Caregivers
Serving Emerging Adults
Version 2.0, 11/28/12

1
Welcome
Overview of Training
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Learning Objectives
What we know about Transitional Aged Youth
Leg...
Learning Objectives
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Gain understanding of working with youth
and young adults in the context of
extended foster c...
Introductory Activity

4
What We
Know About
Transition
Age Youth…

5
An estimated
29,500 youth
exited foster care
in FY 2008 (U.S.
DHHS, 2009).

6
Education
Approximately 1.2
million youth drop out
of high school each
year, more than half
of whom come from
minority gro...
Homelessness…
 On

any single day,
53,000-103,000 of the
homeless population are
between 18 and 24. (Burt,
Aaron, & Lee, ...
Legislative Background


The Foster Care Independence Act of
1999, helps foster youth who are aging
out of care to achiev...
Legislative Background




The
Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing A
is the most recent piece of major feder...
From Adolescence to
Adulthood

11
ABCs of AB12:
Extended Foster Care
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Signed in to law September 30, 2010

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Begins January 1, 2012

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Extends foster ca...
Why extend foster care?
18 is too young for some
emerging adults to be selfsufficient.

Extending foster care gives youth
...
How will extended foster care
benefit youth
More time to find a permanent
connection to an adult figure
 More time to pre...
What does the young
person need to do?


Decide whether or not they want
to stay in foster care



If they leave foster ...
If they decide to stay, they
must:


Sign a mutual agreement



Work with the social worker or
probation officer to meet...
Be doing one or more of the
following:









Be in high school or a similar
program
Attend college, community coll...
Where can they live?






With a relative or non-related
extended family member, foster
family home, or home of their...
Or…


Supervised Independent Living Setting
Such as:
 An

apartment
 Room and board arrangements
 College dorms
 Shar...
Will they still go to Court?

YES!






They will be assigned an attorney and will
go to court or have an administrati...
Ineligible Youth include…
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
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Youth who aged out of foster care in 2011*
Youth in a non-related legal guardianship
th...
How will the young person
meet their goals?


They will create a Transitional Independent Living
Plan (TILP) with their s...
Why wouldn’t a foster youth
want to stay in care?


They might not want:





to be a dependant or ward of the court
t...
Why would they want to stay in
foster care?




Youth ages 18-21 need, deserve and are
entitled to the extra support tha...
Understanding the Adolescent
 Physical

Development
 Cognitive Development
 Psychosocial Development

25
Physical Development






Rapid gains in height and
weight.
Development of secondary sex
characteristics.
Continued br...
How this affects them…









Teens frequently sleep longer
Teens may be more clumsy because of growth
spurts.
Teen...
Cognitive Development
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


Advanced reasoning skills.
Developing abstract thinking skills.
Developing the ability to thi...
How this affects them…
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

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Teens demonstrate a heightened level of selfconsciousness.
Teens tend to believe that n...
Psychosocial Development
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Establishing an identity
Establishing autonomy
Establishing intimacy
Becoming comfort...
How this affects them…
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
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Teens may have more questions about sexuality.
Teens may begin to keep a journal...
Adolescent Brain
Development
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

Recent research by scientists at the
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
using m...
Brain Regions and Functions








Frontal lobe—self-control, judgment, emotional
regulation; restructured in teen ye...
Pathways


Youth who “exercise”
their brains by
learning to order their
thoughts, understand
abstract concepts,
and contr...
Adolescents are more likely
to:







Act on impulse
Misread or misinterpret social cues and
emotions
Get into accid...
Adolescents
are less likely to:





Think before they act
Pause to consider the potential
consequences of their action...
Brain Development as a
Result of a History of Chronic
Trauma




They may have even more difficulty with
problem-solving...
Brain Development as a Result of
a History of Chronic Trauma,
cont.







They may have even greater difficulty than
“...
Impact of
Chronic Trauma History
Adolescents with a history of chronic trauma
may have:






compromised attachment hi...
Emerging adults …
What does the research say
about the process of becoming
an adult?

40
“ Emerging Adulthood”
Coined in 1995 by psychologist
Jeffrey Jensen Arnett, PhD.
Outlines Five Features of
Development
41
Emerging Adults:

Five Features of Development




Age of identity exploration. Young
people are deciding who they are a...






Age of self-focus. Young people try to
decide what they want to do, where
they want to go and who they want to
be...
Activity

What do you know?

