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Educational Planning and
Management
(EDUC 208)
By: Lea D. Camacho
Identification of
Programs and
Projects
 WHY IS IT NECESSARY TO ELABORATE AN EDUCATION PLAN?
 PLAN ELABORATION
 FIRST: Programming
 SECOND: Project Identification
 Regionalization:
 Hierarchy of activities
 Steps in Programming and Project Identification
Step I: Identify sub-objectives
Step II: Relate targets and provisions to sub-objectives
Step III: Determine administrative unit
Step IV: Regionalize Programmes
Step V: Analyse packages of action and identify projects:
 Classification of Projects
 Stages of a Project
Table of Contents
WHY IS IT NECESSARY TO
ELABORATE AN EDUCATION
PLAN?
1.Whether an Education Plan forms only a section
of a national development plan or is an
independent document, it remains a brief and
succinct presentation of objectives, policies,
targets and financial outlay.
2. For implementation many more details are
necessary. Each action unit which has to be put
into operation must be clear.
3. The purpose of educational planning is to
ensure the systematic accomplishment of a series
of activities leading toward the achievement of set
objectives of educational development.
Ultimately, the plan has to be cut up into
packages of action with sufficient
information on each as regards:
What are the
activities to
be
undertaken?
01 02 03
05
04
Who will
undertake
them?
What
resources will
they consume?
What targets will
they accomplish?
How will the success of
these activities be evaluated?
Plan
Elaboration
Plan Elaboration
The process of plan
elaboration includes two steps:
FIRST: Programming
SECOND: Project Identification
Projects are described as the
“cutting edge of development” or
as “building blocks of
development.”
The function of plan elaboration
was referred to above as that of
cutting up the plan into "packages
of action".
"Packages of action" is a loose
term but it conveys what the
educational planner has to
undertake.
The Department of Education,
(DepEd) elaborates on the
government process of breaking
FIRST: Programming
Programme is
the larger
package of
action and each
programme
consists of
several
projects.
A Programme
is a
combination of
activities of
related areas. It
is defined as a
set of projects
which
collectively aim
at achieving
one or more
related
objectives of a
plan.
The projects are
linked together in
that they are so
complementary that
if one is to be carried
out then all should
be. Further, they are
all intended to be
carried out during a
certain period by the
same administrative
unit.
The task of
dividing up the
plan into broad
action areas
each of which
aims at
accomplishing
specific
objective(s).
In the education plan of Country X, the development of
science education is an objective. This has to be achieved by
increasing intake to science classes, building and equipping
laboratories, revising and modernizing science curricula, producing
textbooks and other teaching materials, providing pre-service and in-
service training of teachers and establishing a machinery for
evaluation of science education.
Each of these packages of action, either as they are or in a
modified form, is a project, and the package which incorporates all
these inter-related projects, is a Programme.
In the elaboration of this plan, therefore, a Programme for
development of science education is clearly indicated. In actual
practice, a particular branch, unit, department or institute of the
Education Ministry will handle its operation.
Illustration:
SECOND: Project Identification
A project is any unit
of expenditure
which is
administered or
accounted for as an
identifiable group of
activities.
A project is defined as
any unit of expenditure
which is administered or
accounted for as an
identifiable group of
activities. A project
achieves one or more
targets, which collectively
lead to the
accomplishment of a sub-
objective of the
programme.
In the example given in Illustration #1, a number of
packages of action were seen as constituting the programme. These
packages of action may now be put together in a form that units of
expenditure which can be administered or accounted for together are
identified. The result of this exercise may be the identification of two
groups of activities such as the following:
1. Curriculum development; design and production of text-books and
teaching materials; pre-service and in-service training of teachers;
and evaluation - to be administered by the Curriculum Development
Centre.
2. Design and construction of laboratories, design and production of
equipment and distribution of equipment - to be administered by the
Educational Buildings and Facilities Branch.
Example:
The process of distributing the
provisions made in a plan, a
programme or a project to States,
Provinces, Regions, Districts,
Municipalities, Towns, Villages or
Institutions.
Regionalization is optional. All
programmes or projects need not
or cannot be regionalized.
Regionalization
:
Hierarchy of Activities
The plan, programmes,
regional programmes, projects
and regional projects
constitute a hierarchy of
activities which can be
graphically represented in the
following manner
Hierarchy of Activities
The authority that undertakes programming
and project identification must fulfil two
important conditions:
(a) He must have a thorough grasp of the
objectives, the targets and the provisions of
the education plan.
(b) He should also have an equally
thorough understanding of the
administrative organization available for
plan implementation. He should, in
particular, know (i) source of policies,
(ii) power structure of the organization,
(iii) lines of authority,
(iv) operational harries, and
(v) personnel limitations and other
constraints.
