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The History Of Computers

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A recap of the history of a computer.

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The History Of Computers

  1. 1. The History of Computers<br />By Karen Edoff<br />
  2. 2. WHO INVENTED THE COMPUTER?<br />Many inventors contributed <br /> to the history of computers<br />A computer is a complex <br />piece of machinery <br />made up of many parts <br />Each of which can be considered <br />a separate invention.<br />
  3. 3. Lets explore those inventions<br />
  4. 4. PREHISTORIC<br />
  5. 5. The Abacus<br />Simple counting aid<br />Invented in the <br />4th century B.C. <br />
  6. 6. The Modern Abacus<br />Used for :<br />multiplication<br />division <br />addition <br />subtraction <br />square root<br />and cube root <br />Still used in <br />Asia and Africa<br />
  7. 7. MECHANICAL<br />
  8. 8. Pascal’s Calculator<br />The first calculator<br />Invented in 1694<br />Very simple gears<br />Added up to 6 digits<br />
  9. 9. Problem..<br />not accurate<br />couldn’t subtract or divide<br />
  10. 10. Arithmometer -1820 <br />Finally a machine that could <br /> Add <br /> Subtract<br /> Multiply and<br /> Divide<br />RELIABLY<br />
  11. 11. Still Problems…<br /> All mechanical calculators had moving parts that were slow and could break down.<br />
  12. 12. ELECTRONICAL<br />
  13. 13. First Programmable Computer<br />The Z3<br />By:KONRAD ZUSE <br />Uses binary math<br />And Boolean logic<br />In 1941<br />Fully functional<br />
  14. 14. The Harvard Mark 1<br />was 1/2 the length of a football field<br />contained 500 miles of wiring <br />operated at 5 instructions/second<br />
  15. 15. ENIAC<br />Created in 1945<br />Electronic <br />Numerical <br />Integrator <br />Analyzer and <br />Computer<br />Required enough energy to dim the lights of Philadelphia when it was run.<br />operated at 5000 instructions per second<br />weighed 30 tons<br />
  16. 16. I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.   -- Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943 <br />Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons.   -- Popular Mechanics, 1949<br />
  17. 17. Vacuum Tubes<br />Early computers used <br />vacuum tubes.<br />
  18. 18. Replacing a bad tube meant checking ENIAC’s 19,000 possibilities<br />
  19. 19. The First Transistors <br />Or electronic switches<br />Developed by:<br />Bell Telephone Laboratories <br />They replaced a computer’s vacuum tube in1956.<br />In 1945<br />
  20. 20. The IBM Stretch -1956<br />transistors replaced vacuum tubes <br />cost: $3.5 million<br />operated at 50,000 instructions per second<br />
  21. 21. The IBM Stretch<br />The first to:<br />Provide multiprogramming – <br />do more than one task at a time.<br />Memory interleaving, breaking up memory into chunks for much higher bandwidth.<br />line up instructions in a queue, so that the computer doesn’t have to wait between operations<br />Provide security which prevents unauthorized memory access <br />Establish the eight-bit byte<br />
  22. 22. Programming Language-1957<br />COBOL, FORTRAN<br />Used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine<br />Computers operating at 100,000 instructions /second <br />
  23. 23. The First Integrated Circuits - 1958<br />Modern <br />Integrated circuits <br />Allows a computer to get smaller, faster, cheaper <br />
  24. 24. RAM -1970<br />The first <br />memory chip<br />contained more than 1,000 bits of information<br />
  25. 25. Floppy Disks - 1971<br />The first 8&quot; floppy diskette<br />Held 79.7 kb <br />of memory<br />
  26. 26. Commercially Available Minicomputers – <br />1970’s & 1980’s <br />
