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MUHAMMAD-BIN- TUGHLUQ
 Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq or Ghazi Malik was
the founder of the Tughluq dynasty.
 Ghiyas-ud-Din-Tughluq was succeeded by his
son prince Juna khan.
 Juna khan took up the title of
muhammad Tughluq.
 He was born in Multan.
 Muhammad succeeded to the Delhi throne
upon his father's death in 1325.
 He helped his father in over throwing khurso shah.
 He undertook too expeditions on warangal in 1322 &1323.
 Gold & silver coins were distributed among the people at
the time of coronation.
 Muhammad Tughlaq was a scholar of logic, philosophy,
mathematics, astronomy, physical sciences and
calligraphy.
 He was also interested in medicine and was skilled in
several languages -Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Sanskrit.
EARLY LIFE OF TUGHLUQ
POLITICAL CONCEPTS
 He believed in making the whole of India as one political &
administration unit.
His main expeditions were:
Karajal Expedition:
 Karajal was a Hindu kingdom located between India and
China.
 In 1337 -Tughluq sent a huge army to invade Karajal.
 It was a great loss to the Sultan both in men and money.
Further against the Mongols, the Sultan felt weak as he
had neglected the defence of the northwestern frontier.
 In-order-to fulfill his ambition of a great conqueror; he
planned to conquer the kingdom of Khurasan which was
then ruled by Iraq.
But this project was dropped because he did not get the
help of the Persian emperor who had assured him to help
in this mission.
Khurasan Expedition:
The Mongols under their leader
Tarma- Shirin Khan had invaded India
and plundered upto Multan and Lahore
without any opposition.
Taxation in the Doab:
 The doab is the region between the ganges &the jamuna.
 The sultan made an ill advised financial experiment in doab.
 He not only raised the rate of taxation but also revived
some additional cesses.
 According to Barani the taxes were incresed 10 to 20 times.
 It leads to a femine in delhi and its neighbourhood and the doab.
 The peasentry left their homes and shifted to other departments.
 Sultan adopted measures to bring back the peasents to their
original homes
He created a new department of agriculture called Diwan-i-Kohi.
But it was failed.
Transfer of the Capital:
He shifted the capital from Delhi
to Devagari (Daultabad).
 Delhi was nearer to the North-
Western frontier which was
exposed to Mongol invasions.
But Devagiri would be a safe place
and almost free from Mongol raids.
Devagiri was situated at a central
place so the administration of the
north and the south could be
possible.
He provided all fecilities for those who were
required to migrate to Daulatabad.
After a couple of years, Muhammad Tughlaq
decided to abandon Daulatabad because he realized
that he could not control the South from Delhi &
North from Daulatabad.
He changed his mind and again in 1335 A.D.
transferred the Capital to Delhi
He provided all fecilities for those who
were required to migrate to Daulatabad.
After a couple of years, Muhammad
Tughlaq decided to abandon Daulatabad
because he realized that he could not
control the South from Delhi & North from
Daulatabad.
He changed his mind and again in 1335
A.D. transferred the Capital to Delhi
THE CURRENCY EXPERIMENT
Muhammad Bin Tughluq needed to replenish the royal
treasury so he decided to issue bronze coins by passing a royal
order (firman) that these coins were to be accorded the same
value (i.e. same purchasing power) as silver coins. In other
words, he wanted the markets to mentally consider bronze as
silver itself, so that a 1g coin of bronze could buy the same
goods as a 1g coin of silver.
which led to their depreciation, and foreign
merchants refusing to do business in India.
He introduced a new coin made of silver, the adlis,
and increased the size of the existing gold dinar
from 172 grains to 202 grains.
Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325-1351), copper tanka
Muhammad Bin Tughluq introduced copper currency in 1330 A.D
Muhammad Bin Tughluq ordered that coins of copper
currency should be considered equal in value of those of
silver and gold coins.
But he failed in spite of his good intentions simply
because he was much ahead of his time.
Muhammad bin Tughluq , gold tanka
But he failed in spite of his good intentions
simply because he was much ahead of his time.
 In those days there was no elaborate
machinery to prepare stands coins and
consequently, the coins minted by the
state could not be easily distinguished from
private forgeries.
