Power Point presentation for caregivers of youth who are aging out of the system.
Serving Emerging Adults
Version 2.0, 11/28/12
Overview of Training
What we know about Transitional Aged Youth
ABCs of AB 12
Extended Foster Care
Positive Youth Development
Mark Courtney’s Research
Collaboration and Working Together
Question and Answer
Gain understanding of working with youth
and young adults in the context of
extended foster care
Gain knowledge about the AB12
Gain knowledge of adolescent
development, brain development and the
tasks of emerging adults
exited foster care
in FY 2008 (U.S.
million youth drop out
of high school each
year, more than half
of whom come from
(Editorial Projects in
any single day,
53,000-103,000 of the
homeless population are
between 18 and 24. (Burt,
Aaron, & Lee, 2001).
One in five youth who age
out of foster care will
Three in ten homeless
adults have had
experience in the foster
care system (Gardner,
The Foster Care Independence Act of
1999, helps foster youth who are aging
out of care to achieve self-sufficiency.
Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing A
is the most recent piece of major federal
legislation addressing the foster care system.
This bill extended various benefits and funding
for foster children between the age of 18 and
21 and for Indian children in tribal areas.
California passed AB12 October of 2010; it
went into effect on January 1, 2012
ABCs of AB12:
Extended Foster Care
Signed in to law September 30, 2010
Begins January 1, 2012
Extends foster care
to age 19 in 2012
and then age 20 in 2013
and then hopefully to age 21 in 2014
Why extend foster care?
18 is too young for some
emerging adults to be selfsufficient.
Extending foster care gives youth
who want it some additional
How will extended foster care
More time to find a permanent
connection to an adult figure
More time to prepare them for
More time to help with school,
work and a stable place to live
What does the young
person need to do?
Decide whether or not they want
to stay in foster care
If they leave foster care, they
may decide to come back into
foster care (we will talk later
about who is able to)
If they decide to stay, they
Sign a mutual agreement
Work with the social worker or
probation officer to meet the
goals of their case plan and the
Transitional Independent Living
Case Plan (TILP)
Be doing one or more of the
Be in high school or a similar
Attend college, community college or
a vocational education program
Work at least 80 hours a month
Participate in a program to remove
barriers to employment
Be unable to do one of the above
because of a medical condition
Where can they live?
With a relative or non-related
extended family member, foster
family home, or home of their legal
Group home placement (until age 19)
THP – Plus Foster Care
THPP (if they are in THPP at age 18,
they can stay until age 19)
Supervised Independent Living Setting
Room and board arrangements
Will they still go to Court?
They will be assigned an attorney and will
go to court or have an administrative
review every 6 months
They can attend court by phone if they are
The social worker/probation officer will
write a report about the young person’s
progress toward their goals
Ineligible Youth include…
Youth who aged out of foster care in 2011*
Youth in a non-related legal guardianship
through the probate court
Youth in the military
* Exceptions exist for youth who turned 18 in 2011 but remained
in foster care on January 1, 2012
How will the young person
meet their goals?
They will create a Transitional Independent Living
Plan (TILP) with their social worker or probation
They may participate in developing a ‘shared
responsibility’ plan with caregiver, depending on
They will talk about how they can meet their
ILSP/ILP will help with classes and workshops!
Why wouldn’t a foster youth
want to stay in care?
They might not want:
to be a dependant or ward of the court
to stay in a foster placement that has to
be approved by the social worker or
to have a social worker or probation
officer or anyone else in their business!!
Why would they want to stay in
Youth ages 18-21 need, deserve and are
entitled to the extra support that extended
foster care can provide
Everybody needs a safety net!
Understanding the Adolescent
Rapid gains in height and
Development of secondary sex
Continued brain development.
How this affects them…
Teens frequently sleep longer
Teens may be more clumsy because of growth
Teenage girls may become overly sensitive
about their weight.
Teens may be concerned because they are
not physically developing at the same rate as
Teens may feel awkward about demonstrating
affection to the opposite sex parent.
Advanced reasoning skills.
Developing abstract thinking skills.
Developing the ability to think about
thinking in a process known as "metacognition." Meta-cognition allows
individuals to think about how they feel
and what they are thinking.
How this affects them…
Teens demonstrate a heightened level of selfconsciousness.
Teens tend to believe that no one else has
ever experienced similar feelings and
Teens tend to exhibit the "it can't happen to
me" syndrome also known as a "personal
Teens tend to exhibit a "justice" orientation.
Establishing an identity
Becoming comfortable with one's
How this affects them…
Teens may have more questions about sexuality.
Teens may begin to keep a journal.
When they are in their rooms, teens may begin to lock
their bedroom doors.
Teens may become involved in multiple hobbies or clubs.
Teens may become elusive about where they are going
or with whom.
Teens may become more argumentative.
Teens may not want to be seen with parents in public.
Teens may begin to interact with parents as people.
Recent research by scientists at the
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
has found that the teen brain is not a
finished product, but is a work in progress .
This may help to explain certain teenage
behavior that adults can find mystifying,
such as poor decision-making,
recklessness, and emotional outbursts.
