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Lifespan Chapter 8 Online Stud


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Lifespan Chapter 8 Online Stud

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood © 2006 Pearson Education/Prentice-Hall Publishing
  2. 2. Psychosocial Development: Industry vs. Inferiority
  3. 3. Psychosocial Development: Industry vs. Inferiority <ul><li>Success = feelings of mastery, proficiency, and confidence. Interest in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties = feelings of failure and inadequacy; withdrawal from academics and socialization. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents who confuse exploration with mischief </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industry associated with adult success (more so than intelligence and family background). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Views of self become more differentiated
  5. 5. Self esteem during middle childhood <ul><li>Social Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly compare themselves to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop internal standards. </li></ul><ul><li>For most, increases during middle childhood. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Regulation - dev’l advances in prefrontal cortex </li></ul>
  6. 6. Self-Efficacy <ul><li>Belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Influences a student’s choice of activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low self-efficacy > may avoid learning tasks, especially those that are challenging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high-self-efficacy > work at learning tasks </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Moral Development <ul><li>Kohlberg’s theory of moral development: </li></ul><ul><li>People pass through stages of the kind of reasoning they use to make moral judgments, primarily based on cognitive characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning moves from concrete rules to abstract principles in three stages. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory <ul><li>Kohlberg's theory is a good account of moral judgment but not adequate at predicting moral behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on data from boys; may be inadequate in describing moral development of girls. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Carol Gilligan Professor of Gender Studies, Harvard University <ul><li>Challenged Lawrence Kohlberg's theories of moral development on the basis of gender bias; </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneer in the research on moral development of women; </li></ul><ul><li>One of Time Magazine's 25 most influential people of 1996. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Gilligan sees morality in girls developing in 3 stages. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation toward individual survival - where females concentrate on what is practical and best for them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goodness as self-sacrifice - where females think they must sacrifice their own wishes to what others want. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morality of nonviolence - women come to see hurting anyone as immoral, including themselves. </li></ul></ul>Gilligan
  11. 11. Developmental Changes in Emotion <ul><li>Increased understanding that more than one emotion can be experienced in a particular situation </li></ul><ul><li>Increased awareness of events that lead to emotional reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to suppress or conceal negative emotional reactions; use of self-initiated strategies for redirecting feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Genuine empathy </li></ul>
  12. 12. Socioemotional differences <ul><li>Relational aggression -- girls are more verbally aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Boys are more likely to hide emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Girls more prosocial, kinder, empathic </li></ul>
  13. 13. Relationships: Building Friendship in Middle Childhood <ul><li>Children’s development is seriously affected by the formation of friendships in middle childhood. </li></ul><ul><li>Friendships influence children's development in several ways… </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stages of Friendship (William Damon) <ul><ul><li>1. Basing friendship on other’s behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>~Preschool to KG > friends are children who like you and with whom you share toys and activities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Basing friendship on trust. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elem school > focus on mutual trust. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objective ideas about fairness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Basing friendship on psychological closeness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning w/adolescence > focus on intimacy and loyalty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-disclosure; sharing of private thoughts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Six functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>companionship  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ego support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>affection and intimacy </li></ul></ul>Functions of Friendships Reciprocity becomes especially important in peer interchanges
  16. 16. Individual Differences in Friendship: What Makes a Child Popular? <ul><li>Children's friendships show clear hierarchies in terms of STATUS </li></ul><ul><li>High status children have greater access to resources </li></ul><ul><li>Friendships form with regards to status </li></ul><ul><li>Lower status children are more likely to play with younger or less popular children. </li></ul><ul><li>5 peer statuses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neglected children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controversial children </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Behaviors favored in friends during middle childhood <ul><li>Most-liked </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of humor </li></ul><ul><li>Nice/friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful </li></ul><ul><li>Complementary </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty They Show: </li></ul><ul><li>Social competence </li></ul><ul><li>Social problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Least-liked </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Dishonesty </li></ul><ul><li>Critical </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy/bossy </li></ul><ul><li>Teasing </li></ul><ul><li>Physical aggression </li></ul>
  18. 18. Cross-Race Friendships <ul><li>Research shows that children's closest friends tend largely to be with others of the same race. Why? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Bullying <ul><li>Victims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cry easily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack social skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lonelier, more withdrawn, anx Watch for psychosomatic symptoms: headache, stomachache; sleep dx. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn skills; report to teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aggressors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Misbehave at home more than others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to prefer violent TV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to be poor students; higher incidence of drug and alcohol use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to break the law as adults </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Changing Family <ul><ul><li>Single parent household negatively associated with achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~70% live with two married parents; ~50% from birth till at least 18 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~27% of children born to never-married women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>~70 of Black children </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Divorce <ul><li>1/2 of children in the U.S. will pass through childhood living with both parents, each of whom has been married only once. </li></ul><ul><li>School-age children tend to blame themselves for the breakup (self-esteem) </li></ul><ul><li>Most experience problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sleep disturbances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phobias </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Consequences of Divorce <ul><li>Children in divorced families are more likely to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have academic problems (more parental management = higher grades, more success in school) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>show externalized problems (such as acting out and delinquency) and internalized problems (such as anxiety and depression) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have less competent intimate relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drop out of school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>become sexually active at an early age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>take drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have low self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A majority of children in divorced families do not have significant adjustment problems “ by the time they are adults” </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Impact of divorce <ul><li>Most children will live with their mother and the mother-child relationship may decline. </li></ul><ul><li>Twice as many children of divorced parents require psychological counseling as do children from intact families. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Impact of divorce <ul><li>Divorce brings a decline to both parents' standard of living—especially the mother’s. </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>~ 1/2 of all children whose parents divorce will have a stepparent </li></ul><ul><li>Simple families show better adjustment than complex (blended) families </li></ul>Stepfamilies
  26. 27. The Academic Environment <ul><li>Constructivist approach -- learner-centered > emphasizes importance of individuals actively constructing knowledge with guidance from the teacher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>children should be encouraged to explore, discover knowledge, reflect, and think critically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct instruction approach -- structured, teacher-centered > teacher direction and control, high expectations for progress, maximum time for academic tasks, order, and discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Important goal: maximizing student learning </li></ul>
  27. 28. Cultural Differences in Attribution <ul><li>African-American children are less likely to attribute success to internal causes; prejudice and discrimination are to blame. </li></ul><ul><li>Women tend to attribute failure to low ability; success to luck. </li></ul><ul><li>In Asian countries, academic success is perceived as being caused by hard work. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Socioeconomic Status and Ethnicity <ul><li>Schools in low-income areas are more likely to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have more students with low achievement test scores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have low graduation rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have small percentages of students going to college </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have young teachers with less experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often get MORE gov’t money than higher income areas </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Expectation Effects <ul><li>Teacher Expectancy Effect </li></ul><ul><li>becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy </li></ul>
  30. 31. Should Schools Teach Emotional Intelligence? <ul><li>David Goleman: EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE </li></ul><ul><li>not universally accepted. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Home and Alone <ul><li>Self-care/“latchkey” </li></ul><ul><li>12 to 14 percent of children in US between ages of 5 and 12 spend some time alone after school </li></ul><ul><li>A few hours alone may be a good thing, as children can decompress and develop sense of autonomy. </li></ul>