The first task which he has to perform is to spell out the objectives of the plan in
operational terms. Usually, plans are based on objectives which are couched in very general
terms. But to implement them, they have to be elaborated. In the process, a series of sub-
objectives is developed.
If the educational plan has been correctly formulated, the plan itself would have
given adequate clues to this type of operational sub-objectives. But if the plan is sketchy and
hastily formulated, this task falls on the authority which handles programming and project
identification.
Step I: Identify sub-
objectives:
Steps in Programming and Project
Identification
The next task is to relate the targets and provisions of the plan with the
operational sub-objectives.
NOTE: Where an important sub-objective cannot be developed into a programme or a project
due to the absence of targets or provisions in a plan, this fact has to be noted for remedial action
when the revision of the plan is undertaken.
Step II: Relate targets and provisions to sub-
objectives:
Steps in Programming and Project
Identification
The third task is to find out the administrative unit which exists in the
country to undertake the overall supervision and guidance of the activities required
achieving each of the sub-objectives for which targets and provisions are found in the
plan. In this analysis it may be found that more than one sub-objective falls within the
purview of one such administrative unit. In theory, all such activities, which lead to
one sub-objective or a number of related sub-objectives, constitute a Programme if
they fall within the purview of one administrative unit. But this is not a hard and fast
rule. There is nothing to prevent one administrative unit handling a number of parallel
programmes.
NOTE: It is also possible that none of the existing administrative units are able to
handle some of the activities connected with some sub-objectives. In this case,
remedial action in the form of establishing the requisite administrative organization
Step III: Determine administrative unit:
Steps in Programming and Project
Identification
Once the programming is completed, one has to ascertain whether any of
the programmes has to be further elaborated into regional/local/ institutional
programmes. It is after this exercise that one proceeds to identify projects.
Step IV: Regionalize Programmes:
Steps in Programming and Project
Identification
Step V: Analyse packages of action and identify projects:
Project identification is best handled by making a complete list of all the
packages of action which are to be accomplished to achieve the sub-objective(s) of
each Programme.
Note: A specific target or a set of related targets of the plan will invariably coincide with a
project.
The same administrator or administrative unit may handle several projects
Status
Classification of Projects
A project is either new
or already, existing or
on-going.
Organization
A project is managed by
either an existing
organization or a new one.
Sector
A project belongs to an elementary,
vocational, agricultural, general
secondary or college/university level:
or the public or private sector.
Origin
A project may be initiated by
the school, division, regional
or national level.
Projects may be classified as to their:
Each project stage is characterised by a distinct set of
activities that take the project from its first idea to its
conclusion. Each stage is of equal importance and
contributes to the overall success of the project.
The stages of a project within the strategic planning
discipline provide a step-by-step approach to generating and
implementing an effective strategy, for either a corporation or
strategic business unit (SBU). Implementing a framework for
generating a project planning cycle, complete with strategic
objectives, implementation methods, and assessment, is a
primary responsibility of strategic managers.
Stages
of a
Project
Stages of a Project
1. Definition
Before a project starts the project manager must make sure the project goals, objectives,
scope, risks, issues, budget, timescale and approach have been defined. This must be
communicated to all the stakeholders to get their agreement. Any differences of opinion need
to be resolved before work starts.
2. Initiation
This is perhaps the most important stage of any project as it sets the terms of reference within
which the project will be run. If this is not done well, the project will have a high likelihood of
failure. The initiation stage is where the business case is declared, scope of the project
decided and stakeholder expectations set. Time spent on planning, refining the business case
and communicating the expected benefits will help increase the likelihood of success. It is
tempting to start working quickly, but a poor initiation stage often leads to problems and even
failure.
Stages of a Project
3. Planning
The key to a successful project is in the planning. Creating a project plan is the first task you
should do when undertaking any project. Often project planning is ignored in favour of getting
on with the work. However, many people fail to realise the value of a project plan in saving
time, money and many other problems.
4. Execution
Doing the work to deliver the product, service or wanted result. Most of the work related to the
project is realised at this stage and needs complete attention from the project manager.
5. Monitoring and Controlling
Once the project is running it is important the project manager keeps control. This is achieved
by regular reporting of issues, risks, progress and the constant checking of the business case
to ensure that expected benefits will be delivered and are still valid. A project that is not
controlled is out of control.
Stages of a Project
6. Closure
Often neglected, it is important to ensure a project is closed properly. Many projects never
end because there is no formal sign-off. It is important to get the customers agreement that a
project has ended and no more work will be carried out. Once closed, the project manager
should review the project and record the good and bad points, so successes can be repeated
and failures avoided. A project that is not closed will continue to consume resources.
This step-by-step process highlights each feasible step in the project management cycle. By
appropriately incorporating each step of the model into the planning stage, managers can
effectively forecast the deliverables and avoid losing value through accurately assessing the
margins that will be produced in a given strategic initiative. This allows for informed and
knowledgeable decisions to be made at each relevant point in the operation.
