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History of the computer

Angela DeHart
Angela DeHart
Angela DeHartFounder & CEO at STEM Impressionists

A comprehensive look at the history and development of the computer. Links to YouTube videos that can enhance student learning or expand the depth and time spent on the topic are included.

History of the computer

1 of 51
Download to read offline
History of the Computer
http://viewpure.com/CompHis
The term computer is derived
from the word ‘compute’ which
means to calculate
Zero Generation Computers
Computers developed from -1941
The abacus was the first mechanical
device for calculations which could also
perform arithmetical calculations http://viewpure.com/Abacus
Prior to the 1500s, a typical European
businessperson used an abacus for calculations
and recorded the result of his ciphering in
Roman numerals. After the decimal numbering
system finally replaced Roman numerals.http://allcomp1.blogspot.com/2010/06/generation-zero-mechanical-calculating.html
History of the computer

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History of the computer

  • 1. History of the Computer http://viewpure.com/CompHis
  • 2. The term computer is derived from the word ‘compute’ which means to calculate
  • 3. Zero Generation Computers Computers developed from -1941
  • 4. The abacus was the first mechanical device for calculations which could also perform arithmetical calculations http://viewpure.com/Abacus
  • 5. Prior to the 1500s, a typical European businessperson used an abacus for calculations and recorded the result of his ciphering in Roman numerals. After the decimal numbering system finally replaced Roman numerals.http://allcomp1.blogspot.com/2010/06/generation-zero-mechanical-calculating.html
  • 7. There were many numeral systems in existence even before the Roman system of numerals. The Hindu-Arabic symbols have developed over the centuries into what we use today; but the change on the European continent to the Hindu-Arabic system took a very long time. Why was Europe using the Roman system of numbers? http://allcomp1.blogspot.com/2010/06/generation-zero-mechanical-calculating.html
  • 8. The spread of the Hindu-Arabic numerals into standard usage took a long time especially in Italy, where the Roman numeral system was dominant until the middle of the 16th century A.D. In some places in Italy it was forbidden to use anything but Roman numerals in the late 1200s and early 1300s. Why did the change take so long? http://allcomp1.blogspot.com/2010/06/generation-zero-mechanical-calculating.html
  • 9. Probably during the mid-1500s. When did the big change or acceptance of the Hindu- Arabic numeral system take place? Because the printing press came into existence in the mid-1400s and the Hindu- Arabic numerals were used in printing. By the middle of the 16th century (and even later in some of the conservative parts of Italy) most of Europe had accepted Hindu-Arabic numerals. In addition to the use of the printing press there was an issue of making good use of individuals' time. It took merchants and bookkeepers much longer to record data using Roman numerals. The Hindu-Arabic numerals made keeping records less time-consuming. Why? http://allcomp1.blogspot.com/2010/06/generation-zero-mechanical-calculating.html http://viewpure.com/DevNumber
  • 10. In 1623, Schickard invented a calculating machine, called by his contemporaries the Speeding Clock or Calculating Clock. It preceded the less versatile Pascaline of Pascal and Leibniz's Stepped Reckoner by twenty years. http://viewpure.com/Wilhelm
  • 11. Schickard's letters to Johannes Kepler show how to use the machine for calculating astronomical tables. The machine could add and subtract six-digit numbers, and indicated an overflow of this capacity by ringing a bell; to add more complex calculations, a set of Napier's bones were mounted on it. Schickard's letters mention that the original machine was destroyed in a fire while still incomplete. The designs were lost until the 19th century; a working replica was finally constructed in 1960.
  • 12. The Pascaline was a mechanical device for calculations. It could add but not subtract, divide or multiply.
  • 13. The Pascaline was invented by the French mathematician, Luis Pascal, in 1642 when he was 19 years old so that he could help his father with his tax work. The Pascaline was so well conceived that its basic design was still being used at the beginning of the twentieth century.
  • 14. The Pascaline is made up of wheels and gears. It could handle decimal values by routing a wheel from one to nine steps. It is used for adding numbers quickly. http://viewpure.com/Pascaline
  • 15. http://viewpure.com/Jacquard Joseph-Marie Jacquard was not the inventor of the programmable loom, as many people imagine, actually he created an attachment to the loom, which played a very important role not only in the textile industry, but also in development of other programmable machines, such as computers, for example the Analytical Engine of Charles Babbage. http://history-computer.com/Dreamers/Jacquard.html
  • 16. In fact, the term Jacquard loom is a misnomer, actually Jacquard's invented an attachment (head), that adapts to a great many type of looms, that allow the weaving machine to create the intricate patterns often seen in Jacquard weaving. Thus any loom that uses the attachment is called a Jacquardloom. In April 1805 emperor Napoleon and empress Josephine visited Lyon, and during their tour, they viewed Jacquard's new loom and granted the patent for Jacquard's loom to the city of Lyon. In return, Jacquard received a lifelong pension of 3000 francs, a huge sum for the time. Moreover, he received a royalty of 50 francs for each loom that was bought and used during the period of six years. This was a generous attitude towards the inventor and made him rich. By 1812 there were some 11000 Jacquard looms in use in France and despite energetic French efforts to keep the technology secret, they were also beginning to appear in other countries. http://history-computer.com/Dreamers/Jacquard.html
  • 17. Charles Babbage is known as the “Father of Computing.” http://viewpure.com/Babbage
  • 18. Charles Babbage was a British mathematician who designed the Analytical Engine in 1833. Babbage was the person who first introduced the idea of storing and reading information before processing it. All modern computers are based on this concept.
  • 19. Ada Lovelace The mother of Computing http://viewpure.com/Lovelace
  • 21. Here's the Bernoulli number algorithm, courtesy of the Science Museum.
