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History of computer

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History of computer

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History of computer

  1. 1. PRESENTATION ON 1 History of COMPUTER By Wajahat Ali Ghulam
  2. 2. 2 PRESENTATION DATE
  3. 3. History of Computers - Way Back When 3 • Slide Rule 1630Slide Rule 1630 • based on Napier’s rules forbased on Napier’s rules for logarithmslogarithms • used until 1970sused until 1970s
  4. 4. History of Computers - 19th Century  First storedFirst stored program - metalprogram - metal cardscards  First computerFirst computer manufacturingmanufacturing  still in use today!still in use today! 4
  5. 5. Charles Babbage - 1792-1871 5  Difference Engine c.1822Difference Engine c.1822  huge calculator, never finishedhuge calculator, never finished  Analytical Engine 1833Analytical Engine 1833  could store numberscould store numbers  calculating “mill” used punchedcalculating “mill” used punched metal cards for instructionsmetal cards for instructions  powered by steam!powered by steam!  accurate to six decimal placesaccurate to six decimal places
  6. 6. Vacuum Tubes - 1941 - 1956  First Generation ElectronicFirst Generation Electronic ComputersComputers used Vacuum Tubesused Vacuum Tubes  Vacuum tubes are glass tubesVacuum tubes are glass tubes with circuits inside.with circuits inside.  Vacuum tubes have no airVacuum tubes have no air inside of them, which protectsinside of them, which protects the circuitry.the circuitry. 6
  7. 7. UNIVAC - 1951  First fully electronicFirst fully electronic digitaldigital computer built in the U.S.computer built in the U.S.  Created at the University ofCreated at the University of PennsylvaniaPennsylvania  ENIAC weighed 30 tonsENIAC weighed 30 tons  contained 18,000 vacuumcontained 18,000 vacuum tubestubes  Cost a paltry $487,000Cost a paltry $487,000
  8. 8. Grace Hopper Programmed UNIVACProgrammed UNIVAC Recipient of ComputerRecipient of Computer Science’s firstScience’s first ““Man of the Year Award”Man of the Year Award”
  9. 9. First Computer Bug - 1945  Relay switches part ofRelay switches part of computerscomputers  Grace Hopper found aGrace Hopper found a moth stuck in a relaymoth stuck in a relay responsible for aresponsible for a malfunctionmalfunction  Called it “debugging” aCalled it “debugging” a computercomputer
  10. 10. First Transistor 10  Uses SiliconUses Silicon  developed in 1948developed in 1948  won a Nobel prizewon a Nobel prize  on-off switchon-off switch  Second GenerationSecond Generation Computers usedComputers used Transistors, starting inTransistors, starting in 19561956
  11. 11. Second Generation – 1965-1963  1956 – Computers began to1956 – Computers began to incorporateincorporate TransistorsTransistors  Replaced vacuum tubes withReplaced vacuum tubes with TransistorsTransistors
  12. 12. Integrated Circuits  Third Generation Computers used Integrated CircuitsThird Generation Computers used Integrated Circuits (chips).(chips).  Integrated Circuits are transistors, resistors, andIntegrated Circuits are transistors, resistors, and capacitors integrated together into a single “chip”capacitors integrated together into a single “chip”
  13. 13. Third Generation – 1964-1971 1964-19711964-1971 Integrated CircuitIntegrated Circuit Operating SystemOperating System Getting smaller, cheaperGetting smaller, cheaper
  14. 14. The First Microprocessor – 1971  The 4004 had 2,250 transistorsThe 4004 had 2,250 transistors  four-bit chunks (four 1’s or 0’s)four-bit chunks (four 1’s or 0’s)  108Khz108Khz  Called “Microchip”Called “Microchip”
  15. 15. What is a Microchip? Very Large Scale Integrated CircuitVery Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSIC)(VLSIC) Transistors, resistors, and capacitorsTransistors, resistors, and capacitors 4004 had 2,250 transistors4004 had 2,250 transistors Pentium IV has 42 MILLION transistorsPentium IV has 42 MILLION transistors Each transistor 0.13 microns (10Each transistor 0.13 microns (10-6-6 meters)meters)
  16. 16. 4th Generation – 1971 MICROCHIPS!MICROCHIPS! Getting smaller and smaller,Getting smaller and smaller, but we are still usingbut we are still using microchip technologymicrochip technology
  17. 17. Birth of Personal Computers - 1975  256 byte memory (not256 byte memory (not Kilobytes or Megabytes)Kilobytes or Megabytes)  2 MHz Intel 8080 chips2 MHz Intel 8080 chips  Just a box with flashingJust a box with flashing lightslights  cost $395 kit, $495cost $395 kit, $495 assembled.assembled.
  18. 18. Generations of Electronic Computers First Generation Second Gen. Third Gen. Fourth Gen. Technology Vacuum Tubes Transistors Integrated Circuits (multiple transistors) Microchips (millions of transistors) Size Filled Whole Buildings Filled half a room Smaller Tiny - Palm Pilot is as powerful as old building sized computer
  19. 19. IBM PC - 1981  IBM-Intel-Microsoft joint venture  First wide-selling personal computer used in business  8088 Microchip - 29,000 transistors  4.77 Mhz processing speed  256 K RAM (Random Access Memory) standard  One or two floppy disk drives
  20. 20. Apple Computers  Founded 1977  Apple II released 1977  widely used in schools  Macintosh (left)  released in 1984, Motorola 68000 Microchip processor  first commercial computer with graphical user interface (GUI) and pointing device (mouse)
  21. 21. Fifth generation computers (present and beyond)  Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence.  Are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition.  The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality.  The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization.
  22. 22. Five Generations of Computer
  23. 23. 23

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