Thank you!
eferences:
ification of Programs and Projects
://www.academia.edu
PT: Slidesgo.com

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Educ 208 Identification of Programs and Projects

  • 1. Educational Planning and Management (EDUC 208) By: Lea D. Camacho Identification of Programs and Projects
  • 2.  WHY IS IT NECESSARY TO ELABORATE AN EDUCATION PLAN?  PLAN ELABORATION  FIRST: Programming  SECOND: Project Identification  Regionalization:  Hierarchy of activities  Steps in Programming and Project Identification Step I: Identify sub-objectives Step II: Relate targets and provisions to sub-objectives Step III: Determine administrative unit Step IV: Regionalize Programmes Step V: Analyse packages of action and identify projects:  Classification of Projects  Stages of a Project Table of Contents
  • 3. WHY IS IT NECESSARY TO ELABORATE AN EDUCATION PLAN? 1.Whether an Education Plan forms only a section of a national development plan or is an independent document, it remains a brief and succinct presentation of objectives, policies, targets and financial outlay. 2. For implementation many more details are necessary. Each action unit which has to be put into operation must be clear. 3. The purpose of educational planning is to ensure the systematic accomplishment of a series of activities leading toward the achievement of set objectives of educational development.
  • 4. Ultimately, the plan has to be cut up into packages of action with sufficient information on each as regards: What are the activities to be undertaken? 01 02 03 05 04 Who will undertake them? What resources will they consume? What targets will they accomplish? How will the success of these activities be evaluated?
  • 6. Plan Elaboration The process of plan elaboration includes two steps: FIRST: Programming SECOND: Project Identification Projects are described as the “cutting edge of development” or as “building blocks of development.” The function of plan elaboration was referred to above as that of cutting up the plan into "packages of action". "Packages of action" is a loose term but it conveys what the educational planner has to undertake. The Department of Education, (DepEd) elaborates on the government process of breaking
  • 7. FIRST: Programming Programme is the larger package of action and each programme consists of several projects. A Programme is a combination of activities of related areas. It is defined as a set of projects which collectively aim at achieving one or more related objectives of a plan. The projects are linked together in that they are so complementary that if one is to be carried out then all should be. Further, they are all intended to be carried out during a certain period by the same administrative unit. The task of dividing up the plan into broad action areas each of which aims at accomplishing specific objective(s).
  • 8. In the education plan of Country X, the development of science education is an objective. This has to be achieved by increasing intake to science classes, building and equipping laboratories, revising and modernizing science curricula, producing textbooks and other teaching materials, providing pre-service and in- service training of teachers and establishing a machinery for evaluation of science education. Each of these packages of action, either as they are or in a modified form, is a project, and the package which incorporates all these inter-related projects, is a Programme. In the elaboration of this plan, therefore, a Programme for development of science education is clearly indicated. In actual practice, a particular branch, unit, department or institute of the Education Ministry will handle its operation. Illustration:
  • 9. SECOND: Project Identification A project is any unit of expenditure which is administered or accounted for as an identifiable group of activities. A project is defined as any unit of expenditure which is administered or accounted for as an identifiable group of activities. A project achieves one or more targets, which collectively lead to the accomplishment of a sub- objective of the programme.
  • 10. In the example given in Illustration #1, a number of packages of action were seen as constituting the programme. These packages of action may now be put together in a form that units of expenditure which can be administered or accounted for together are identified. The result of this exercise may be the identification of two groups of activities such as the following: 1. Curriculum development; design and production of text-books and teaching materials; pre-service and in-service training of teachers; and evaluation - to be administered by the Curriculum Development Centre. 2. Design and construction of laboratories, design and production of equipment and distribution of equipment - to be administered by the Educational Buildings and Facilities Branch. Example:
  • 11. The process of distributing the provisions made in a plan, a programme or a project to States, Provinces, Regions, Districts, Municipalities, Towns, Villages or Institutions. Regionalization is optional. All programmes or projects need not or cannot be regionalized. Regionalization :
  • 12. Hierarchy of Activities The plan, programmes, regional programmes, projects and regional projects constitute a hierarchy of activities which can be graphically represented in the following manner
  • 13. Hierarchy of Activities The authority that undertakes programming and project identification must fulfil two important conditions: (a) He must have a thorough grasp of the objectives, the targets and the provisions of the education plan. (b) He should also have an equally thorough understanding of the administrative organization available for plan implementation. He should, in particular, know (i) source of policies, (ii) power structure of the organization, (iii) lines of authority, (iv) operational harries, and (v) personnel limitations and other constraints.
