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 Qutab Minar.
 Alauddin Khilji
&
 Muhammad Bin Tughlaq
Qutab Minar
• It is a victory tower-commemoration of great victory of Muhammed Ghori
• His general Qutub-ud-din Aibak –the constructed the first Islamic building
QM.
• Dedicated to Sufi Saint, Qutub-ud-din Bakhtiar Kaki.
• Completed by Illtumish.
• Different style of Architecture.
• Many rulers constructed it part by part.
Features of QM
 It has a diameter 14.32 m at the base and about 2.75m on the top with the height of
72. 5 m.
 It has five storeys . Each storey was separated by projecting balcony.
 First three storeys are built in pale red stone, the fourth one is purely made of marble
and the fifth one is a mix of marble and sandstone.
 The structure also includes spiral staircase of 379 steps leading to the top.
 Verses from Holy Quran and some intricate carvings with floral motifs are inscribed in
the tower.
 The architectural styles differ from base to top.
THE KHILJI DYNASTY
• The founder - Jalaluddin Khilji
• His nephew Alauddin Khilji murdered Jalaluddin Khilji and proclaimed
himself as Sultan.
• Alauddin Khilji was an ambitious ruler.
• His main objective was plunder and expand his territory.
• He annexed Northern India and Southern India.
• He introduced many reforms:
Alauddin khilji introduced many reforms:
• Market regulations –
• 3 separate markets at Delhi: 1. Food grains,
2. Costly cloth,
3.Horses, slaves and cattle.
• Appointed a controller of market (Shahna).
• Fixed the prices of goods
• Very strict punishments for cheating and under weighing goods
• Measures against nobility
• The nobles were not allowed to hold parties and festivities or to form
marriage alliance without the permission of Sultan.
• Banned Wine and intoxicants.
• Gambling was forbidden.
• He established an efficient spy system.
Alauddin khilji ….Reforms Cont…..
• Reorganized Army
• Provided intensive training for fresh recruits
• Dismissed incompetent soldiers.
• Introduced the system of recording the identifying features (Huliya) of soldiers.
• Introduced the system of branding Horse (dagh).
• Introduced cash salaries for soldiers (instead of land).
• Introduced identity card for every soldier (chehra).
• Revenue reforms.
• He brought all the land of his empire under his control.
• To increase income of the empire he imposed taxes on the actual income of the land.
• Introduced the practice of measuring the land and fixing state share accordingly.
• Increased the land revenue from one-third to one half
• Demanded it (revenue) to be paid in cash and not in kind.
• Appointed special officers to collect land revenue
MUHAMMAD BIN TUGHLAQ
• He is the only educated sultan.
• A person with innovative ideas.
• known as man of opposites.
His reforms regarding taxes.
• His decision to raise taxes on agriculture in the doab was followed immediately
by famine (,draught ) and so failed. He took effective steps to fight the famine
 distributed free grains.
 advanced loans to the peasants.
 Improved irrigation facilities.
• His attempt to increase the area of agriculture failed because of mismanagement and
corruption among the officials.
Transfer of Capital.
• Decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to devagiri near modern Aurangabad
and renamed it.
• Dauladabad was centrally located from where he could control Deccan
territories.
• Delhi was in the grip of famine.
• Delhi was constantly threatened by the Mongol invasions
• He ordered the people of Delhi including religious heads to shift to Dauladabad.
• Then he realised the gravity of the threat from north-west he decided to shift
the capital back to Delhi.
Introduction of token currency.
• Introduction of bronze tanka in place of silver tanka.(because of the shortage of Silver)
• Failed because of circulation of fake coins on a very large scale,which caused chaos in trade
and commerce.
CENTRAL ADMINISTRATION
Sultan ruled in the name of God.
Islam was the state religion.
 Sultan was the
Chief Executive
Highest Judicial authority.
Commander-in-Chief of the Army.
 Other Ministers
Chief Minister in the government- The wazir
The Finance Minister The Diwan
The Chief Judge The Quazi
The Army minister The Ariz.
PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION
 Empire was divided into many Provinces called Iqtas.
 The in the charge of iqtas are Governors called Naib Sultans or Iqtadars
 Important Provinces – Jaunpur, Malwa, Gujarat and Deccan.
 Each province was divided into Shiqs .
 Shiqs were further divided into parganas .
 parganas included one or more villages.
 Parganas were divided into mouzas.
 Village is the lowest administrative unit.
 Each village was headed by village headperson called muqaddam.
 Apart from these officials there were
 Patwari -the record- keeper
 Musharif - the village assistant.