44
Some Struggle;
Some Prosper






Need right balance of the adolescent
pushing for independence and the society
giving ...
Ethnic Minorities




During emerging adulthood, ethnic
minorities have to deal with the larger
culture and figure out t...
Foster Youth Transitioning


Extended foster care allows foster youth
age 18, who meet the federal participation
criteria...
Preparing for
Extended Foster Care




The conversation about EFC and its
benefits should begin with all foster youth
as...
Four Principles of
Youth Development
1.Youth Development
A

process which prepares young people to
meet the challenges of...
2. Collaboration
The process by
which several
agencies or
organizations make
a formal, sustained
commitment to
work togeth...
3. Cultural Competence




Culture is difference in race, ethnicity,
nationality, religion/spirituality, gender,
sexual ...
4. Permanent Connections
Positive relationships that are intended to last a
life-time. They may be either formal (e.g.
ado...
Youth who have strong
self-esteem and who
feel empowered are
often better equipped
to deal with the
barriers, as well as
t...
Key Elements of the Youth
Development Approach
 Adolescents






are:
involved in activities that enhance their
compe...
Key Elements of the Youth
Development Approach,
cont.
 Youth

are seen as a valued and respected asset
to society;

 Pol...
What can you do?









Learn and use the youth development principles;
Have genuine respect for youth and adult-yo...
Research Supporting
Extending Foster Care


Midwest Study
Surveyed 732 youth who exited foster
care from Iowa, Illinois, ...
Outcomes @ age 24
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

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2.5 times more likely to get BA
61% pay differential for BA (nearly doubles
lifetime earnin...
Collaborating
Who are some of the community
partners that we will need to work
with to serve these emerging adults?

59
Best Practices
Group Discussion: Serving Emerging Adults

60
Questions?

61
My Action Plan

62
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Power Point presentation for caregivers of youth who are aging out of the system. (AB12 Extended Foster Care)

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Power Point presentation for caregivers of youth who are aging out of the system.

  1. 1. Caregivers Serving Emerging Adults Version 2.0, 11/28/12 1
  2. 2. Welcome Overview of Training              Learning Objectives What we know about Transitional Aged Youth Legislative Background ABCs of AB 12 Adolescent Development Brain Development Emerging Adulthood Extended Foster Care Positive Youth Development Mark Courtney’s Research Collaboration and Working Together Best Practices Question and Answer 2
  3. 3. Learning Objectives    Gain understanding of working with youth and young adults in the context of extended foster care Gain knowledge about the AB12 legislation Gain knowledge of adolescent development, brain development and the tasks of emerging adults 3
  4. 4. Introductory Activity 4
  5. 5. What We Know About Transition Age Youth… 5
  6. 6. An estimated 29,500 youth exited foster care in FY 2008 (U.S. DHHS, 2009). 6
  7. 7. Education Approximately 1.2 million youth drop out of high school each year, more than half of whom come from minority groups (Editorial Projects in Education Research Center, 2008). 7
  8. 8. Homelessness…  On any single day, 53,000-103,000 of the homeless population are between 18 and 24. (Burt, Aaron, & Lee, 2001).  One in five youth who age out of foster care will experience homelessness (Fernandes, 2008).  Three in ten homeless adults have had experience in the foster care system (Gardner, 2008). 8
  9. 9. Legislative Background  The Foster Care Independence Act of 1999, helps foster youth who are aging out of care to achieve self-sufficiency. 9
  10. 10. Legislative Background   The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing A is the most recent piece of major federal legislation addressing the foster care system. This bill extended various benefits and funding for foster children between the age of 18 and 21 and for Indian children in tribal areas. California passed AB12 October of 2010; it went into effect on January 1, 2012 10
  11. 11. From Adolescence to Adulthood 11
  12. 12. ABCs of AB12: Extended Foster Care  Signed in to law September 30, 2010  Begins January 1, 2012  Extends foster care    to age 19 in 2012 and then age 20 in 2013 and then hopefully to age 21 in 2014 12
  13. 13. Why extend foster care? 18 is too young for some emerging adults to be selfsufficient. Extending foster care gives youth who want it some additional support. 13
  14. 14. How will extended foster care benefit youth More time to find a permanent connection to an adult figure  More time to prepare them for adulthood  More time to help with school, work and a stable place to live  14
  15. 15. What does the young person need to do?  Decide whether or not they want to stay in foster care  If they leave foster care, they may decide to come back into foster care (we will talk later about who is able to) 15
  16. 16. If they decide to stay, they must:  Sign a mutual agreement  Work with the social worker or probation officer to meet the goals of their case plan and the Transitional Independent Living Case Plan (TILP) 16
  17. 17. Be doing one or more of the following:      Be in high school or a similar program Attend college, community college or a vocational education program Work at least 80 hours a month Participate in a program to remove barriers to employment Be unable to do one of the above because of a medical condition 17
  18. 18. Where can they live?     With a relative or non-related extended family member, foster family home, or home of their legal guardian Group home placement (until age 19) THP – Plus Foster Care THPP (if they are in THPP at age 18, they can stay until age 19) 18
  19. 19. Or…  Supervised Independent Living Setting Such as:  An apartment  Room and board arrangements  College dorms  Shared roommate 19
  20. 20. Will they still go to Court? YES!    They will be assigned an attorney and will go to court or have an administrative review every 6 months They can attend court by phone if they are far away The social worker/probation officer will write a report about the young person’s 20 progress toward their goals
  21. 21. Ineligible Youth include…     Youth who aged out of foster care in 2011* Youth in a non-related legal guardianship through the probate court Married youth Youth in the military * Exceptions exist for youth who turned 18 in 2011 but remained in foster care on January 1, 2012 21
  22. 22. How will the young person meet their goals?  They will create a Transitional Independent Living Plan (TILP) with their social worker or probation officer  They may participate in developing a ‘shared responsibility’ plan with caregiver, depending on circumstances  They will talk about how they can meet their goals  ILSP/ILP will help with classes and workshops! 22
  23. 23. Why wouldn’t a foster youth want to stay in care?  They might not want:    to be a dependant or ward of the court to stay in a foster placement that has to be approved by the social worker or probation officer to have a social worker or probation officer or anyone else in their business!! 23
  24. 24. Why would they want to stay in foster care?   Youth ages 18-21 need, deserve and are entitled to the extra support that extended foster care can provide Everybody needs a safety net! 24
  25. 25. Understanding the Adolescent  Physical Development  Cognitive Development  Psychosocial Development 25
  26. 26. Physical Development    Rapid gains in height and weight. Development of secondary sex characteristics. Continued brain development. 26
  27. 27. How this affects them…      Teens frequently sleep longer Teens may be more clumsy because of growth spurts. Teenage girls may become overly sensitive about their weight. Teens may be concerned because they are not physically developing at the same rate as their peers. Teens may feel awkward about demonstrating affection to the opposite sex parent. 27
  28. 28. Cognitive Development    Advanced reasoning skills. Developing abstract thinking skills. Developing the ability to think about thinking in a process known as "metacognition." Meta-cognition allows individuals to think about how they feel and what they are thinking. 28
  29. 29. How this affects them…     Teens demonstrate a heightened level of selfconsciousness. Teens tend to believe that no one else has ever experienced similar feelings and emotions. Teens tend to exhibit the "it can't happen to me" syndrome also known as a "personal fable." Teens tend to exhibit a "justice" orientation. 29
  30. 30. Psychosocial Development      Establishing an identity Establishing autonomy Establishing intimacy Becoming comfortable with one's sexuality Achievement 30
  31. 31. How this affects them…         Teens may have more questions about sexuality. Teens may begin to keep a journal. When they are in their rooms, teens may begin to lock their bedroom doors. Teens may become involved in multiple hobbies or clubs. Teens may become elusive about where they are going or with whom. Teens may become more argumentative. Teens may not want to be seen with parents in public. Teens may begin to interact with parents as people. 31
  32. 32. Adolescent Brain Development   Recent research by scientists at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has found that the teen brain is not a finished product, but is a work in progress . This may help to explain certain teenage behavior that adults can find mystifying, such as poor decision-making, recklessness, and emotional outbursts. 32
