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  1. 1. Media Theory/ Critical Approaches By Sophie Scott Music Video Specific
  2. 2. Andrew Goodwin has a theory of 6 main points of features in a music video: Lyrics and Visuals, Music and Visuals, Genre Characteristics, Intertextual reference, Voyeurism, Demands of the Record Label. Theory/Approach: Goodwin’s Theory Who came up with it?: Andrew Goodwin When and how?: In 1992, Goodwin published a book called Dancing In The Distraction Factory that explained his 6 features that can be found in music videos. Andrew also stated that there were three different ways that music videos can connect back to the song itself: • Illustration-music videos set certain images to illustrate the meaning of their songs through lyrics. • Amplification-meaning and effects are manipulated and constantly reinforced throughout • Disjuncture- intentionally ignores the content of the song and genre of the music and tries to create a whole new set of meanings. Quote: ‘Music videos are simply an extension if the lyrics’ ‘A music video is advertising, visual art, new forms of television, propaganda’ Applying it to my work-Music Video • Lyrics and visuals where my artist sings you’re the number one topic on the phone, my actors are on the phone talking to each other. • Lyrics and visuals where the beat of the song was cut so that different visuals was shown • Genre characteristics where there is a Rnb love storyline • Intertextual reference where everyone can relate or have seen the storyline progress or happen • Voyeurism • Demands of the Record Label
  3. 3. Theory/Approach: Culture Industry Who came up with it?: Theodor Adorno When and how?: "The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception", of the book Dialectic of Enlightenment (1944), The way in which cultural items were produced was analogous to how other industries manufactured vast quantities of customer goods. In other words the way cars for example are manufactured and advertised, the same way artists are advertised for the public. Cultural production has become a routine, standardised repetitive operation the produced undemanding cultural commodities, which in turn resulted in a type of consumption. In other words things are introduced then go through a routine to make it sellable to the public. He goes on to say that artists do not have the creative freedom to sing, look, advertise and talk about what they wish and have to be under the people who get the most money resulting in control and making a sale. Standardisation- Adorno discovered that songs that become successful were referred to as ‘standards’ which is used for a category hat drew attention to the character. Songs in a repetitive sequence are imprinted in your mind so you buy the song on iTunes for example. Pseudo Individuality- an item (artist) is mass produced for millions, who's uniqueness lies in modifications. Apply to my wok- Title sequence/Music video • Pick and mix what conventions of a Rnb artists I want • Control what my actors and artist is wearing • Sound is repetitive making the audience have it in their head. ''People know what they want because they know what other people want" Adorno
  4. 4. Theory/Approach: Producing Pop Who came up with it?: Keith Negus When and how?: Organic ideology of creativity-The seeds of success are within the artist who have to be nurtured by the record company, this means that the image of the artist is enhanced by the record company. Advertisement is aimed at older sophisticated consumers. For example. Ed sheeran, Eliza Doolittle, Ben Howard Synthetic ideology of creativity-the image of Artists is often constructed by the record company. The artist is given time to adjust and prove they are committed. Aimed at younger less sophisticated consumers. Artists tend to be short term to the record company. For example, One Direction, Miley Cyrus, Britney Spears Ways of thinking about potential artist from within the music industry. Ideologies shape the way in which the artists images and careers target audiences. ''What I'm looking for is the working act. The real act. The act that can get up on stage and do it. That act will give you a career. I signed Black Sabbath umpteen years ago;they are still making records. These are the acts that are career acts. I man those records are one-off situations and every now and again maybe you'll get an artist come out of it" a Record company executive, quoted in Negus (1989) The succes of synthetic acts depend on the development and investment of organic acts.