Skeletal System


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Skeletal System

  1. 1. (BAGO MUSCULAR) Skeletal System
  2. 2. The Skeletal System <ul><li>For protection of vital organs </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains shape </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive framework </li></ul><ul><li>Storage of minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Hemapoiesis (bone marrow) </li></ul><ul><li>For biochemical levers (where muscles act on) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>locomotion </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Microtubule- tubulin </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate filament </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilament - actin </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cell wall <ul><li>Cellulose is a carbohydrate molecule that made up the skeletal structure of plant cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharide made up of several hundred to thousand d-glucose units joined together </li></ul>
  5. 5. Different types of skeleton found in animals <ul><li>Hydrostatic skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Exoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Endoskeleton </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hydrostatic skeleton <ul><li>fluid held Under pressure in a closed compartment </li></ul><ul><li>Control form and movement through the use of muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Common in cnidarians, flatworms, nematodes and annelids </li></ul><ul><li>Advantageous in aquatic environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides cushion for aquatic animals and support for crawling and burrowing animals </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cnidarians <ul><li>Hydra elongates by closing its mouth and constricting contractile cells at its gastro vascular cavity </li></ul><ul><li>incompressibility of water allows for inc. In length </li></ul>
  8. 8. flatworms <ul><li>Interstitial fluid is kept under pressure </li></ul><ul><li>movements result from localized forces against the hydrostatic pressure </li></ul>
  9. 9. Roundworms <ul><li>Fluid at the pseudocoelom is under pressure </li></ul><ul><li>contraction of longitudinal muscles result in thrashing movement </li></ul>
  10. 10. Annelids <ul><li>Coelom ic fluid acts as the hydrostatic skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Use of both circular and longitudinal muscles in moving </li></ul><ul><li>each segment can change its shape </li></ul><ul><li>use of P eristaltic movement </li></ul>
  11. 12. Hydrostatic skeleton <ul><li>Not suitable for terrestrial habitat </li></ul><ul><li>cannot support running or walking </li></ul>
  12. 13. Exoskeleton <ul><li>A hard encasement deposited on the surface of animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mollusks-calcareous material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mantle-produces the exoskeleton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increased in diameter of shell during growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>arthropods-chitin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cuticle-secreted by epidermis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>growth spurts causes shedding (molting) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. mollusks
  14. 15. arthropods
  15. 16. endoskeleton <ul><li>Consists of hard supporting material within soft tissues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Bones, Pen, hard plates of echinoderms, spicules </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Sponges <ul><ul><li>spicules -made up of inorganic material or fibers of protein </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. echinoderms <ul><li>Ossicles- hard plates of echinoderms </li></ul><ul><li>made up of calcium carbonate crystals </li></ul><ul><li>each segment is held by protein fibers </li></ul>
  18. 19. locomotion <ul><li>Different modes of locomotion across different phyla </li></ul><ul><li>may be due to environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>energy expended </li></ul><ul><ul><li>against friction and gravity </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. locomotion <ul><li>energetic cost of movement varies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mode of locomotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>type of environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Energy in walking on land is diff. From walking at the bottom of a river </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Running demands more energy than swimming </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 21. swimming <ul><li>Gravity is less of a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance is greater </li></ul><ul><li>fusiform body is an adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diverse form of swimming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>insects-paddle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mollusks-jet-propelled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fishes-side-to-side </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>whales-up and down </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Locomotion on Land <ul><li>Gravity is more of a problem than resistance </li></ul><ul><li>energy is expended by pushing the legs up and keeping it from falling </li></ul><ul><li>inertias overcome by moving a leg </li></ul><ul><li>strong muscles and skeleton are more important </li></ul>
  22. 23. Locomotion on land <ul><li>Balance is another factor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tail-acts as a counterbalance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>acts also a tripod in kangaroos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the three feet of quadrupeds also act as a tripod </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>during running-momentum keeps the body upright rather than contact to land </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Hopping-as an adaptation <ul><li>One of the most energy efficient mode of locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>energy is stored in every landing </li></ul><ul><li>higher the hop, the greater the energy </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Considerable energy is expended against resistance to the ground </li></ul><ul><ul><li>snakes-undulate side to side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>body pushes against ground to move forward </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Flying <ul><li>Gravity; is a major problem </li></ul><ul><li>shape of wings is the key to success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shape is airfoil </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. The endoskeleton <ul><li>Chordate skeleton is made up of bones, Cartilage or a combination of the two </li></ul><ul><li>Fused together or joined in a joint by a ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage- sharks and rays (chondroichthyes) </li></ul><ul><li>Bone- other vertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>divided into two </li></ul><ul><ul><li>appendicular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>axial </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. the human skeleton
  28. 29. The joints <ul><li>Synarthroses or fibrous- barely movable or immovable </li></ul><ul><li>Amphiarthroses or cartilaginous- slightly movable </li></ul><ul><li>Diarthroses or synovial- freely movable </li></ul>
  29. 30. The joints <ul><li>Ball-and-socket </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables to more limb in different plane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hinge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement is restricted in one plane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pivot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows rotation </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. What kind of joint?
