
which
the
nega;ve
feedback
 mechanism
can
s;ll
func;on
 •  POSITIVE
FEEDBACK
MECHANISM
 –  Increasing
tendency
to
be
away
from
setpoint
 –  Devia;on‐accelera;ng
inputs
 –  Homeosta;c
plateau
exceeded
 •  Ex.
Geometric
increase
in
the
popula;on
 »  Development
of
cancer
and
kidney
stones
 »  Parturi;on
or
childbirth
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 10

  10. 10. DO
YOU
THINK
THIS
IS
AN
 ECOSYSTEM?
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 11

  11. 11. BIOTIC
COMPONENTS
 ABIOTIC
COMPONENTS
 •  Producers
 –  Green
Plants
 –  Algae
(Phytoplankton)
 •  Consumers
 –  Herbivores
 –  Carnivores
 –  Omnivores
 •  Decomposers
 –  Detri;vores
 –  True
decomposers
 –  Bacteria
and
fungi
 •  Clima;c
Factors
 –  Light
 –  Temperature
 –  Precipita;on
 –  Wind
 –  Humidity
 •  Edaphic
Factors
 –  Soil
Nutrients
 –  Soil
Moisture
 –  Soil
Ph
 •  Hydrological
Factors
 –  Physicochemical
factor
Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 12

  12. 12. THE
ABIOTIC
FACTORS
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 13

  13. 13. •  Light
affects
the
following
ac;vi;es
 –  rate
of
photosynthesis
(blue
and
red
420‐660
nm)
 –  flowering,
dormancy,
and
leaf
fall
 –  migra;on
and
hiberna;on
 –  nes;ng
behavior
 •  Temperature
 –  direct
effect
on
metabolism
by
controlling
body

chemistry
and
 reac;ons
(inc
T

inc
rate
of
reac;ons)
 –  affects
other
environmental
factors
such
as
moisture
 availability
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 14

  14. 14. •  Precipita;on/Moisture
 –  Water
as
a
universal
solvent,
medium
for
biochemical

 processes
 –  Very
limi;ng
in
terrestrial
environment;
determines
the
type
 of
vegeta;on
in
a
given
environment
 •  Atmosphere/Wind
 –  Major
reservoir
of
nutrients
important
to
life
 –  Wind
ac;on
accelerates
transpira;on
process
 –  Strong
winds
may
induce
physical
damage
on
plant
structure
 and
distribu;on
of
seeds
and
small
animals

 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 15

  15. 15. •  Soil
Content
 –  More
nutrients
in
soil
for
plant
growth
means
greater
produc;vity
 –  “Law
of
the
Minimum”
by
Justus
von
Liebig
(1837),
the
growth
 and
survival
of
plants
depend
on
the
nutrient
that
is
least
 available

 •  Soil
Moisture
 –  Increase
water
availability
generally
means
greater
produc;vity;
 water
is
a
raw
material
 •  Soil
Acidity
 –  determines
the
solubility
and
availability
of
essen;al
inorganic
salts
 in
the
solu;on
 
 
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 16

  16. 16. •  Can
modify
the
clima;c
factors
in
the
environment
 especially
light,
temperature,
moisture,
and
pressure
 –  Al;tude
–
drop
of
5.5
˚C
per
1000
m
increase

































 in
al;tude
 – Aspect
–
north‐facing
slope
and
south‐facing
slope







 (low
moisture,
high
T,
high
evapora;on)
 
 
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 17

  17. 17. THE
BIOTIC
FACTORS
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 18

  18. 18. •  A
groups
of
organisms
that
can
use
the
energy
in
 sunlight
to
convert
water
and
carbon
dioxide
into
 Glucose
(food)
 •  Autotrophs
are
also
called
Producers
because
they
 produce
all
of
the
food
that
heterotrophs
use
 •  Without
autotrophs,
there
would
be
no
life
on
this
 planet
 •  Ex.

Plants
and
Algae
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 19

  19. 19. •  Autotrophs
that
get
their
energy
from
 inorganic
substances,
such
as
salt
 •  Live
deep
down
in
the
ocean
where
there
is
 no
sunlight
 •  Ex.

Bacteria
and
Deep
Sea
Worms
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 20

  20. 20. •  Organisms
that
do
not
make
their
own
food
 •  Another
term
for
Heterotroph
is
consumer
 because
they
consume
other
organisms
in
 order
to
live
 •  Ex.