  • 14. The first task which he has to perform is to spell out the objectives of the plan in operational terms. Usually, plans are based on objectives which are couched in very general terms. But to implement them, they have to be elaborated. In the process, a series of sub- objectives is developed. If the educational plan has been correctly formulated, the plan itself would have given adequate clues to this type of operational sub-objectives. But if the plan is sketchy and hastily formulated, this task falls on the authority which handles programming and project identification. Step I: Identify sub- objectives: Steps in Programming and Project Identification
  • 15. The next task is to relate the targets and provisions of the plan with the operational sub-objectives. NOTE: Where an important sub-objective cannot be developed into a programme or a project due to the absence of targets or provisions in a plan, this fact has to be noted for remedial action when the revision of the plan is undertaken. Step II: Relate targets and provisions to sub- objectives: Steps in Programming and Project Identification
  • 16. The third task is to find out the administrative unit which exists in the country to undertake the overall supervision and guidance of the activities required achieving each of the sub-objectives for which targets and provisions are found in the plan. In this analysis it may be found that more than one sub-objective falls within the purview of one such administrative unit. In theory, all such activities, which lead to one sub-objective or a number of related sub-objectives, constitute a Programme if they fall within the purview of one administrative unit. But this is not a hard and fast rule. There is nothing to prevent one administrative unit handling a number of parallel programmes. NOTE: It is also possible that none of the existing administrative units are able to handle some of the activities connected with some sub-objectives. In this case, remedial action in the form of establishing the requisite administrative organization Step III: Determine administrative unit: Steps in Programming and Project Identification
  • 17. Once the programming is completed, one has to ascertain whether any of the programmes has to be further elaborated into regional/local/ institutional programmes. It is after this exercise that one proceeds to identify projects. Step IV: Regionalize Programmes: Steps in Programming and Project Identification Step V: Analyse packages of action and identify projects: Project identification is best handled by making a complete list of all the packages of action which are to be accomplished to achieve the sub-objective(s) of each Programme. Note: A specific target or a set of related targets of the plan will invariably coincide with a project. The same administrator or administrative unit may handle several projects
  • 18. Status Classification of Projects A project is either new or already, existing or on-going. Organization A project is managed by either an existing organization or a new one. Sector A project belongs to an elementary, vocational, agricultural, general secondary or college/university level: or the public or private sector. Origin A project may be initiated by the school, division, regional or national level. Projects may be classified as to their:
  • 19. Each project stage is characterised by a distinct set of activities that take the project from its first idea to its conclusion. Each stage is of equal importance and contributes to the overall success of the project. The stages of a project within the strategic planning discipline provide a step-by-step approach to generating and implementing an effective strategy, for either a corporation or strategic business unit (SBU). Implementing a framework for generating a project planning cycle, complete with strategic objectives, implementation methods, and assessment, is a primary responsibility of strategic managers.
  • 21. Stages of a Project 1. Definition Before a project starts the project manager must make sure the project goals, objectives, scope, risks, issues, budget, timescale and approach have been defined. This must be communicated to all the stakeholders to get their agreement. Any differences of opinion need to be resolved before work starts. 2. Initiation This is perhaps the most important stage of any project as it sets the terms of reference within which the project will be run. If this is not done well, the project will have a high likelihood of failure. The initiation stage is where the business case is declared, scope of the project decided and stakeholder expectations set. Time spent on planning, refining the business case and communicating the expected benefits will help increase the likelihood of success. It is tempting to start working quickly, but a poor initiation stage often leads to problems and even failure.
  • 22. Stages of a Project 3. Planning The key to a successful project is in the planning. Creating a project plan is the first task you should do when undertaking any project. Often project planning is ignored in favour of getting on with the work. However, many people fail to realise the value of a project plan in saving time, money and many other problems. 4. Execution Doing the work to deliver the product, service or wanted result. Most of the work related to the project is realised at this stage and needs complete attention from the project manager. 5. Monitoring and Controlling Once the project is running it is important the project manager keeps control. This is achieved by regular reporting of issues, risks, progress and the constant checking of the business case to ensure that expected benefits will be delivered and are still valid. A project that is not controlled is out of control.
  • 23. Stages of a Project 6. Closure Often neglected, it is important to ensure a project is closed properly. Many projects never end because there is no formal sign-off. It is important to get the customers agreement that a project has ended and no more work will be carried out. Once closed, the project manager should review the project and record the good and bad points, so successes can be repeated and failures avoided. A project that is not closed will continue to consume resources. This step-by-step process highlights each feasible step in the project management cycle. By appropriately incorporating each step of the model into the planning stage, managers can effectively forecast the deliverables and avoid losing value through accurately assessing the margins that will be produced in a given strategic initiative. This allows for informed and knowledgeable decisions to be made at each relevant point in the operation.
  • 24. Thank you! eferences: ification of Programs and Projects ://www.academia.edu PT: Slidesgo.com