Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The Musculoskeletal System


Published on

This slide was presented to class by Ms. Dinah Hernandez, MSN, PHN, RN.

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
  • hi... can you send a copy to my email- tnx..
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

The Musculoskeletal System

  1. 1. Dinah Hernandez, MSN, PHN, RN
  2. 2. <ul><li>Musculoskeletal system includes: skeleton, joints, ligaments, muscles and tendons. </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of Skeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hematopoeisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Long – extended shape, provide support & strength </li></ul><ul><li>Short – approx cube shape </li></ul><ul><li>Flat – provide broad surfaces for muscle attachments </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular – similar to short but irregular in shape </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Compact Bone – hard & dense; composes that shaft of long bones and outer layer of bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Spongy Bone – composed of small bony plates, contains more spaces than compact bones. Filled with soft substance: marrow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow marrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red marrow – responsible for hematopoiesis </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Periosteum contains bld vessels that supply O2 & nutrients to bone cells keeping them alive. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of osseous tissue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphysis – shaft of the long bones, hard and compact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ephiphysis – end of the long bone, spongelike & covered by a shell or harder bone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epiphyseal growth plate – diaphysis and epiphysis fuse together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markings – contours of bones that resemble the configuration of landscape. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facet – small plane or smooth area </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Damage to the Epiphyseal Growth Plate </li></ul><ul><li>The younger the child is when injury occurs, the greater the </li></ul><ul><li>final deficit in length between the injured </li></ul><ul><li>limb and the uninjured limb will be. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Condyle – large rounded projection usually for articulation with another bone </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberosity – large elevated knoblike proj usually for muscle attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Plate – flat projection </li></ul><ul><li>Bony prominences – prominice/projection </li></ul><ul><li>Ridge/crest – thin or narrow process usually on the superior aspect of the bone, known as crest </li></ul><ul><li>Tubercle – small rounded knob or nodule, usually for attachment of ligament or tendon </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Foramen – a hole thru w/c bld vessels, ligament, nerve pass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of foramen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transverse foramen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebral foramen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apical foramen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sciatic foramen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alcock’s canal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carotid canal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infraorbital canal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Sinus – sponge-like air space within a bone such as paranasal sinuses </li></ul><ul><li>Cranial/ cerebral fossae – depression in w/c the brain rests </li></ul><ul><li>Olfactory bulb lies in the ethmoid foassa, mandibl lies in the mandibular or glenoid fossae. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Classification accdg to degree of movement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synathroses – immovable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amphiarthroses – slightly immovable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diarthroses – freely movable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ligaments – tough fiber that bind bones together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid, a libricating material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bursae – fluid-filled sac that cushion the movement of mucscles and tendons </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Hinge (ginglymus) – allows movement only in one plane </li></ul><ul><li>Ball & socket (spheroidal) rounded end of the bone, moves within a cup-shaped depression in the other bone </li></ul><ul><li>Pivot joint – one bone pivots or turns within bony or cartilagenous ring </li></ul><ul><li>Gliding (arthodial plane) bones slide against each other </li></ul><ul><li>Condyloid joint – oval shape, head of one bone moves within the elliptical in another permitting all movements exept axial rotation </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Connect bones to muscle or cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Support internal organs or structures </li></ul><ul><li>Allow great flexeility, stretching, movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessory ligaments do not move or stretch but strengthen or support other ligaments to produce stability in joint. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A ligament is said to arise or originate in the bone or structure that is more stationary. It is said to insert into the bone that does most of the movement. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Arcuate ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Broad ligament of uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Broad ligament of liver </li></ul><ul><li>Cruciate </li></ul><ul><li>Henle’s ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Inguinal ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Medial ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Patella ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Periodontal ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Pubofemoral ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Rhomboid ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Round ligament of femur </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Type of connective tissue organized into a system of fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Helps reduce friction in joints & distribute weight evenly </li></ul><ul><li>Provides slick surface for rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Absors shocks & jars to the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articular cartilage covers the ends of long bones, such as in the knee or hip joints </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Axial skeleton – skull, vertebral column, rib cage </li></ul><ul><li>Appendicular – bones of the extremeties & appendages of the body </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Scoliosis </li></ul><ul><li>Lordosis </li></ul><ul><li>Kyphosis </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Skeletal Muscle – controls movement of skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth/visceral Muscle- controls involuntary motion inside body organs </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac Muscle – automatic; responsible for propelling blood thru blood vessels </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle tissue characteristics </li></ul>