Rabbits,
Deer,
Mushrooms
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 21

  21. 21. •  Scavengers/Detri;vores
–
feed
on
the
;ssue
of
dead
organisms
(both
 plans
and
animals)
 –  Ex.
–
Vultures,
Crows,
and
Shrimp
 •  Herbivores
–
eat
ONLY
plants
 –  Ex.
–
Cows,
Elephants,
Giraffes

 •  Carnivores
–
eat
ONLY
meat
 –  Ex.
–
Lions,
Tigers,
Sharks

 •  Omnivores
–
eat
BOTH
plants
and
animals

 –  Ex.
–
Bears
and
Humans
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 22

  22. 22. 4
LAWS
OF
ECOLOGY
 1.  EVERYTHING
IS
CONNECTED
TO
EVERYTHING
ELSE
 2.  EVERYTHING
MUST
GO
SOMEWHERE
 3.  NATURE
KNOWS
BEST
 4.  THERE
IS
NO
FREE
LUNCH
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 23

  23. 23. HOW
DOES
AN
ECOSYSTEM
 WORK?
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 24

  24. 24. •  Significance:
makes
energy
available
to
all
 components
of
the
ecosystem
 •  Nature:
“unidirec;onal
linear
flow”
 » “Ma0er
circulates
energy
dissipates”
 •  Two
Laws
of
Thermodynamics
–
governs
the
 “one‐way”
flow
of
energy
through
the
 ecosystem
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 25

  25. 25. •  When
a
zebra
eats
the
grass,
it
does
not
obtain
all
of
the
energy
the
grass
 has
(much
of
it
is
not
eaten)
 •  When
a
lion
eats
a
zebra,
it
does
not
get
all
of
the
energy
from
the
zebra
 (much
of
it
is
lost
as
heat)
 •  The
two
(2)
previous
examples
of
energy
transfer
show
that
no
organism
 EVER
receives
all
of
the
energy
from
the
organism
they
just
ate
 •  Only
10%
of
the
energy
from
one
trophic
level
is
transferred
to
the
next
–
 this
is
called
the
10%
law
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 26

  26. 26. •  Grazing
Food
Chain

 –  starts
from
a
green
plant
base
then
goes
to
grazing
herbivores,
and
on
to
carnivores;

 –  most
common
in
deep
aqua;c
systems
but
can
also
be
found
in
terrestrial
 •  grass

cow

man
 •  phytoplankton

zooplankton

plank;vores

piscivores

cat

dog

“lasenggo”

 cannibals

 •  Detrital
Food
Chain

 –  from
dead
organic
maper
to
microorganisms
and
then
to
detri;vores
and
their
predators
 –  most
common
in
terrestrial
and
shallow
waters
 •  dead
leaves

mites

carnivorous
mites
 •  dung

bacteria

microbial
consumers

 •  Parasi;c
Food
Chain
 –  In
which
either
the
producer
or
consumer
is
parasi;zed

 –  Food
passes
to
a
smaller
organism
than
a
larger
one.
 •  e.g.
termites

Triconympha
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 27

  27. 27. •  Most
organisms
eat
more
the
JUST
one
 organism
 •  When
more
organism
are
involved
it
is
know
 as
a
FOOD
WEB
 •  Food
webs
are
more
complex
and
involve
lots
 of
organisms
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 28
 No;ce
that
the
 direc;on
the
 arrow
points
→
 the
arrow
points
 in
the
direc;on
of
 the
energy
 transfer,
NOT
 “what
ate
what”

  28. 28. •  An
ecological
pyramid
shows
the
rela;onship
 between
consumers
and
producers
at
 different
trophic
levels
in
an
ecosystem
 •  Shows
the
rela;ve
amounts
of
energy
or
 maper
contained
at
each
trophic
level
 •  The
Pyramid
shows
which
level
has
the
most
 energy
and
the
highest
number
of
organisms
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 29

  29. 29. Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 30

  30. 30. •  The
total
mass
of
the
organic
maper
at
each
 trophic
level
is
called
biomass
 •  Biomass
is
just
another
term
for
poten;al
 energy
–
energy
that
is
to
be
eaten
and
used.
 •  The
transfer
of
energy
from
one
level
to
 another
is
very
inefficient
(10%
Law)
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 31

  31. 31. Biogeochemical
Cycling
in
the
 Ecosystem
 All
maper
cycles...it
is
neither
created
nor
 destroyed...

