By Sophie Scott
Music Video Specific
Andrew Goodwin has a theory of 6 main points of features in a music video: Lyrics and
Visuals, Music and Visuals, Genre Characteristics, Intertextual reference, Voyeurism,
Demands of the Record Label.
Theory/Approach: Goodwin’s Theory
Who came up with it?: Andrew Goodwin
When and how?: In 1992, Goodwin published a book called Dancing In The Distraction Factory
that explained his 6 features that can be found in music videos.
Andrew also stated that there were three different ways that music videos can connect back to
the song itself:
• Illustration-music videos set certain images to illustrate the meaning of their songs through
• Amplification-meaning and effects are manipulated and constantly reinforced throughout
• Disjuncture- intentionally ignores the content of the song and genre of the music and tries to
create a whole new set of meanings.
Quote: ‘Music videos are simply an extension if the lyrics’
‘A music video is advertising, visual art, new forms of
Applying it to my work-Music Video
• Lyrics and visuals where my artist sings you’re the number one topic on the phone, my
actors are on the phone talking to each other.
• Lyrics and visuals where the beat of the song was cut so that different visuals was shown
• Genre characteristics where there is a Rnb love storyline
• Intertextual reference where everyone can relate or have seen the storyline progress or
• Demands of the Record Label
Theory/Approach: Culture Industry
Who came up with it?: Theodor Adorno
When and how?: "The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception", of the book Dialectic of
The way in which cultural items were produced was analogous to how other industries
manufactured vast quantities of customer goods. In other words the way cars for example are
manufactured and advertised, the same way artists are advertised for the public.
Cultural production has become a routine, standardised repetitive operation the produced
undemanding cultural commodities, which in turn resulted in a type of consumption. In other words
things are introduced then go through a routine to make it sellable to the public.
He goes on to say that artists do not have the creative freedom to sing, look, advertise and talk about
what they wish and have to be under the people who get the most money resulting in control and
making a sale.
Standardisation- Adorno discovered that songs that become successful were referred to as ‘standards’
which is used for a category hat drew attention to the character. Songs in a repetitive sequence are
imprinted in your mind so you buy the song on iTunes for example.
Pseudo Individuality- an item (artist) is mass produced for millions, who's uniqueness lies in
Apply to my wok- Title sequence/Music video
• Pick and mix what conventions of a Rnb artists I want
• Control what my actors and artist is wearing
• Sound is repetitive making the audience have it in their head.
''People know what they want
because they know what other
people want" Adorno
Theory/Approach: Producing Pop
Who came up with it?: Keith Negus
When and how?:
Organic ideology of creativity-The seeds of success are within
the artist who have to be nurtured by the record company, this
means that the image of the artist is enhanced by the record
company. Advertisement is aimed at older sophisticated
consumers. For example. Ed sheeran, Eliza Doolittle, Ben
Synthetic ideology of creativity-the image of
Artists is often constructed by the record company.
The artist is given time to adjust and prove they
are committed. Aimed at younger less sophisticated
consumers. Artists tend to be short term to the
record company. For example, One Direction,
Miley Cyrus, Britney Spears
Ways of thinking about potential artist from within the music industry. Ideologies shape the way in
which the artists images and careers target audiences.
''What I'm looking for is the working act. The real act. The
act that can get up on stage and do it. That act will give you
a career. I signed Black Sabbath umpteen years ago;they
are still making records. These are the acts that are career
acts. I man those records are one-off situations and every
now and again maybe you'll get an artist come out of it" a
Record company executive, quoted in Negus (1989)
The succes of synthetic acts depend
on the development and
investment of organic acts.