I NT RODUCT ION T O DE L HI Delhi, known locally as Dilli (Hindi: Punjabi: Urdu: dehli ) and by the official name National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest metropolis by population in India. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with more than 12.25 million inhabitants in the territory. It is the capital of India and its political and cultural center. Located on the banks of the River Yamuna, Delhi has been continuously inhabited since at least the 6th century BCE
After the rise of the Delhi Sultanate, Delhi emerged as a major political, cultural and commercial city along the trade routes between northwest India and the Gangetic plain. It is the site of many ancient and medieval monuments, archaeological sites and remain. Calcutta became the capital both under Company rule and under the British Raj, until George V announced in 1911 that it was to move back to Delhi. A new capital city, New Delhi, was built to the south of the old city during the 1920s.When India gained independence from British rule in 1947, New Delhi was declared its capital and seat of government. As such, New Delhi houses important offices of the federal government, including the Parliament of India, as well as numerous national museums, monuments, and art galleries.
GE OGRA P HY The National Capital Territory of Delhi is spread over an area of 1,484 km 2 (573 sq m) , of which 783 km 2 (302 sq m) is designated rural, and 700 km 2 (270 sq m) urban. Delhi has a maximum length of 51.9 km (32 m) and the maximum width of 48.48 km (30 m). There are three local bodies (statutory towns) namely, Municipal Corporation of Delhi (area is 1,397.3 km 2 or 540 sq m), New Delhi Municipal Committee (42.7 km 2 or 16 sq m) and Delhi Cantonment Board (43 km 2 or 17 sq m).
THE DELHISULTANATEThe delhi sultanate is a noble example forthe glory of ancient india.its culture, artand architecture that exists even today ispraiseworthy.
Its formation:-1. In 1206AD, Delhi was established by qutub-ud-din-aibek and he declared himself as a Sultan of Hindustan after the death of Mohammed Ghor2. Qutub-ud-din-aibek ruled for 4 yrs……3. After qutub-ud-din-aibek altamish came into power and later he was also succeed by his daughter Razia Begum and she was killed in a battle in 1240ad…… All together 4 dynasties from 1206-1526ad formed Delhi sultanate
They were: Slave dynasty Khilji dynasty Tughlaq dynasty Lodi dynasty
Slave Dynasty After qutub-ud-din-aibek, slave dynasty started declining and over ruled by jalal-ud- din khilji. I N TURN HE WAS SUCCEEDED BY R AZIA BEGUM WHO WAS KILLED IN A BATTLE IN 1240AD…..
KHILJI DYNASTY Established by jalal-ud-din khilji... He defeated the descendants of Balban, being victorious came to power.. Alauddin-khilji ascended the throne after killing his uncle and father-in-law, jalaluddin-khilji
TUGHLAQ DYNASTY G HIYAS - UD - DIN -T UGHLAQ DEFEATED & KILLED THE LAST RULER OF K HILJI DYNASTY & BECAME THE RULER OF D ELHI IN 1320AD. HE WAS SUCCEEDED BY HIS SON M OHAMMED - BIN -T UGHLAQ . F IROZ S HAH T UGHLAQ WAS A POWERFUL RULER AFTER M UHAMMAD - BIN - T UGHLAQ . HE BUILT A NEW CAPITAL AT D ELHI & NAMED IT F IROZABAD . HE FOUNDED THE CITIES OF H ISSAR ,F ETEHBAD & J AUNPUR . A FTER THE DEATH OF F IROZ S HAH T UGHLAQ THE D ELHI SULTANATE GRADUALLY DECLINED .