 32
Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila

  32. 32. •  Defined
as
the
movement
of
elements
and
 compounds
that
are
essen;al
to
life
 – Materials
are
transported
through
organisms,
the
 atmosphere,
water
and
land
in
a
series
of
CYCLES

 • “Bio”
–
life,
par;cipa;on
of
organisms
 • “Geo”
‐
abio;c
environment
as
source
of
nutrients
 • “Chemical”
–
nature
of
substances
being
cycled
 
 
“Biogeochemistry”

(GE
Hutchinson)
Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 33

  33. 33. •  Gaseous
type
–
the
reservoir
is
the
atmosphere
and/ or
hydrosphere
(e.g.
N2,
CO2,
O2)
 •  Sedimentary
type
–
the
reservoir
is
the
Earth’s
crust
 (e.g.
Phosphorus)
 •  Linkage
type
–
the
reservoir
includes
major
pathways
 in
air,
water,
and
crust
(e.g.
sulfur)
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 34

  34. 34. •  Pollu;on
–
accumulaXon
of
a
chemical
form
that
is
higher
 than
the
standards
 •  Non‐biodegradable
substances
–
change
to
form
new
 chemical
structure
where
no
organism
has
yet
to
uXlize
it
 •  ReducXon
of
the
concentraXon
of
other
chemical
forms
–
 limits
growth
of
the
subsequent
components
of
the
cycle
 •  Eutrophica;on
‐
the
channeling
of
a
substance
to
other
 pathways
(greater
amounts
of
phosphates
in
aquaXc
 systems)
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 35

  35. 35. •  Flow
of
H2O
 •  Mediates
nutrient
cycle
and
as
major
energy
 dissipa;on
pathway
 •  Processes
 – Precipita;on
 – Run‐off
and
infiltra;on
 – Evapora;on
 – Condensa;on
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 36

  36. 36. •  Freshwater
 –  3%
of
the
world’s
water
supply
 •  More
consump;on
than
supply

 •  Pumping
waters
from
aquifers
‐
not
a
normal
part
of
the
water
 cycle
 •  Garbage
and
wastes
pollute
the
water
and
clog
drainage
systems
 
induces
flooding
 •  Asphal;ng
–
render
the
ground
impervious
to
water

blocks
 infiltra;on
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 37
 Pollu;on
 
–

a
change
in
transfer
rate
of
water
 and
nutrients
that
can
lead
directly
 or
indirectly
to
a
degradaXon
of
 human
health
or
degradaXon
of
 plant
and
animal
life

  37. 37. •  Type:
Gaseous
(21%)
 •  Major
Reservoir:
Atmosphere
 •  Forms:
Free
and
Molecular
Oxygen
 •  Sources:

 –  Photosynthesis
from
producers
 –  PhotodissociaXon
of
Water
Vapor
 •  Fate
of
Free
O2:
 1.  Reach
higher
levels
of
trophosphere
and
reduced
to
ozone
 (provides
protecXon
by
filtering
out
the
sun's
UV
rays)
 2.  May
react
with
chemicals
and
organic
compounds
of
the
 earth’s
crust
 3.  May
be
used
up
in
cell
respiraXon
which
release
CO2
to
be
 used
by
autotrophs
to
produce
more
O2
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 38

  38. 38. •  CFC’s
(chlorofluorocarbons)
deplete
ozone
layer
 “ozone
hole”
 •  Eutrophica;on
(nutrient
enrichment
from
 agricultural
and
domesXc
wastes)
leads
to
depleXon
 of
oxygen
in
water
 •  Combus;on
of
fossil
fuels
and
removal
of
vegetaXon
 (deforestaXon)
deplete
the
supply
of
oxygen
in
the
 atmosphere
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 39

  39. 39. •  Type:
Gaseous
Cycle
 •  Major
Reservoir
:
Atmosphere
but
also
calcium
carbonate
in
shells
 and
limestone,
as
well
as
fossil
fuels
 •  Significance


:
Major
element
of
organic
compounds;
building
 blocks
of
all
biomolecules
 •  Processes
 –  Photosynthesis
removes
CO2
while
respiraXon
and
combusXon
add
CO2
 to
the
atmosphere.
 –  CO2
from
air
and
water
combine
to
form
bicarbonate
(HCO3)
–
source
of
 carbon
for
aquaXc
producers.
Carbonic
acid
makes
rainwater
also
slightly
 acidic.
 –  Similarly,
when
aquaXc
organisms
respire,
CO2
is
released
and
combine
 with
water
to
form
HCO3.
HCO3
(water)
=
CO2
(air)
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 40

