an action which was in progress
at a stated time in the past; it is
not mentioned when the action
started or finished
the atmosphere, setting, etc &
to give background
information in a story
Subject +was/ were+ V-ing +Object
Children were eating ice cream.
Subject + wasn’t/ weren’t+ V-ing+ Object
They were not swimming in the pool at 3.00 p.m today.
Was/ Were+ Subject + V-ing+ Object ?
Was she using the internet yesterday afternoon?
all morning / evening / day / week (in the past)
at 2.00 yesterday etc.
an action happened before
another past action or before
a stated time in the past
an action which finished in the
past, and whose result was
visible at a later point in the
Subject +HAD+ V 3/ed+Object
He had studied really hard.
Subject + had not + V 3/ed+Object
He had not gone to Market.
Had + Subject + V 3/ed+Object ?
Had he paid his all bills ?
before, after, already, just, for, since,
till/until, when, by the time, never, etc.
to put emaphasis on the duration
of an action which started and
finished in the past, before another
action and or stated time in the
past, usually with for or since
an action which lasted for
some time in the past and
whose result was visible in the
Subject +HAD BEEN+ V-ing+(Since/For) +Object
She had been waiting for me for three hours.
Girls had been sewing the dresses since morning till evening.
Subject + had not + been+ V-ing + (since/For)+ Object
He had not been watching the TV for five hours.
Had + Subject + Been+ V-ing +(Since/For)+ Object ?
Had they been talking since evening ?