So every goldsmith and silversmith began to make
copper coins in large numbers.
This is an example of Muhammad
bin Tughluq's fiat money ... a
copper coin struck to look like a
silver tanka and meant to have the
same value. The coins were struck
only during the years AH 730-732
(1329-1332 CE), after which the
experiment was abandoned.
LIBERAL ADMINISTRATION
In his religious views Muhammad was a liberal,
though he requested recognition from the Caliph in
Egypt in 1340.
 He loved holding discussions with philosophers
and men of learning and was undoubtedly an
extraordinary man who combined within himself
numerous contradictions.
Muhammad Tughluq orders his brass
coins to pass for silver, A.D. 1330
 He tried to stop the practice of sati.
He made himself the highest court of appeal.
Muhammad bin tughluq believed that he was
the shadow of the god.
Some of the inscriptions on his coins has “GOD IS
THE SUPPORTER OF SULTAN”
Policy Reason Why Failed
Transfer of Capital from
Delhi to Daulatabad
Daulatabad was located in
the centre of his kingdom.
He thought it would help him
to control the whole
kingdom from there.
It was safe from the attacks
of Mongals.
It was easy to control the
southern part of his
kingdom.
He forced the people of
delhi to leave with him.
After some years he
changed his mind and
retransfer his capital from
daulatabad to delhi.
Many people died in this
transfer process.
Changing of Silver coins
into Bronze Coins
At that time there was
a depletion of silver.
It costs less to make bronze
coins.
New coins were easy to
forge. He didn't took any
steps to stop forging of
coins.
Increment of tax in Doab
To increase the profit of
government.
Doab was a rich area form
other places in agriculture.
collected the increased tax
when the production of
corn were not good.
While making an estimate of Sultan Muhammad-
bin- Tughluq’s character and achievements,
historians have strongly differed and have
expressed diametrically opposite views.
But he was proved to be a big failure as a ruler particularly
with regards to his different experiments.
It was due to the failure in different matters he has
been called a mad Sultan. He has also been
characterised as a mixture of opposites and a bundle of
contradictions. It is sure that he had many good ideas,
but he had not the capacity to execute them. He was
surely one of the extraordinary kings.
The Estimate of Sultan Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq:
MOHAMMAD BIN TUGHLUQ

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MOHAMMAD BIN TUGHLUQ

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  • 5. MUHAMMAD-BIN- TUGHLUQ  Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq or Ghazi Malik was the founder of the Tughluq dynasty.  Ghiyas-ud-Din-Tughluq was succeeded by his son prince Juna khan.  Juna khan took up the title of muhammad Tughluq.  He was born in Multan.  Muhammad succeeded to the Delhi throne upon his father's death in 1325.
  • 6.  He helped his father in over throwing khurso shah.  He undertook too expeditions on warangal in 1322 &1323.  Gold & silver coins were distributed among the people at the time of coronation.  Muhammad Tughlaq was a scholar of logic, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, physical sciences and calligraphy.  He was also interested in medicine and was skilled in several languages -Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Sanskrit. EARLY LIFE OF TUGHLUQ
  • 7. POLITICAL CONCEPTS  He believed in making the whole of India as one political & administration unit. His main expeditions were: Karajal Expedition:  Karajal was a Hindu kingdom located between India and China.  In 1337 -Tughluq sent a huge army to invade Karajal.  It was a great loss to the Sultan both in men and money. Further against the Mongols, the Sultan felt weak as he had neglected the defence of the northwestern frontier.
  • 8.  In-order-to fulfill his ambition of a great conqueror; he planned to conquer the kingdom of Khurasan which was then ruled by Iraq. But this project was dropped because he did not get the help of the Persian emperor who had assured him to help in this mission. Khurasan Expedition: The Mongols under their leader Tarma- Shirin Khan had invaded India and plundered upto Multan and Lahore without any opposition.
  • 9. Taxation in the Doab:  The doab is the region between the ganges &the jamuna.  The sultan made an ill advised financial experiment in doab.  He not only raised the rate of taxation but also revived some additional cesses.  According to Barani the taxes were incresed 10 to 20 times.  It leads to a femine in delhi and its neighbourhood and the doab.  The peasentry left their homes and shifted to other departments.  Sultan adopted measures to bring back the peasents to their original homes He created a new department of agriculture called Diwan-i-Kohi. But it was failed.