  40. 40. Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 41
 The
global
carbon
cycle
includes
the
earth's
atmosphere,
 oceans,
vegeta+on,
soils
and
fossil
fuels

  41. 41. •  Increased
u;liza;on
and
burning
of
fossil
fuel
 (oil,
gas,
coal)
to
run
automobiles,
industry,
 and
machineries
 •  Massive
deforesta;on
 •  Waste
incinera;on,
etc
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 42
 CO2

  42. 42. •  Type:
Gaseous
Cycle
 •  Major
reservoir
–
ATMOSPHERE
 •  Importance
–
Essen;al
for
many
biological
 processes,
cons;tutes
part
of
proteins
(amino
 acids),
in
bases
of
nucleic
acids
that
make
up
 DNA
and
RNA
 •  79%
of
atmosphere
is
made
up
of
nitrogen
(N2)
 but
this
is
INERT
 •  It
must
be
fixed
for
organisms
to
u;lize
it
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 43

  43. 43. •  USE
OF
NITROGEN
FERTILIZERS
 –  Human
use
of
nitrogen
fer;lizers
causes
runoff,
leading
to
eutrophica;on
in
 aqua;c
systems
(e.g.
eutrophica;on)
 •  NITRATES
LEACHING
INTO
GROUNDWATER
 –  Nitrogen
level
in
drinking
water
rises
 –  A
large
rise
of
nitrogen
in
drinking
water
supplies
leads
to
 Methemoglobinemia
/
Blue‐Baby
Syndrome
 •  NITROGEN
OXIDES
RELEASED
THROUGH
COMBUSTION
 –  Burning
of
fossil
fuel
+
automobiles
:
source
of
nitrogen
dioxide
 –  Ozone
+
PAN

Photochemical
Smog
 •  LIVESTOCK
RELEASE
OF
LARGE
AMOUNTS
OF
AMMONIA
(FROM
WASTES)
 –  The
ammonia
released
from
wastes
of
livestock
can
have
detrimental
effects
 on
fish
and
other
organisms
 –  There
is
reduc;on
in
diversity
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 44

  44. 44. •  Type:
Purely
Sedimental
 •  Major
reservoir
–
Earth’s
crust
 •  Gradual
cycle
‐
It
has
no
gaseous
phase
 –  Phosphorous
normally
occurs
in
nature
as
part
of
phosphate
ion.


 –  Most
phosphates
found
as
salts
in
ocean
sediments
or
in
rocks.
 –  Over
;me
:
geologic
processes
can
bring
sediments
from
ocean
to
 land,
and
weathering
can
bring
it
from
land
to
ocean
 •  Importance

 –  Phosphorous
cons;tuent
of
nucleic
acids
in
DNA,
and
energy
 currency
of
cell
ATP.
 –  Phosphorous
‐also
found
in
bones,
in
phospholipids
which
are
found
 in
biological
membranes.
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 45

  45. 45. • Humans
mine
phosphate
ores
for
use
in
 fer;lizer
produc;on
and
detergents
 • Human
ac;ons
could
lead
to
 eutrophica+on
of
aqua+c
systems
which
 cause
algal
blooms
 • Algal
blooms
cause
fish
kills
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 46

  46. 46. •  Type:
Sedimentary
cycle
with
atmospheric
 component
 •  Major
reservoir
–
inorganic
sulfur
in
rocks
and
fossil
 fuel
 •  Biological
Importance
 – Sulfur
is
an
important
element
in
protoplasm
 which
is
an
important
component
of
some
amino
 acids.
 – Sulfur
is
part
of
proteins,
vitamins
and
hormones
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 47

  47. 47. •  Humans
produce
sulfur
dioxide
from
industry
 and
internal
combus;on
energy
 •  Sulfur
dioxide
can
precipitate
onto
surfaces
 where
it
can
be
oxidized
to
sulfate
in
the
soil
 which
is
toxic
to
some
plants
 •  Sulfur
dioxide
can
be
oxidized
to
sulfate
in
 atmosphere
as
sulfuric
acid
which
is
a
main
 cons;tuent
of
acid
rain
 – Acid
rain
can
affect
chemical
balance
of
lakes.
 – It
accelerates
weathering
in
carbonate
rocks.
 Department
of
BIOLOGY,
CAS‐UP
Manila
 48


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