  33. 33. Brain Regions and Functions     Frontal lobe—self-control, judgment, emotional regulation; restructured in teen years Corpus callosum—intelligence, consciousness and self-awareness; reaches full maturity in 20’s Parietal lobes—integrate auditory, visual, and tactile signals; immature until age 16 Temporal lobes—emotional maturity; still developing after age 16 33
  34. 34. Pathways  Youth who “exercise” their brains by learning to order their thoughts, understand abstract concepts, and control their impulses are laying the neural foundations that will serve them for the rest of their lives. 34
  35. 35. Adolescents are more likely to:      Act on impulse Misread or misinterpret social cues and emotions Get into accidents of all kinds Get involved in fights Engage in dangerous or risky behavior 35
  36. 36. Adolescents are less likely to:    Think before they act Pause to consider the potential consequences of their actions Modify their dangerous or inappropriate behaviors 36
  37. 37. Brain Development as a Result of a History of Chronic Trauma   They may have even more difficulty with problem-solving, understanding consequences, planning and organizing tasks. They may have a compromised ability to reflect on and understand their emotions and experiences and/or the emotions and experiences of others. 37
  38. 38. Brain Development as a Result of a History of Chronic Trauma, cont.    They may have even greater difficulty than “typical” teens in delaying gratification. They may have a heightened response to stress, often overreacting, becoming aggressive and/or defiant. They may be behind in accomplishing developmental tasks in some/all domains (cognitive, physical, emotional, social). 38
  39. 39. Impact of Chronic Trauma History Adolescents with a history of chronic trauma may have:    compromised attachment history, making it difficult for them to move into the typical adolescent individuation increased difficulty with decision-making, planning, organizing time compromised conscience/empathy development 39
  40. 40. Emerging adults … What does the research say about the process of becoming an adult? 40
  41. 41. “ Emerging Adulthood” Coined in 1995 by psychologist Jeffrey Jensen Arnett, PhD. Outlines Five Features of Development 41
  42. 42. Emerging Adults: Five Features of Development   Age of identity exploration. Young people are deciding who they are and what they want out of work, school and love. Age of instability. Repeated residence changes happen as young people either go to college or live with friends or a romantic partner. 42
  43. 43.    Age of self-focus. Young people try to decide what they want to do, where they want to go and who they want to be with. Age of feeling in between. Emerging adults say they are taking responsibility for themselves, but still do not completely feel like an adult. Age of possibilities. Emerging adults believe they have good chances of living "better than their parents did." 43
  44. 44. Activity What do you know? 44
  45. 45. Some Struggle; Some Prosper    Need right balance of the adolescent pushing for independence and the society giving the correct amount of support Not pushing too hard or holding back too much Under W&IC section 11403(i): regulations for “young adults who can exercise incremental responsibility concurrently with their growth and development” will be encouraged. 45
  46. 46. Ethnic Minorities   During emerging adulthood, ethnic minorities have to deal with the larger culture and figure out their own identity in the context of the larger society. For children of immigrants, that can be especially challenging. 46
  47. 47. Foster Youth Transitioning  Extended foster care allows foster youth age 18, who meet the federal participation criteria, to remain in care as follows:    Beginning 1/1/12, up to age 19 Beginning 1/1/13, up to age 20 Beginning 1/1/14, up to age 21 47
  48. 48. Preparing for Extended Foster Care   The conversation about EFC and its benefits should begin with all foster youth as they become eligible for ILSP/ILP services and when they begin to work on the TILP. Youth are more likely to take advantage of the program if they hear about it a lot, from various sources. 48
  49. 49. Four Principles of Youth Development 1.Youth Development A process which prepares young people to meet the challenges of adolescence and adulthood through a coordinated, progressive series of activities and experiences which help them to become socially, morally, emotionally, physically, and cognitively competent. 49
  50. 50. 2. Collaboration The process by which several agencies or organizations make a formal, sustained commitment to work together to accomplish a common mission. 50
  51. 51. 3. Cultural Competence   Culture is difference in race, ethnicity, nationality, religion/spirituality, gender, sexual orientation, socio­economic status, physical ability, language, beliefs, values, behavior patterns, or customs among various groups within a community, organization, or nation. Culturally competent individuals have a mixture of beliefs and attitudes, knowledge, and skills that help them establish trust and communicate with others. (Advocates for Youth) 51
  52. 52. 4. Permanent Connections Positive relationships that are intended to last a life-time. They may be either formal (e.g. adoption or reunification with family) or informal in nature (e.g., mentors or peer support groups). 52
  53. 53. Youth who have strong self-esteem and who feel empowered are often better equipped to deal with the barriers, as well as the opportunities, that arise during and after out-of-home care. 53
  54. 54. Key Elements of the Youth Development Approach  Adolescents    are: involved in activities that enhance their competence, connections, character, confidence and contribution to society; provided an opportunity to experiment in a safe environment and to develop positive social values and norms; and engaged in activities that promote selfunderstanding, self-worth, and a sense of belonging and resiliency. 54
  55. 55. Key Elements of the Youth Development Approach, cont.  Youth are seen as a valued and respected asset to society;  Policies and programs focus on the evolving developmental needs and tasks of adolescents, and involve youth as partners rather than clients;  Families, schools and communities are engaged in developing environments that support youth; 55
  56. 56. What can you do?      Learn and use the youth development principles; Have genuine respect for youth and adult-youth relationships; Possess the skills to empower young people to be involved in the decision-making process; Have self-awareness and understanding of program goals, strategies and outcomes; and Possess the conviction and belief that youth are capable and can contribute. 56
  57. 57. Research Supporting Extending Foster Care  Midwest Study Surveyed 732 youth who exited foster care from Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin at ages 18, 19, 21, and 24 57
  58. 58. Outcomes @ age 24      2.5 times more likely to get BA 61% pay differential for BA (nearly doubles lifetime earnings) Sub-baccalaureate pay boost too (12-17% for associate degree equaling $400k work-life earnings; $300k for at least some college) 38% reduction in risk of becoming pregnant Better personal and family health, etc… 58
  59. 59. Collaborating Who are some of the community partners that we will need to work with to serve these emerging adults? 59
  60. 60. Best Practices Group Discussion: Serving Emerging Adults 60
  61. 61. Questions? 61
  62. 62. My Action Plan 62

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