LEADERSHIPThe process of encouraging and helping other to workenthusiastically towards objective.”“Interpersonal influence , exercised in a situation and directed,through the communication process , towards the attainment ofspecified goals.”“It’s a process and property of a relationship in which oneperson (leader) influences other to work together willingly onrelated tasks to attain goals desired by the leader or by thegroup
LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS Energy, drive Appearance, presentability A sense of cooperativeness Enthusiasm Personality – height and weight Initiative Intelligence Judgment Self confidence Sociability Tact and diplomacy Moral courage and integrity Will power and flexibility Emotional stability Knowledge of human relations
TRAIT THEORYLeadership Traits:Leadership Traits:•Ambition and energyAmbition and energy•The desire to leadThe desire to lead•Honest and integrityHonest and integrity•Self-confidenceSelf-confidence•IntelligenceIntelligence•High self-monitoringHigh self-monitoring•Job-relevant knowledgeJob-relevant knowledgeHenry Fayol, Charles Bird , Ralph Stogdill gave their ideas on this theory.Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits todifferentiate leaders from non-leaders.
Limitations:Limitations: No universal traits found that predict leadershipNo universal traits found that predict leadershipin all situations.in all situations. Traits predict behavior better in “weak” thanTraits predict behavior better in “weak” than“strong” situations.“strong” situations. Unclear evidence of the cause and effect ofUnclear evidence of the cause and effect ofrelationship of leadership and traits.relationship of leadership and traits. Better predictor of the appearance of leadershipBetter predictor of the appearance of leadershipthan distinguishing effective and ineffectivethan distinguishing effective and ineffectiveleadersleaders
Behavioral TheoriesStudies Leadership by looking at the leaders interms of what they “do”.This is in contrast to the Trait theory.
Initiating structure degree to which leader structures followers’ rolesby setting goals, giving directions, settingdeadlines, and assigning tasks Consideration extent to which a leader is friendly, approachable,supportive, and shows concern for employeesOhio State Studies
University of Michigan StudiesEmployee-Oriented LeaderEmphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personalinterest in the needs of employees and accepting individualdifferences among members.Production-Oriented LeaderOne who emphasizes technical or taskaspects of the job.
The managerial grid diagram as shown above can be interpreted asfollows: Coordinates (1,1): This represents an impoverished management andthe manager makes minimum efforts to get the work done. Minimumstandards of performance and minimum worker dedication. Coordinates (9,1): Excellent work design. Well-establishedprocedures. Minimum worker interference. Orderly performance andefficient operations. Coordinates (1,9): Personal and meaningful relationships with people.Friendly atmosphere and high morale. Loosely structured work design. Coordinates (9,9): Ultimate in managerial efficiency. Thoroughlydedicated people. Trustworthy and respectable atmosphere. Highlyorganized task performances. Known as team management style, itrelies upon interdependence of relationships based upon trust andrespect and work accomplishment base upon commitment ofemployees. Coordinates (5,5): Known as the middle-of –the-road managementstyle, it is concerned with balancing the necessity to get the work donewhile maintaining worker morale at a satisfactory level. The goal is toachieve adequate organizational performance.
Situational Theory of Leadership FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY MODEL HERSEY-BLANCHARD SITUATIONAL MODEL HOUSE’S PATH GOAL THEORY VROOM-VETTEN AND JAGO’S CONTINGENCYMODEL
The Contingency ModelDeveloped by Fred FiedlerAccording to him leaders are……Task oriented leadersRelationship oriented leadersThe three major determinants are…Leader-member relationsTask structuresPosition power
HERSEY-BLANCHARD SITUATIONALMODEL Hersey-Blanchard situational model also advocates linking leadershipstyles with various situation so as to ensure effective leadership ,but itsperspective of situation variable is different to Fiedler’s model. this model is also known as life cycle theory of leadership and is basedon an interaction among three factors. Task Behavior Relationship Behavior Maturity Level
Telling : High Task- Low Relationship Selling : High Task- High Relationship Participating : Low Task- HighRelationship Delegating : Low Task- LowRelationshipTask BehaviourRelationshipBehaviourLOW HIGHHIGH
House’s Path-Goal TheoryPath-Goal TheoryThe theory that it is the leader’s job to assistfollowers in attaining their goals and to provide themthe necessary direction and support to ensure thattheir goals are compatible with the overall objectivesof the group or organization.
House’sPath-Goal Theory of LeadershipLeader identifiesemployee needs.PathAppropriate goalsare established.DirectiveLeader connectsrewards withgoal(s)DirectiveLeader provides assistanceon employee’s path toward goals.Employees become satisfied andmotivated and accept the leader.Effective performanceOccurs.Both employees andorganization better reachtheir goals.Supportive behavior Participative behaviorAchievementMotivation
Leadership – Member Exchange Theory(LMX) A theory that supports leader’s creation of in-groups and out-groups; subordinates with in-group status will have higher performanceratings, less turnover and greater jobsatisfaction. Relationship formed is relatively stable overtime. Leaders differentiate among and in-groups &out-groups are formed HIGHHIGHHIGH
Subordinates in the In-Groupreceive more…InformationInfluenceConfidenceConcernRespectTrustChallenging WorkIndependenceOpportunities for leadership
Subordinates in the Out-GroupRule boundContractualLower quality relationshipHierarchicalSelf-InterestedLess communicativeLess InvolvedLess dependable
DECISION THEORY: Vroom & Yetten’sleadership-participation modelDeveloped by Victor Vroom & Phillip Yetten who were laterjoined by Arther Jago.It relates leadership behavior and participation in decisionmaking.It focuses on leader’s role as decision maker and considershow leaders make decisions (such as whether to involvefollowers in their decision making).
Contd….The three factors which are to be consideredfor this purpose are:- Decision quality- choosing of the bestalternative. Decision acceptance- implication of adecision for subordinates. Decision timing- time constraint on decision
CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP Given by MAX WEBER Charisma a Greek word which means ‘gift’ Acc to this the followers make attributions ofheroic or extraordinary leadership abilitieswhen they observe certain behaviours.
Key characteristics of charismatic leadersCharismaticleadersVision andarticulationpersonal riskSensitivity tofollowerneedsUnconventionalbehavior
Transformational Leadership A leadership style focused on effecting revolutionarychange in organizations through a commitment tothe organizations vision Transformational leaders inspire followers totranscend their own self interests for the good of theorganization They are capable of having profound andextraordinary effect on their followers.
Transformational leadership worksWhen leaders:When leaders: Commit people to actionCommit people to action Convert followers into leadersConvert followers into leaders Convert leaders into change agents, innovatorsConvert leaders into change agents, innovators Are courageousAre courageous Believe in peopleBelieve in people Are value drivenAre value driven Are lifelong learnersAre lifelong learners Can deal with complexityCan deal with complexity
Richard Branson of Virgin AtlanticJim McNerney of Boeing