  27. 27. Apple I - 1976<br />First single circuit board computer<br />8k of RAM<br />Only 200 <br />Apple I ‘s <br />were built and sold <br />
  28. 28. Apple II - 1977<br />First built in Operating System<br />Process 1 million<br />Instructions/ second<br /> (1 MHz)<br />Could store<br /> 4,000 characters<br /> (4 KB of RAM)<br />
  29. 29. Video Games -1970<br />Video games drove the demand for better and more affordable computers. <br />
  30. 30. IMB - 1981<br />First computer to come with a keyboard, monitor & printer.<br />
  31. 31. Commodore 64 -1982<br />64 kilobytes of memory<br /> (64,000 characters)<br />16 colors<br />two bitmap graphics modes<br />Directly plugged into a television<br />
  32. 32. Apple - 1984<br />Could store 128,000 characters <br /> (128kb of RAM)<br />Process 16 million <br />instructions/second<br /> (16.67 MHz) <br />
  33. 33. There is no reason anyone would <br />want a computer in their home. <br />   --Ken Olson, CEO, Digital Equipment Corp., 1977<br />
  34. 34. 1990’s<br />Personal computers are operating at 1-2 GHz <br />That’s 1 billion to 2 billion instructions /second.<br />RAM was anywhere from 64 to 128 MB<br /> Memory for 128 million characters.<br />
  35. 35. If automobiles improved with the same rate as computers then our car would…<br />cost: $4,000<br />fuel efficiency: 20,000 mpg <br />top speed: 60,000 mph <br />reliability: break every 70 years <br />seating: 10,000 people <br />
  36. 36. Moore&apos;s Law<br />Computer speed roughly doubles every 18 months<br />
  37. 37. Moore’s Law<br />Clock Frequency (MHz)<br />Time (yr)<br />
  38. 38. 2000’s<br />More computers are sold than televisions<br />
  39. 39. Early 2000’s<br />Approximately 1 billion <br />computers have been <br />sold since 1970 <br />USB 2.0<br />Windows XP<br />Ipods<br />Dot com craze<br />Store information <br />On CD’s and DVD’s<br />X-box<br />AOL has over 28 million members<br />
  40. 40. Early 2000’s<br />Which is 2 billion to 4 billion instructions/second<br />Operating at 2-4 GHz<br />Average RAM is 350 Gb<br /> Or 350 billion <br /> characters<br />Most computers now have <br />Duo or quad processors<br />
  41. 41. Late 2000’s<br />Skype<br />My Space has <br />106 million accounts<br />Flash Drives<br />Facebook has over <br />300 million accounts<br />Blue Ray<br />Windows Vista<br />HD<br />I-phone<br />I- Mac<br />You Tube <br />Google<br />
  42. 42. Late 2000’s<br />Quad processors<br /> with 8 Mb of RAM<br />750 Gb -1 Tb <br /> hard drive<br />DVD±RW/CD-RW <br />Bluetooth<br />Wireless<br />Webcam<br />3D graphics<br />LCD monitors<br />
  43. 43. That’s not all <br />
  44. 44. Late 2000’s<br />All in one <br />TOUCH SCREEN <br />computer by HP<br />Mac touch netbook<br />
  45. 45. Media Tablets –Archos 7<br />128 MB RAM<br />Weight:23oz <br />Touch screen<br />16 million colors  <br />320 GB <br />Only 7 in <br />WiFi<br />Battery life: 39 hours (music)<br />
  46. 46. Late <br />2000’s<br />I-phone<br />MP3 Players<br />Mac Air<br />Netbooks<br />
  47. 47. The Future?<br />Imagine the possibilities…<br />
  48. 48. BIBLIOGRAPHY<br />http://www97.intel.com/en/TheJourneyInside/ExploreTheCurriculum/EC_IntroductionToComputers/ICLesson1/<br />http://inventors.about.com/library/blcoindex.htm<br />http://www.pbs.org/nerds/timeline/elec.html<br />http://www.xnumber.com/xnumber/mechlist.htm<br />http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/farid/teaching/cs4/summer.08/notes/historyofcomputing/<br />http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/25079.wss<br />http://www.computerhope.com/history/196080.htm<br />http://www.computerhope.com/history/2000.htm<br />

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