PEOPLE – EMPOWERED
MS. NEDEL JOYCE CHRISTINE C.
DEFINITION OF TERMS:
Empowerment – It is essentially a
capacity to define clearly one’s interests,
and to develop a strategy to achieve
those interests. It’s the ability to create a
plan or program to change one’s reality
in order to obtain those objectives or
• Community Participation - It is a form of
planning that takes a comprehensive approach
to meeting community needs–an approach that
recognizes the interrelationship of economic,
physical and social development.
• Community - a group of people with diverse
characteristics who are linked by social ties,
share common perspectives, and engage in
joint action in geographical locations or
•Planning - It is a complex form of symbolic
action that consists of consciously
preconceiving a sequence of actions that
will be sufficient for achieving a goal. It is
set apart from undeliberated action, which
is not preconceived.
•Participatory Planning – It means the
distribution of decision – making power in
such a way that all those affected by
decisions should have a share in making
• Proper briefing of planned activities and events with
the local leaders first, before doing anything concrete,
and generating the environment and feeling that they
too are involved in planning of things, not just
accepting them and being used as institutional fronts.
• Conducting orientation sessions with local leaders and
local residents, especially mothers of children, using
not only government experts but credible local
leaders as briefing agents after proper training.
• Promoting the concept of working together because
whatever results are obtained accrue to benefit of the
community and their children.
•Forming a planning committee.
•Preparing a very simple, 2 to 3 page manual of
instructions, using the local language or dialect
if possible with illustrations and flow charts, on
how to make a simple budget, how to involve
people especially mothers of students and
•Preparing a weekly or monthly status sheet for
each committee member on their activities,
achievements, problems and how to solve them
•Formulating a simple format of a
school or community education plan
•Preparing a management
implementation scheme to ensure that
the proposed plan can be executed.
•Make a simple scheme to monitor and
evaluate of the plan.
THE PEOPLE WHO SHOULD BE REPRESENTED IN
SOME ASPECTS OF PLANNING:
• Students – the clients served by school.
• Teachers – the major element of the professional staff
• School Administrators – principals, superintendent
• Decision – makers – chiefs, directors, ministers
• National Board of Education and other policy –
• Para – professionals and Personnel of other agencies.
• Technical or economic
efficiency is not all in
• The gains in relevance and
quality, the additional
resources mobilized for
education, the enhanced
employability of students; all
these benefits likely to accrue
from participatory planning
would more than affect the
• Distracts educational
institutions from their
• Costly because more
people will have to devote
more of their time.
• Uneconomical because the
competence and special
professional planners are
• Provides an “institutionalized
mechanism” for conflict
settlement, an outlet for
conflicts and controversies.
• Conflict is present everywhere: it
brings out into the open and
attempts to deal with it in a
• Through consultation, conflict
and polarization may be
avoided by reserving final
decision in the hands of
• Involves many people with
divergent points of view,
conflicting values and rival
interests; thus, educational
decision – making will be
•Leads education out
of its present
emphasis through a
variety of innovative
upon on different
ideologies true to
one setting or
ideas and first – hand
experience of local
people, rather than
an academic exercise.
• Involves many people
who are not formally
• Planners’ expertise will
be subjected to majority
rule and unsatisfact6ory
AUTHORITY AND CONTROL
• Holds control over the planning
process by means of the broad
and general acts of directives
laid down by authorities.
• Does not aim at control over
other people’s behaviour,
instead it enhances the control
over a common activity, the
degree to which all parties
concerned achieve their
common objective which is
making the educational process
•Represents a loss
of teachers’ own
• Beneficiary groups are given the opportunity to
contribute information or advise to the planning
design, implementation and management processes
of the project.
Small irrigation in the Philippines and
Grameen Bank in Bangladesh
• Beneficiary groups share, either physically such as
through labor and/ or financially, in project
implementation, operation and maintenance.
Community forestry projects and smallholder
tree-crop estate projects.
•Beneficiary groups take accountability for
implementation, operation and maintenance of
Cooperatives and supervised credit