  • 10. Transfer of the Capital: He shifted the capital from Delhi to Devagari (Daultabad).  Delhi was nearer to the North- Western frontier which was exposed to Mongol invasions. But Devagiri would be a safe place and almost free from Mongol raids. Devagiri was situated at a central place so the administration of the north and the south could be possible.
  • 11. He provided all fecilities for those who were required to migrate to Daulatabad. After a couple of years, Muhammad Tughlaq decided to abandon Daulatabad because he realized that he could not control the South from Delhi & North from Daulatabad. He changed his mind and again in 1335 A.D. transferred the Capital to Delhi He provided all fecilities for those who were required to migrate to Daulatabad. After a couple of years, Muhammad Tughlaq decided to abandon Daulatabad because he realized that he could not control the South from Delhi & North from Daulatabad. He changed his mind and again in 1335 A.D. transferred the Capital to Delhi
  • 12. THE CURRENCY EXPERIMENT Muhammad Bin Tughluq needed to replenish the royal treasury so he decided to issue bronze coins by passing a royal order (firman) that these coins were to be accorded the same value (i.e. same purchasing power) as silver coins. In other words, he wanted the markets to mentally consider bronze as silver itself, so that a 1g coin of bronze could buy the same goods as a 1g coin of silver. which led to their depreciation, and foreign merchants refusing to do business in India. He introduced a new coin made of silver, the adlis, and increased the size of the existing gold dinar from 172 grains to 202 grains.
  • 13. Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325-1351), copper tanka Muhammad Bin Tughluq introduced copper currency in 1330 A.D Muhammad Bin Tughluq ordered that coins of copper currency should be considered equal in value of those of silver and gold coins. But he failed in spite of his good intentions simply because he was much ahead of his time.
  • 14. Muhammad bin Tughluq , gold tanka But he failed in spite of his good intentions simply because he was much ahead of his time.  In those days there was no elaborate machinery to prepare stands coins and consequently, the coins minted by the state could not be easily distinguished from private forgeries. So every goldsmith and silversmith began to make copper coins in large numbers.
  • 15. This is an example of Muhammad bin Tughluq's fiat money ... a copper coin struck to look like a silver tanka and meant to have the same value. The coins were struck only during the years AH 730-732 (1329-1332 CE), after which the experiment was abandoned.
  • 16. LIBERAL ADMINISTRATION In his religious views Muhammad was a liberal, though he requested recognition from the Caliph in Egypt in 1340.  He loved holding discussions with philosophers and men of learning and was undoubtedly an extraordinary man who combined within himself numerous contradictions. Muhammad Tughluq orders his brass coins to pass for silver, A.D. 1330
  • 17.  He tried to stop the practice of sati. He made himself the highest court of appeal. Muhammad bin tughluq believed that he was the shadow of the god. Some of the inscriptions on his coins has “GOD IS THE SUPPORTER OF SULTAN”
  • 18. Policy Reason Why Failed Transfer of Capital from Delhi to Daulatabad Daulatabad was located in the centre of his kingdom. He thought it would help him to control the whole kingdom from there. It was safe from the attacks of Mongals. It was easy to control the southern part of his kingdom. He forced the people of delhi to leave with him. After some years he changed his mind and retransfer his capital from daulatabad to delhi. Many people died in this transfer process. Changing of Silver coins into Bronze Coins At that time there was a depletion of silver. It costs less to make bronze coins. New coins were easy to forge. He didn't took any steps to stop forging of coins. Increment of tax in Doab To increase the profit of government. Doab was a rich area form other places in agriculture. collected the increased tax when the production of corn were not good.
  • 19. While making an estimate of Sultan Muhammad- bin- Tughluq’s character and achievements, historians have strongly differed and have expressed diametrically opposite views. But he was proved to be a big failure as a ruler particularly with regards to his different experiments. It was due to the failure in different matters he has been called a mad Sultan. He has also been characterised as a mixture of opposites and a bundle of contradictions. It is sure that he had many good ideas, but he had not the capacity to execute them. He was surely one of the extraordinary kings. The Estimate of Sultan Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq: