Pakistan studies presentation


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Pakistan studies presentation

  2. 2. PRESENTED BY  Muhammad Makeen Hashmi  Muhammad Sameer  Salman  Muhammad Huzaifa Khan
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION TO MUGHAL EMPERORS  Mughals ruled the subcontinent for three centuries and left an indelible mark on its culture and society.  Mughal Emperors are well known all over the world for their golden rule over the Sub-continent, which lasted for over three centuries. Not only did they gloriously rule this part of the world, they also left an indelible mark on the Indian Sub- continent with their art and architecture. To this day, there are beautiful buildings in all parts of the Sub-continent, now divided into India and Pakistan, which reminds one of its splendid past.
  6. 6. ZAHIR-UD-DIN BABUR  Mughals came to the Sub-continent when Zahiruddin Babar conquered Delhi in 1526. It was after the famous Battle of Panipat where Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, thus bringing an end to the Lodhi dynasty. This also laid the foundation for Mughal Empire which then went on to rule the Sub-continent for next three centuries. Babar was a very dynamic and enterprising ruler, who could not rule India for more than four years as he died in 1530
  7. 7. NASEER-UD-DIN HUMAYUN  Humayun, Babar's son, succeeded him but he faced several tough times when he ascended the throne. It was because of the fact that his father died before he could consolidate his empire. Sher Shah Suri proved to be the toughest one who brought Afghans to power and temporarily put an end to the Mughal rule after he defeated Humayun in 1540.  After his death, his son reigned for nine years and his son Firuz Shah succeeded him in turn in 1554. But all this proved to be nothing but temporary hindrance in the restoration of the Mughal Dynasty, which was established once again by Humayun in 1555. But poor Humayun was very weak by then and died just a year later, in 1556
  8. 8. JALAL-UD-DIN AKBAR  It was then that the most important and by far the most eventful period of Mughal reign began when Akbar, son of Humayun took over after his father's death. Akbar was hardly thirteen when he ascended the throne and went on to rule for almost half a century. But in his early days of power, Akbar was supported by Bairam Khan who faithfully helped him govern the huge Empire. Akbar is well remembered for his statesmanship, which was based upon good will towards all. He was but a weak Muslim and tried to bring objectionable changes in the rules of this religion. But these changes didn't last for long as Muslims believed staunchly in the rules laid by The Holy Quran.
  9. 9. JAHANGIR  Akbar's death brought his son Jahangir to the throne in 1605. Jahangir's reign is dented with many rebellions which he successfully countered. His greatest achievement was the conquest of the fortress of Kangara in Punjab. It was captured after a struggle, which lasted 14 months.
  10. 10. SHAH JAHAN  Shah Jahan followed Jahangir in 1628, and to this day Shah Jahan is known for the magnificent monument of Taj Mahal which he had built in memory of his wife, Mumtaz Mahal (Noor Jahan). But Shah Jahan was accused by his son, Aurangzeb Alamgir, of extravagance and he held his father captive and after some resistance from his brothers came to power in 1658. He remained imprisoned for eight years where he was treated very well but was kept away from the administration of the Empire.
  11. 11. AURANGZEB ALAMGIR  Aurangzeb Alamgir is known in history for his Islamic works. He was a pious man who lived like any other ordinary man of India while he was on the throne. He had seen the way his father had led his life and despised it strongly. Therefore he preferred to work more for the social good of his people.
  12. 12. END OF MUGHAL EMPIRE  Though Mughal Empire did continue after the death of Aurangzeb, it is unanimously agreed that the decline had started right after the birth of this great Mughal Emperor. Bahadur Shah Zafar was the last Mughal emperor who ascended the throne in 1837 and was forced to leave in 1857 after the famous war of independence in which British imprisoned Bahadur Shah in a fort and from thereon became real ruler of the Sub-continent till 1947.
  13. 13. DECLINE OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE  By the opening of the eighteenth century when Europe was ruled by Strong monarchies and the European merchant communities were well on the road to prosperity the Muslim powers everywhere showed a rapid decline. The empire of the Muslims began to weaken rapidly after the death of the great Emperor Alamgir-I in 1707.
  14. 14. WHY THE MUGHAL EMPIRES DECLINE ? Reason: There are many reasons why the Muhgal Empire declined. The decline was gradual some historians blame Aurangzeb for sowing the seeds of decline, the empire continued for another 150 yrs after his death. Perhaps, the real answer was that a number of factors combined to bring about the fall of one of Asia’s most famous dynasties.
  15. 15.  ADMINISTRATION The huge empire was very difficult to administer. Decisions often had to be delayed over thousands of miles because of long distance, that’s why emperors couldnot know what exactly was happening in every part of empire. This was one reason why Aurangzeb encouraged the use of mansabdars, but many problems remained. When rebellions broke out it takes many months before the emperors could take decisive action to end them…
  16. 16. MILITARY COSTS The Mughal empire was huge & within the empire there was an array of different peoples & different religions. The cost of putting down rebellions & fighting wars against invaders, such as Nadir Shah from Persia was enormous.
  17. 17. SUCCESSION It should also not be forgotten that it was oftern true that huge sums were wasted when emperor died and there was a succession dispute, when shah jahan fell sick in 1657 all 4 sons ended up fighting to succee him even though he had not yet died! it was to avoid costly wars that aurangzev decided to divide the empire btween his 3 sons but this was not success dul and suxxeession disputes continued to erode the empire
  18. 18.  PLEASURE SEEKING  The wealth created by the mughal also encouraged the nobility to become pleasure loving and degenerate. they betrayed the principles of Islam and istead enjoyed the pleasure brought by wealth, noble often had the finest clothes jewellery and food. one frnd of akbar is said to have ordered atleast 100 courses at each meal. the emperors also set a poor example: fine buildings were a symbol of power and culture but they were also sometimes so expensive that they were a symbol od extravagance
  19. 19.  WEAK CONTROL As the wealth and influence of the nobility grew so that thry became highly powerful at court and some of the emperor found it very difficlt to control them , with weak control from the centre . the mansabdari system was not sufficiently supercised and administrative efficiency declined, discontent grew and revenue from taxcollection declined
  20. 20. THE ARRIVAL OF THE BRITISH The Portuguese and the British (The English East India Company) came in the guise of traders but developed factories and forts which ultimately became centre of their subversive activities. Their clever maneuverings and the weaknesses of the Muslim Rulers enabled the British to seize control of the country by 1857. empire was in srious decline by the end of 18 century,