The civil right's movement


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The civil right's movement

  1. 1. The Civil Rights Movement
  2. 2. Section 1: The Movement Begins <ul><li>Origins of the Movement </li></ul><ul><li>The Civil Rights Movement Begins </li></ul><ul><li>African American Churches </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower and Civil Rights </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Origins of the Movement <ul><li>African American civil rights movement begins after Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat to a white man – Starts a bus boycott – demand for equal rights </li></ul><ul><li>1896 – Plessy v. Ferguson (establishes separate but equal) </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Crow laws segregating African Americans in the South </li></ul><ul><li>De facto segregation (segregation by custom and tradition) in the North </li></ul><ul><li>NAACP – supported court cases trying to eliminate segregation; provided financial support and lawyers to African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans voted for Democrats who supported civil rights legislation (Strong Democratic Party) </li></ul><ul><li>1942 – CORE founded – used sit-ins as a form of protest </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Civil Rights Movement Begins <ul><li>After WWII, African Americans had fought for equality overseas and wanted it at home as well </li></ul><ul><li>Thurgood Marshall – works to end segregation in public schools </li></ul><ul><li>Brown v. Board of Education – ended segregation in public schools </li></ul><ul><li>Brown v. Board angered many white southerners who supported segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Montgomery bus boycott led by Montgomery Improvement Association headed by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. – nonviolent passive resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Bus boycott forced the Supreme court to find Alabama’s bus segregation laws unconstitutional </li></ul>
  5. 5. African American Churches <ul><li>African American churches play a big role in the success of the boycott, through being the center of forums, planning, and organization </li></ul><ul><li>SCLC, led by Dr. King, challenged segregation of public transportation,, housing, voting, and other public accommodations </li></ul>
  6. 6. Eisenhower and Civil Rights <ul><li>Eisenhower was the 1 st president since Reconstruction to send troops to protect the rights of African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Little Rock Arkansas, President Eisenhower sends federal troops to protect African Americans from angry mobs surrounding desegregated schools </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Act of 1957 – protected African Americans’ right to vote – 1 st step in bringing the federal government into the civil rights debate </li></ul>
  7. 7. Section 2: Challenging Segregation <ul><li>The Sit-in Movement </li></ul><ul><li>SNCC </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom Riders </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy and Civil Rights </li></ul><ul><li>The Civil Rights Act of 1964 </li></ul><ul><li>The Struggle for Voting Rights </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Sit-In Movement <ul><li>1960 – 4 African Americans stage a sit-in at Woolworth’s – led to a mass movement for civil rights using sit-ins across the nation </li></ul><ul><li>Jesse Jackson – leader of sit-ins in North Carolina – felt it gave them the power to change things </li></ul>
  9. 9. SNCC <ul><li>Students for the SNCC as a way to organize for the civil rights movement </li></ul><ul><li>Marion Barry and John Lewis – early SNCC leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Moses points out that rural African Americans needed help along with those in urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Many SNCC volunteers were beaten and some were even killed </li></ul><ul><li>Fannie Lou Hamer – SNCC volunteer who is beaten in police custody in Mississippi – helps organize the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party </li></ul>
  10. 10. Freedom Riders <ul><li>CORE leader James Farmer asks protesters to travel South to integrate bus terminals – teams become known as the Freedom Riders </li></ul><ul><li>Violence erupts in Alabama – televised violence shocks many Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy compelled to control violence </li></ul>
  11. 11. JFK and Civil Rights <ul><li>Kennedy campaigned for civil rights – African Americans helped get him elected </li></ul><ul><li>Once in office he became very cautious on civil rights and avoided new legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Kennedy, his brother, actively supported civil rights </li></ul><ul><li>Attempted to reach agreements – riders asked to stop protesting </li></ul><ul><li>CORE uses funds to bail riders out of jail – NAACP helps to let the rides continue </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy responds – Interstate Commerce Commission to increase regulations against segregation at bus terminals – segregation ends by 1962 </li></ul><ul><li>1962 – James Meredith (African Americans air force veteran) attends University of Mississippi, but needs troops to guard him. </li></ul><ul><li>King, frustrated with the movement, holds demonstrations in Alabama that incite violence in order to force the president to act </li></ul>