LODI DYNASTY:1. W HEN A LAM S HAH VOLUNTARILY ABDICATED THE THRONE TO HIM , B AHLUL K HAN SEIZED THE THRONE ON A PRIL 19, 1451 WITH THE SUPPORT OF HIS MINISTER H AMID K HAN .2. H E WAS THE FIRST A FGHAN RULER3. B AHLUL K HAN EXTENDED HIS TERRITORIES OVER G WALIOR , J AUNPUR AND UPPER U TTAR P RADESH .4. H E APPOINTED HIS ELDEST SON B ARBAK S HAH AS VICEROY OF J AUNPUR IN 1486.5. B AHLUL K HAN WAS CONFUSED AS TO WHO SHOULD SUCCEED HIM AMONG HIS SONS B ARBAK S HAH AND N IZAM S HAH AND GRANDSON A ZAM - I -H UMAYUN .6. N IZAM S HAH SUCCEEDED B AHLAL K HAN L ODI UNDER THE TITLE S IKANDER S HAH
CAUSES FOR THE DECLINE OFDELHI SULTANATE THERE WAS NO DEFINITE LAW OF SUCCESSION . AFTER THE DEATH OF EACH SULTAN , THE SITUATION GAVE RISE TO MANY CIVIL WARS . THE NOBLES BECAME THE KING MAKERS & CONTROLLED THE WEAK SULTANS . JAGIR SYSTEM GAVE RISE TO DISINTEGRATION THAT WEAKENED THE KINGDOM . THE INVASION OF TIMUR & BABUR WAS THE MAIN CAUSE FOR THE DOWNFALL OF THE DELHI SULTANATE .
The foundation of the city was laid on December 15, 1911, and was planned by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker, leading 20th century British architects
The story of Delhi unfolds far back in the dark mists of history. These are:
City :- IndraprasthaDate :-1450 BC (approx.)Site :- In Purana QilaRemains :- Archeological finds nowsupport the view that this was indeedDelhis earliest city. This has notsurprised anyone in Delhi, for popularopinion had never doubted the existenceof Indra-prashtha. Reasons for its declineare not known.
City :- Lal Kot or Qila Rai Pithora Date :- 1060 AD; built by Rajput Tomaras. 12th century; captured and enlarged by the Rajput king Prithviraj Chauhan. Site :- QutubMinar-Mehraulicomplex. Remains :- Very little remains of the original Lal Kot. of the 13 gates of Rai Pithora fort, now only three remain.
City :- Siri Date :-1304 AD; built by Alauddin Khilji of the Delhi Sultanate. Alauddin Khilji was well-known for his trade reforms, so its not surprising that Siri was a major trading throughout the centre the Hauz-i-Alai, 14th century. Site :- Near Hauz Khas and Gulmohar Park. Remains :- Some portions and walls remain. Alauddin Khilji also built other things around Siri. Like, the beautiful Alai Darwaza, the south gate of the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque and reservoir in present-day Hauz Khas.
City :- Tughlaqabad Date :- 1321-23 AD. Built by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq. Site :- 8km from the Qutub complex. Remains:- Walls and some ruined buildings.
City :-Jahanpanah Date :- Mid-14th century. Built by Mohammad- bin-Tughlaq, the so-called lunatic king. Actually he had some brilliant ideas but fumbled badly in their execution. Site :- Between Siri and Qutub Minar. Remains:-A few remnants of defensive ramparts.
City :-Ferozabad Date :- 1354 AD; by Feroze Tughlaq. It remained the capital until Sikander Lodi moved to Agra. Site:- Kotla Feroze Shah. Remains:- Only the Asoka Pillar rising from the ruins remains. There is stadium for cricket which is called Feroze Shah Kotla grounds. It is also a regular bus stop.
City :- Dilli Sher Shahi (Shergarh) Date :- 1534; This Delhi was actually started by Humayun, the second Mughal emperor. After he was defeated and forced into exile, his far more able overthrower Sher Shah Suri completed it. Site :- Opposite the zoo. Around Purana Qila. Remains:- High gates,walls,mosque and a great baoli(well). Kabuli and Lal Darwaza gates and the Sher Mandal.
City :- Shajahanabad Date :- Mid-17th century. Shah Jahan, the fifth Mughal emperor moved his capital from Agra to here. Site :- The existing Old Delhi. Remains :- The Red Fort, Jama Masjid, main streets of Old Delhi (like Chandini Chowk), long sections of walls and several city gates. Old Delhi might be congested, but it still retains its medieval charm. The people are very warm and welcoming, even though riots between Hindus and Muslims are quite common.
