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Anat noteskoodle

  1. 1. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Anatomy
  2. 2. Anatomy Note that the notes on Koodle do not have all the videos you have seen in class – if you want these bring a pen drive into your teacher. Y12 Physical Education AS90433
  3. 3. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Anatomy Outline Bones and bone function Joint structure and movement. Case study of the Shoulder joint Muscles Note that you need to consider how this antatomical information relates to the movements and actions in golf
  4. 4. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Main Functions of Bones  to serve as the framework for the whole body
  5. 5. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Main Functions of Bones  to protect delicate structures such as the brain and spinal cord  to serve as levers which are acted on by muscles  to act as a storehouse for calcium which may be removed if the diet is deficient  to produce blood cells
  6. 6. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 The Skeleton Remember there are 206 bones in the human body. You need to remember a few of these! Refer to Bone review Handout
  7. 7. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Joints  Are the regions where 2 or more bones meet. 3 main groups depending on the amount of movement: 1. Fibrous Joints - the immoveable joints where bones joined by fibrous tissue. Eg ________________ 2. Cartilaginous Joints - the slightly moveable joints where bone is joined by cartilage, which acts as a shock absorber. Eg __________________ 3. Synovial Joints - the freely moveable, highly mobile joints equipped to withstand friction. Eg __________
  8. 8. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Synovial Joint Characteristics (Slide 1 of 2) Connective tissue bands (= ligaments) hold the bones together and are found with all the freely moveable joints and many of the less moveable. In synovial joints these completely enclose the joints and are called capsular ligaments
  9. 9. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Synovial Joint Characteristics  Additional ligaments reinforce and help stabilise the joints. The contacting surfaces of the joint are covered by a smooth layer of gristle (=Articular or Hyaline cartilage) which act as shock absorbers. Inside the joint space is the thick colourless synovial fluid, which keeps the surfaces from touching and bears most of the weight of the joint.  Wherever friction may develop such as between bones and tendons, synovial fluid filled sacs or bursae are found. (Note that swelling of these is Bursitis eg Tennis Elbow)
  10. 10. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Joint Function The function of moveable joints is to allow us to change position and move. Refer to handout on joint function
  11. 11. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Muscles In our body we have three types of muscle. 1. Skeletal Muscle – attaches to bones 2. Cardiac Muscle – in the heart 3. Smooth Muscle – in the digestive system, veins and arteries
  12. 12. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Skeletal Muscle Muscles produce movement by pulling bones in different directions depending on the type of the joint. They can work on their own or in groups.
  13. 13. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Skeletal Muscle All muscles are attached to bones by tendons. The end that is relatively fixed is called the origin and the end that moves is called the insertion. The main body of the muscle is called the belly.
  14. 14. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Skeletal Muscle Skeletal muscle usually works in pairs. The muscle that causes the movement is called the agonist while the opposing muscle is called the antagonist. Eg. _________________
  15. 15. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Skeletal Muscle The process of one muscle contracting while the antagonist relaxes is called reciprocal inhibition. In some people, such as those with cerebral palsy, this inhibition is lacking so movements may be jerky and disjointed. Some muscles act as stabilisers to assist agonists and antagonists these are synergists. Eg ____
  16. 16. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Skeletal Muscle Movements are produced and posture maintained by the contraction of skeletal muscle fibres.  Muscle Structure The structure of skeletal muscle gives rise to its braided appearance. Fibre size varies between different sex and ages, also in muscles such as the quads the fibres are larger.
  17. 17. Y12 Physical Education AS90433
  18. 18. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 The muscle may be contracting when the muscle is: Shortening = concentric contraction eg. Constant length = isometric contraction eg. Lengthening = eccentric contraction eg. Some Terms
  19. 19. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Muscle Contraction and ATP Adenosine Triphosphate is the main provider of energy for muscle contraction. There is a second provider of energy called creatine phosphate. These substances are stored in the muscles themselves.
  20. 20. Y12 Physical Education AS90433 Shoulder Joint Case Study