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Medieval India (The Delhi Sultanate)

  • 1.  Qutab Minar.  Alauddin Khilji &  Muhammad Bin Tughlaq
  • 2.
  • 3. Qutab Minar • It is a victory tower-commemoration of great victory of Muhammed Ghori • His general Qutub-ud-din Aibak –the constructed the first Islamic building QM. • Dedicated to Sufi Saint, Qutub-ud-din Bakhtiar Kaki. • Completed by Illtumish. • Different style of Architecture. • Many rulers constructed it part by part.
  • 4.
  • 5. Features of QM  It has a diameter 14.32 m at the base and about 2.75m on the top with the height of 72. 5 m.  It has five storeys . Each storey was separated by projecting balcony.  First three storeys are built in pale red stone, the fourth one is purely made of marble and the fifth one is a mix of marble and sandstone.  The structure also includes spiral staircase of 379 steps leading to the top.  Verses from Holy Quran and some intricate carvings with floral motifs are inscribed in the tower.  The architectural styles differ from base to top.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9. THE KHILJI DYNASTY • The founder - Jalaluddin Khilji • His nephew Alauddin Khilji murdered Jalaluddin Khilji and proclaimed himself as Sultan. • Alauddin Khilji was an ambitious ruler. • His main objective was plunder and expand his territory. • He annexed Northern India and Southern India. • He introduced many reforms:
  • 10. Alauddin khilji introduced many reforms: • Market regulations – • 3 separate markets at Delhi: 1. Food grains, 2. Costly cloth, 3.Horses, slaves and cattle. • Appointed a controller of market (Shahna). • Fixed the prices of goods • Very strict punishments for cheating and under weighing goods • Measures against nobility • The nobles were not allowed to hold parties and festivities or to form marriage alliance without the permission of Sultan. • Banned Wine and intoxicants. • Gambling was forbidden. • He established an efficient spy system.
  • 11. Alauddin khilji ….Reforms Cont….. • Reorganized Army • Provided intensive training for fresh recruits • Dismissed incompetent soldiers. • Introduced the system of recording the identifying features (Huliya) of soldiers. • Introduced the system of branding Horse (dagh). • Introduced cash salaries for soldiers (instead of land). • Introduced identity card for every soldier (chehra). • Revenue reforms. • He brought all the land of his empire under his control. • To increase income of the empire he imposed taxes on the actual income of the land. • Introduced the practice of measuring the land and fixing state share accordingly. • Increased the land revenue from one-third to one half • Demanded it (revenue) to be paid in cash and not in kind. • Appointed special officers to collect land revenue
  • 12. MUHAMMAD BIN TUGHLAQ • He is the only educated sultan. • A person with innovative ideas. • known as man of opposites. His reforms regarding taxes. • His decision to raise taxes on agriculture in the doab was followed immediately by famine (,draught ) and so failed. He took effective steps to fight the famine  distributed free grains.  advanced loans to the peasants.  Improved irrigation facilities. • His attempt to increase the area of agriculture failed because of mismanagement and corruption among the officials.
  • 13. Transfer of Capital. • Decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to devagiri near modern Aurangabad and renamed it. • Dauladabad was centrally located from where he could control Deccan territories. • Delhi was in the grip of famine. • Delhi was constantly threatened by the Mongol invasions • He ordered the people of Delhi including religious heads to shift to Dauladabad. • Then he realised the gravity of the threat from north-west he decided to shift the capital back to Delhi. Introduction of token currency. • Introduction of bronze tanka in place of silver tanka.(because of the shortage of Silver) • Failed because of circulation of fake coins on a very large scale,which caused chaos in trade and commerce.
  • 14. CENTRAL ADMINISTRATION Sultan ruled in the name of God. Islam was the state religion.  Sultan was the Chief Executive Highest Judicial authority. Commander-in-Chief of the Army.  Other Ministers Chief Minister in the government- The wazir The Finance Minister The Diwan The Chief Judge The Quazi The Army minister The Ariz.
  • 15. PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION  Empire was divided into many Provinces called Iqtas.  The in the charge of iqtas are Governors called Naib Sultans or Iqtadars  Important Provinces – Jaunpur, Malwa, Gujarat and Deccan.  Each province was divided into Shiqs .  Shiqs were further divided into parganas .  parganas included one or more villages.  Parganas were divided into mouzas.  Village is the lowest administrative unit.  Each village was headed by village headperson called muqaddam.  Apart from these officials there were  Patwari -the record- keeper  Musharif - the village assistant.