City :- New Delhi Date :- 1920s. The formal announcement to move the seat of power from Calcutta to Delhi was made during the famous Delhi Durbar in 1911. Contractors and workers working from the designs of Edward Lutyens completed the main buildings 20 years later. Since then Delhi has remained the capital of India. Site :- Connaught Place and Rajpath. Remains:- All the main British buildings, which include the spacious bungalows of the now elite New Delhi area, the Presidents House, the Parliament and Supreme Court.
THE MODERN DELHI DELHI METRO HUGE MALLS COMMONWEALTH GAMES 2010 IGI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT ROADS & TRANSPORT
DELHI METRO RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM CONNECTING DELHI, GURGAON, NOIDA 27,000 DAILY TRIPS FROM 6:00 TO 23:00 2 ND METRO IN THE WORLD TO BE CERTIFIED ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY BY THE U.N
HUGE MALLS SELECT CITYWALK DLF AMBIENCE GREAT INDIAN PALACE PROMENADE CROSSRIVER MALL
COMMONWEALTHGAMES 2010 LARGEST MULTI-SPORT TO BE HELD IN INDIA FIRST TIME TO BE HELD IN INDIA, 2 ND TIME IN ASIA INDIA SHONE WITH 101 MEDALS INCLUDING 38 GOLDS COMING 2 ND OVERALL AFTER AUSTRALIA
IGI INTERNATIONALAIRPORT BUSIEST AIRPORT IN INDIA WITH THE COMMENCEMENT OF T3 TERMINAL HAS BECOME INDIA’S AND SOUTH ASIA’S MOST IMPORTANT AND BIGGEST AVIATION HUB CAPACITY – 46 MILLION T3 TERMINAL – WORLD’S EIGHTH LARGEST PASSENGER TERMINAL
Roads & Transport Addition of new arterial and approach roads to improve intra-city transport and decongestion of all National Highways at Delhi’s entry points from its neighboring states. Road Improvement Plan for 52 identified roads Construction of nine new subways and improvement projects for existing ones (flooring, illuminations, signage, toilets, escalators etc).
Hospitality Services HospitalityServices Planning and building five-star hotels and the country’s largest world-class convention centre. Big number of Hotels with world class facilities are coming up to provide the tourist all desired comforts in the city and NCR region.
Medical Facilities Medical Facilities The Delhi government has decided to construct 36 hospitals in New Delhi, in the run-up to the 2010 Commonwealth Games. Some of these hi- tech hospitals will be built in the Trans- Yamuna area of DelhiInitially a fund of Rs.150 million has been planned for the construction of the hospitals, but more funds will be made available as and when needed.
Power Supply Power Supply Addition of power supply to the existing 3,500 MW supply available to the city. Delhi will see the availability of power enhanced to 7,000 MW from the present 4,000 MW by the Commonwealth Games in 2010 In the coming years, the city will get power from the Damodar Valley Corp, National Thermal Power Corp, the Dadri power plant, the Jhajhar plant and the Pragati power plant - these total 4,240 MW.
Green Delhi Green Delhi Government wants to turn green Delhi into lush green this time before the 2010 Commonwealth Games. Its horticulture department has sown 41,000 species of plants at Roshanara Bagh which are likely to flower during the Games period. Some of the trees being grown by the MCD include Plumeria Alba, Plumeria Acutifolia, Lagerstromia Flosreginae, Colvillea Racemosa, Bougainvillea, Hisbiscus, Lantana, Cassia alata, Jatropha, Neem, Ashoka tree etc. It also plans to sow five lakh plants and shrubs so that they are ready by then.
Clean Delhi Clean Delhi Delhi will look more clean than ever before in the coming 2 years. With an eye on the Commonwealth Games 2010, the MCD has taken up the task of civilising unruly citizens before the event. The MCD is finalising the rules for implementing the new fines for littering public places, and willing to take the help of private sector organisations to impose the fines on the spot.