  • 22. http://findingada.com/ Ada Lovelace Day Tuesday 11 October 2016 Ada Lovelace Day (ALD) is an international celebration day of the achievements of women in science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM). It aims to increase the profile of women in STEM and, in doing so, create new role models who will encourage more girls into STEM careers and support women already working in STEM. Founded in 2009 by Suw Charman-Anderson, it is now held every year on the second Tuesday of October. It features a flagship Ada Lovelace Day Live! ‘science cabaret’ event in London, UK, at which women in STEM give short talks about their work or about other women who have inspired them, or perform short comedy or musical interludes with a STEM focus. In 2015, ALD was held on 13 October and we packed out Conway Hall, our host venue for Ada Lovelace Day Live!, with a diverse and appreciative audience. The day also includes dozens of grassroots events around the world, organised entirely independently from the ALD Live! event. These events take many forms — from conferences to Wikipedia ‘edit-a-thons’ to pub quizzes — and appeal to all ages, from girls to university students to women with well-established careers. Last year and was the biggest ALD to date with over 150 independently organised Ada Lovelace Day events, in 82 cities, in 25 countries.
  • 23. Herman Hollerith, an American statistician, invented a machine called the Tabulating machine in 1890. http://viewpure.com/Census
  • 24. The tabulating machine was capable of reading data, processing it and giving the desired output. It was capable of reading both numbers and letters.
  • 25. First Generation Computers Computers developed from 1941-1956
  • 26. First Generation Computers • Large • Expensive • Used vacuum tubes • Used magnetic drums for memory • Used machine language • Consumed huge amounts of electricity • Developed from 1941-1956
  • 31. In 1938, Konrad Zuse, Konrad Zuse (22 June 1910 -- 18 December 1995) was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer. http://viewpure.com/KZuse
  • 32. He created the first really functional computer Z1 in his parents' living room in 1936 to 1938, and it is considered to be the first electro-mechanical binary programmable (modern) computer. http://history-computer.com/ModernComputer/Relays/Zuse.html
  • 33. An English mathematician, logician and cryptographer, Alan Turing was responsible for breaking the Nazi Enigma code during World War II. His work gave the Allies the edge they needed to win the war in Europe, and led to the creation of the computer. http://viewpure.com/Turing http://www.biography.com/people/alan-turing-9512017
  • 34. "The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word- processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine.“ By and large, Turing has been recognized for his impact on computer science, with many crediting him as the "founder" of the field. http://www.biography.com/people/alan-turing-9512017
  • 35. Examples of First Generation Computers
  • 36. Second Generation Computers Computers developed from 1956-1963
  • 37. Second Generation Computers • Smaller in size • Faster to program • Cheaper • Punchcards for input • Used transistors instead of vacuum tubes • Consumed less electricity (power) • Used machine and assembly language • Mainly used in atomic energy industry • Developed from 1956-1963 When compared to First Generation Computers
  • 38. Examples of Second Generation Computers
  • 39. Third Generation Computers Computers developed from 1964-1971
  • 40. Third Generation Computers • Smaller in size • Faster to program • Cheaper • Used smaller transistors and integrated circuits (ICs) • Transistors and ICs were placed on silicon chips called semiconductors • Consumed less electricity (power) • Can run different programs at the same time • Magnetic tape and disks replaced punched cards as medium for input and output • Can use high level programming languages • Can be used by “regular people” • Developed from 1964-1971 When compared to Second Generation Computers
  • 41. Examples of Third Generation Computers
  • 42. Fourth Generation Computers Computers developed from 1971-1980
  • 43. Fourth Generation Computers • Powerful • Compact • Reliable • Use binary • Affordable -Inspired personal computer revolution • Use of Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits -Have about 5,000 transistors and other circuit elements and their associated circuits on a single chip • Can use high level programming languages like C, C++, DBASE, etc. • Timing sharing, Real time, Networks, Distributed Operation Systems used • Developed from 1971-1980 When compared to Third Generation Computers
  • 44. Developed for Fourth Generation Computers
  • 45. Examples of Fourth Generation Computers
  • 46. Examples of Fourth Generation Computers
  • 47. Fifth Generation Computers What is the status of 5th generation computers ?
  • 48. Fifth Generation Computers • • • • • When compared to Fourth Generation Computers 1. Immediately research and name 5 characteristics of the 5th Generation of computers 2. Make a QR code of your resources and place the QR codes into the Google document named Generation 5 Small group in-class assignment
  • 49. Fifth Generation ComputersWhen compared to Fourth Generation Computers INDIVIDUAL Assignment Some say the 4th Generation of computers still continues. Others say the 4th generation of computers stopped in 1980, 1984 or 1990. Using information you have researched about the events that happened between 1980-1990 choose the year you would, as a technology historian, choose for the end of the 4th generation and explain the reason behind your choice in 3-5 paragraphs with appropriate bibliography citing. Upload your completed document in Google Classroom. Individual assignment
  • 50. Fifth Generation Computers • Use super scale integrated chips • Have artificial intelligence • Be able to recognize images and graphs • Be able to use more than 1 CPU for faster processing speeds • Work with natural language • Be able to solve highly complex problems including decision making and logical reasoning When compared to Fourth Generation Computers 1. Immediately research and name 5 characteristics of the 5th Generation of computers 2. TEAM: Make a QR code of your resources and place the QR codes into the Google document named Generation 5 http://www.computerhope.com/history/ TEACHER KEY
  • 51. Bibliography • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t4QJJFKmgvc • http://viewpure.com/CompHis • http://allcomp1.blogspot.com/2010/06/generation-zero-mechanical-calculating.html • http://history-computer.com/Dreamers/Jacquard.html • http://www.biography.com/people/alan-turing-9512017