Brain Regions and Functions
Frontal lobe—self-control, judgment, emotional
regulation; restructured in teen years
Corpus callosum—intelligence, consciousness
and self-awareness; reaches full maturity in 20’s
Parietal lobes—integrate auditory, visual, and
tactile signals; immature until age 16
Temporal lobes—emotional maturity; still
developing after age 16
Youth who “exercise”
their brains by
learning to order their
and control their
impulses are laying
the neural foundations
that will serve them for
the rest of their lives.
Adolescents are more likely
Act on impulse
Misread or misinterpret social cues and
Get into accidents of all kinds
Get involved in fights
Engage in dangerous or risky behavior
are less likely to:
Think before they act
Pause to consider the potential
consequences of their actions
Modify their dangerous or inappropriate
Brain Development as a
Result of a History of Chronic
They may have even more difficulty with
consequences, planning and organizing
They may have a compromised ability to
reflect on and understand their emotions and
experiences and/or the emotions and
experiences of others.
Brain Development as a Result of
a History of Chronic Trauma,
They may have even greater difficulty than
“typical” teens in delaying gratification.
They may have a heightened response to
stress, often overreacting, becoming
aggressive and/or defiant.
They may be behind in accomplishing
developmental tasks in some/all domains
(cognitive, physical, emotional, social).
Chronic Trauma History
Adolescents with a history of chronic trauma
compromised attachment history, making it
difficult for them to move into the typical
increased difficulty with decision-making,
planning, organizing time
Emerging adults …
What does the research say
about the process of becoming
“ Emerging Adulthood”
Coined in 1995 by psychologist
Jeffrey Jensen Arnett, PhD.
Outlines Five Features of
Five Features of Development
Age of identity exploration. Young
people are deciding who they are and
what they want out of work, school
Age of instability. Repeated residence
changes happen as young people
either go to college or live with friends
or a romantic partner.
Age of self-focus. Young people try to
decide what they want to do, where
they want to go and who they want to
Age of feeling in between. Emerging
adults say they are taking
responsibility for themselves, but still
do not completely feel like an adult.
Age of possibilities. Emerging adults
believe they have good chances of
living "better than their parents did."
Need right balance of the adolescent
pushing for independence and the society
giving the correct amount of support
Not pushing too hard or holding back too
Under W&IC section 11403(i): regulations
for “young adults who can exercise
incremental responsibility concurrently with
their growth and development” will be
During emerging adulthood, ethnic
minorities have to deal with the larger
culture and figure out their own identity in
the context of the larger society.
For children of immigrants, that can be
Foster Youth Transitioning
Extended foster care allows foster youth
age 18, who meet the federal participation
criteria, to remain in care as follows:
Beginning 1/1/12, up to age 19
Beginning 1/1/13, up to age 20
Beginning 1/1/14, up to age 21
Extended Foster Care
The conversation about EFC and its
benefits should begin with all foster youth
as they become eligible for ILSP/ILP
services and when they begin to work on
Youth are more likely to take advantage of
the program if they hear about it a lot, from
Four Principles of
process which prepares young people to
meet the challenges of adolescence and
adulthood through a coordinated, progressive
series of activities and experiences which help
them to become socially, morally, emotionally,
physically, and cognitively competent.
The process by
a formal, sustained
work together to
3. Cultural Competence
Culture is difference in race, ethnicity,
nationality, religion/spirituality, gender,
sexual orientation, socioeconomic status,
physical ability, language, beliefs, values,
behavior patterns, or customs among
various groups within a community,
organization, or nation.
Culturally competent individuals have a
mixture of beliefs and attitudes, knowledge,
and skills that help them establish trust and
communicate with others. (Advocates for
4. Permanent Connections
Positive relationships that are intended to last a
life-time. They may be either formal (e.g.
adoption or reunification with family) or informal
in nature (e.g., mentors or peer support
Youth who have strong
self-esteem and who
feel empowered are
often better equipped
to deal with the
barriers, as well as
the opportunities, that
arise during and after
Key Elements of the Youth
involved in activities that enhance their
competence, connections, character,
confidence and contribution to society;
provided an opportunity to experiment in a
safe environment and to develop positive
social values and norms; and
engaged in activities that promote selfunderstanding, self-worth, and a sense of
belonging and resiliency.
Key Elements of the Youth
are seen as a valued and respected asset
and programs focus on the evolving
developmental needs and tasks of adolescents,
and involve youth as partners rather than clients;
schools and communities are engaged
in developing environments that support youth;
What can you do?
Learn and use the youth development principles;
Have genuine respect for youth and adult-youth
Possess the skills to empower young people to
be involved in the decision-making process;
Have self-awareness and understanding of
program goals, strategies and outcomes; and
Possess the conviction and belief that youth are
capable and can contribute.
Extending Foster Care
Surveyed 732 youth who exited foster
care from Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin at
ages 18, 19, 21, and 24
Outcomes @ age 24
2.5 times more likely to get BA
61% pay differential for BA (nearly doubles
Sub-baccalaureate pay boost too (12-17% for
associate degree equaling $400k work-life
earnings; $300k for at least some college)
38% reduction in risk of becoming pregnant
Better personal and family health, etc…
Who are some of the community
partners that we will need to work
with to serve these emerging adults?
Group Discussion: Serving Emerging Adults