  31. 32. What kind of joint?
  32. 33. What kind of joint?
  33. 34. The type of bones <ul><li>Based on development: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Membranous- formation of flat bones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cartilaginous- formation of long bones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on histological structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compact or cortical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spongy or cancellous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on morphology: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long bones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short bones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flat bones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sesamoid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irregular </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Intramembranous <ul><li>Mesenchyme cell in the membrane become osteochondral progenitor cell </li></ul><ul><li>osteochondral progenitor cell specialized to become osteoblast </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoblast produce bone matrix and surrounded collagen fiber and become osteocyte </li></ul><ul><li>As the result process trabeculae will develop </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoblast will trap trabeculae to produce bone </li></ul><ul><li>Trabeculae will join together to produce spongy cell </li></ul><ul><li>Cells in the spongy cell will specialize to produce red bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>Cells surrounding the developing bone will produce periosteum </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts from the Periosteum on the bone matrix will produce compact bone </li></ul>
  35. 36. Endochondral
  36. 37. Body proportion and posture <ul><li>Physical law : strength is directly proportional to square of diameter </li></ul><ul><li>But, strain is directly proportional to weight (increases per height 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Animals follow these laws </li></ul>
  37. 38. Imagine. . . . .
  38. 39. The physical laws are not complete.... <ul><li>Relative size of legs to body will not always support an animal </li></ul><ul><li>Position of the legs relative to the body should be considered </li></ul><ul><li>remember how to increase stability in a structure </li></ul><ul><li>muscles and tendons tend to hold most of the stress </li></ul>
  39. 40. Bone tissue <ul><li>Compact bone </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of series of Haversiancanals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New bone formed by osteocytes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Spongy bone </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ends of long bones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less dense than compact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains red marrow and yellow marrow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Periosteum </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outer layer of bone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rich in nerve endings, blood and lymphatic vessels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner portions forms new bone or modifies existing bone </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 42. Number of Bones <ul><li>Adult human- 206 </li></ul><ul><li>Baby human- 270 </li></ul>
  41. 43. The Appendicular and Axial <ul><li>Axial (80) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support and protect the organs of the head, neck and trunk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appendicular (126) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchors appendages to the axial skeleton </li></ul></ul>
  42. 44. The bone cells <ul><li>Osteoblasts </li></ul><ul><li>Osteocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoclasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FYI- if a type of cell has a suffix –blast it is an immature cell; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-cyte is a mature cell </li></ul></ul>
  43. 45. Osteoblasts <ul><li>Immature bone cells </li></ul><ul><li>Produce osteoid- a matric mainly made up of collagen type I </li></ul><ul><li>Also responsible for the mineralization of the osteoid matrix through hormones and enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to become lesser in number as a person ages </li></ul>
  44. 46. Osteocytes <ul><li>Mature osteoblasts </li></ul><ul><li>Found in lacunae </li></ul><ul><li>Connected to each other through cytoplasmic extension of their cell that occupies the canaliculi </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for calcium homeostasis </li></ul>
  45. 47. Osteoclasts <ul><li>Type of bone cell that is responsible for the resorption and shaping of bone by removing the mineralized matrix </li></ul>
  46. 48. Bone remodeling <ul><li>Bone resorption and Bone ossification are involve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resorption- the process of absorbing and assimilating materials in the bone (minerals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ossification – process of intrusion of minerals in the matrix of osteocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible in reshaping during growth or injury (functional demands and muscle attachment) </li></ul></ul>
  47. 49. Hormones that affects the bone <ul><li>Parathyroid hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases calcium in the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calcitonin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases calcium in the blood </li></ul></ul>