Chapter 6Social and Personality Development       in the Preschool Years        © 2006 Pearson Education/Prentice-Hall Pub...
Self-Understanding andForming a Sense of Self    Psychosocial Development                                8-2
Erikson:    Initiative   vs. guilt   ~3 to 6:   Conflict b/t    independence of action    and sometimes negative    resu...
Discipline             8-4
Self Concept in the School Years:    Thinking About the Self    What is self?   Children typically overestimate their ski...
Developing racial, ethnic andgender awareness    Gender is well      established    Gender > ethnicity                    ...
What are some possible explanations?                                       8-7
Theoretical explanations for gender   related attitudes     Biological perspectives     Psychoanalytic perspectives    ...
Friends and Family:    The social lives of preschoolersIncreased interactions with the world    at large.   ~ 3 children ...
Playing by Rules   Parallel play   Associative play   Cooperative play   Sensorimotor play   practice play   pretens...
Fantasy Play Play becomes increasingly  unrealistic during the  preschool period What would Vygotsky say  about the incr...
Effective Parenting: Teaching DesiredBehaviors   Diana Baumrind (1971, 1980); parenting    styles:•   Authoritarian•   Au...
8-13
Lower SES parents  children conform to society’s expectations  home atmosphere > authority  Inc physical punishment  m...
Higher-SES parents more concerned with developing initiative and  delay of gratification atmosphere in which children ar...
Child Abuse and MaltreatmentWhat kinds of abuse?                               8-16
Types of Child Abuse                       8-17
Child Abuse   Occurs in any home, though most    frequent in stressful family environments:       Poverty       Single-...
Moral Development and Aggression   Piaget   Social Learning   Kohlberg   Gilligan                                     ...
Piaget’s View of Moral    Development    Heteronomous Morality: Initial stage, ~4 to 7     years old.       Rules are in...
Piaget’s View of Moral    Development   Incipient Cooperation ~ 7 to 10.       Children are more social and learn the ru...
Piaget’s View of Moral        Development   ~ 10: Autonomous Cooperation        aware that game rules can be modified if...
Moral Development in Children:Social-learning approaches   How environment    influences childrens moral    behavior.    ...
Viewing Violence on TV   Conducting a true experiment nearly    impossible   Correlational studies difficult       Does ...
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Lifespan Chapter 6 Online Stud

  1. 1. Chapter 6Social and Personality Development in the Preschool Years © 2006 Pearson Education/Prentice-Hall Publishing 1
  2. 2. Self-Understanding andForming a Sense of Self  Psychosocial Development 8-2
  3. 3. Erikson: Initiative vs. guilt ~3 to 6: Conflict b/t independence of action and sometimes negative results of that action. 8-3
  4. 4. Discipline 8-4
  5. 5. Self Concept in the School Years: Thinking About the Self What is self? Children typically overestimate their skills and knowledge 8-5
  6. 6. Developing racial, ethnic andgender awareness Gender is well established Gender > ethnicity 8-6
  7. 7. What are some possible explanations? 8-7
  8. 8. Theoretical explanations for gender related attitudes  Biological perspectives  Psychoanalytic perspectives  Social-learning/Cognitive approaches  Includes parental/cutlural influences 8-8
  9. 9. Friends and Family: The social lives of preschoolersIncreased interactions with the world at large. ~ 3 children begin to develop real friendships; individuals with special qualities. Friendship is focused on the carrying out of shared activities [as opposed to?] 8-9
  10. 10. Playing by Rules Parallel play Associative play Cooperative play Sensorimotor play practice play pretense/symbolic play social play constructive play games 8-10
  11. 11. Fantasy Play Play becomes increasingly unrealistic during the preschool period What would Vygotsky say about the increase in pretend play? 8-11
  12. 12. Effective Parenting: Teaching DesiredBehaviors Diana Baumrind (1971, 1980); parenting styles:• Authoritarian• Authoritative• Permissive/Indulgent• Neglectful Democratic 8-12
  13. 13. 8-13
  14. 14. Lower SES parents  children conform to society’s expectations  home atmosphere > authority  Inc physical punishment  more directive, less conversational  As opposed to… 8-14
  15. 15. Higher-SES parents more concerned with developing initiative and delay of gratification atmosphere in which children are more nearly equal participants rules are discussed less directive; more conversational 8-15
  16. 16. Child Abuse and MaltreatmentWhat kinds of abuse? 8-16
  17. 17. Types of Child Abuse 8-17
  18. 18. Child Abuse Occurs in any home, though most frequent in stressful family environments:  Poverty  Single-parent homes  Families with high levels of marital discord  70% DO NOT grow up to abuse 8-18
  19. 19. Moral Development and Aggression Piaget Social Learning Kohlberg Gilligan 8-19
  20. 20. Piaget’s View of Moral Development Heteronomous Morality: Initial stage, ~4 to 7 years old.  Rules are invariant and unchangeable.  Immanent Justice: Immediate punishment. 8-20
  21. 21. Piaget’s View of Moral Development Incipient Cooperation ~ 7 to 10.  Children are more social and learn the rules.  Play is according to a shared conception of the rules. 8-21
  22. 22. Piaget’s View of Moral Development ~ 10: Autonomous Cooperation  aware that game rules can be modified if players agree. Critics: He underestimated the age at which childrens moral skills develop. 8-22
  23. 23. Moral Development in Children:Social-learning approaches How environment influences childrens moral behavior. • Children model prosocial (helping) behavior Reinforcement and modeling. 8-23
  24. 24. Viewing Violence on TV  Conducting a true experiment nearly impossible  Correlational studies difficult Does television viewing cause violence? 8-24

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