  12. 12. Civil Rights Act of 1964 <ul><li>Kennedy announces his civil rights bill on national television </li></ul><ul><li>King marches 200,000 demonstrators to the nations capital to stage a peaceful rally in order to pressure Congress into passing the bill </li></ul><ul><li>Senators filibuster the bill, Congress unable to pass the bill </li></ul><ul><li>After Kennedy’s assassination, Johnson commits himself to passing the bill </li></ul><ul><li>It eventually passes: </li></ul><ul><li>Gave federal government broad power to stop racial discrimination in segregation of public places </li></ul><ul><li>Bring lawsuits against school segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Required employers to end discrimination in the workplace </li></ul>
  13. 13. Struggle for Voting Rights <ul><li>Civil Rights Act didn’t protect voting rights – Many African Americans were prevented from voting in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Protest staged in Selma, Alabama – march for freedom stopped by 200 state troopers and protesters are attacked – Bloody Sunday </li></ul><ul><li>1965 – Voting Rights Act of 1965 </li></ul><ul><li>Federal examiners to register qualified voters </li></ul><ul><li>Bypassed local officials in the voter registration process </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in 250,000 newly registered African Americans </li></ul>
  14. 14. Section 3: New Issues <ul><li>Problems Facing Urban African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>The Shift to Economic Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Black Power </li></ul><ul><li>Assassination of Dr. King </li></ul>
  15. 15. Problems Facing Urban African Americans <ul><li>Racism was still common after the 50s and 60s </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and social problems = difficult to address </li></ul><ul><li>1965-1968 – race riots break out in many American cities: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Watts riots – lasted 6 days </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detroit riots – US Army sent in to retake control </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Kerner Commission created to make recommendations to prevent further urban riots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concluded that the problems lied within white society and white racism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendation: 2 million new jobs and 6 million new units of public housing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Due to concerns over Vietnam President Johnson never endorses the recommendation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Shift to Economic Rights <ul><li>Dr. King begins to shift his focus onto improving economic conditions for African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago Movement – effort to call attention to the deplorable housing conditions in Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. King moves into the slums of Chicago with his family </li></ul><ul><li>King marched through the white suburbs and was protected with police from Mayor Richard Daley </li></ul><ul><li>Daley and King propose new program to clean up the slums </li></ul>
  17. 17. Black Power <ul><li>Many African Americans sought out new strategies of self defense and living free from whites </li></ul><ul><li>Black Power – 2 meanings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical self-defense and violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stokely Carmichael – control the economic, social, and political direction of their struggle for equality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opposed assimilation – popular in poor neighborhoods – Dr. King and others were very critical of black power </li></ul><ul><li>Malcolm X – symbol of black power movement – part of the Nation of Islam (believed that African Americans should separate themselves from whites and form their own self-governing communities) </li></ul><ul><li>Malcolm X later breaks away from the Nation of Islam and begins to believe in an integrated society </li></ul><ul><li>1965 – 3 members of the Nation of Islam assassinate Malcolm X </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victimized by the past, but don’t need to be victimized now by racism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formation of the Black Panthers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New generation of militant black youth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black power, black nationalism, and economic self-sufficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Panthers believed that a revolution was necessary to gain equal rights. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Assassination of Dr. King <ul><li>Late 1960s – Civil Rights movement fragmented into many competing organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Assassination of Dr. King led to national mourning as well as riots in over 100 cities </li></ul><ul><li>After Dr. King’s death, Congress passes the Civil Rights Act of 1968 which contained provisions for fair and equitable housing </li></ul>