• Political scientists Montesquieu, Rousseau, Blunts!! Marriotand Leacock have classified the government. Of these theclassification of Leacocks is accepted as the best. Leacockhas classified Government in the following way:• On the basis of the location of sovereign power, government is divided intotwo classes ; Dictatorship and Democracy.• On the basis of the method of acquiring power by the head of the state, thedemocratic government may be divided into two divisions:• a) Constitutional Monarchy and -b) The Republic.• On the basis of the relation between the Executive and the Legislative, thedemocratic government can be divided into two categories:• (1) Parliamentary form of Government and (2) Presidential form ofGovernment.• On the basis of distribution of power between the center and the province, thegovernment is divided in to two divisions, the Unitary and FederalGovernment.
• Modern Government: Dictatorship & Democracy• Democracy: Constitutional Republic Monarchy &Republic• Constitutional Republic Monarchy: Unitary & FederalRepublic Parliamentary form of Government (Unitary +Federal) & Presidential form of Government (Unitary +Federal).
1. the sovereign power of the state is vested in the hands of one person.This system is called the Dictatorship.2. The Dictator is the head of all powers of the state.3. He is the source of supreme power.4. Nobody can prevent him from exercising his power.5. The ideal of dictatorship is one country, one nation and one leader.6. All the powers of the state are centered in the hands of the Dictator.7. He is not accountable to anybody for his activities.8. Everybody is compelled to obey his orders.9. In administration there is one political party under the dictator. Hitler of Germany, Franco of Spain and Mussolini of Italy were theDictators.
A dictatorship is, strictly, a form ofrule in which absolute power isvested in one individual the Dictator can take quickdecision. He is not accountable toanybody, nor does he have toconsult anybody. So, it is possibleon his part to take quick decisionand work. The Dictator can lead theunderdeveloped country toeconomic and social developmentand progress. Under his leadership he canachieve development inart, literature and science. The whole country is guided in thesame way under the Dictator. As a result the national unity andintegrity become strong.Under Dictatorship the people donot have independence.It is against personal freedom.Nobody can make any criticism.The different opinions aresuppressed by force.Dictatorship gives rise to violentnationalism and military power.This system is againstinternationalism.As the Dictator is not accountableto anybody, he can do anything, helikes.This is an autocratic system.This administrative system istemporary. Because with the deathof Dictator his rule ends.
The origins of the term can be traced back to Ancient Greece.Democracy is derived from the Greek word ‘kratos’ meaningpower, or rule.Democracy means administration of the people. The administrativesystem where the sovereign power of the state is vested in thepeople, is called Democracy. When people are the sources of allpower and the responsibility of conducting administration is vested tothe people, it is called Democracy.• The political scientists have said that in democracy there is a systemwhere all the people can take part in administration. So it is said thatthe government or the administrative system where the opinion of thepeople are valued most and the administration is conducted by therepresentatives of the people, is called Democracy. In Bernard’sCricks (1993) words democracy is perhaps the most promiscuousword in the world of public affairs. ‘democracy’ are the followings;
A system of rule by the poor and the disadvantagedA form of government in which the people rule themselves directlyand continuously, without the need for professional politicians orpublic officialsA society based on equal opportunity and individual merit, rather thanhierarchy and privilegeA system of welfare and redistribution aimed at narrowing socialinequalitiesA system of decision-making based on the principle of majority ruleA system of rule that secures the rights and interests of minorities byplacing checks upon the power of the majorityA means of filling public offices through a competitive struggle for thepopular voteA system of government that serves the interests of the peopleregardless of their participation in political life.
It is based on direct, unmediated and continuous participation of citizensin the task of government.The administrative system where the citizens directly participate in theadministration is called the direct or pure democracy.Direct democracy obliterates the distinction between government andthe governed and between the state and civil society; it is a system ofpopular self-government.It was achieved in ancient Athens through a form of government bymass meeting; it is most common modern manifestation is the use of thereferendum.Greece direct democracy was in vogue. In ancient Greek City-States allthe citizens of the state would assemble in a special place to passlaw, assess tax, appoint employees, carry on judgment etc. As the city-state and the population were small in size, conducting administrationdirectly was possible. There was no necessity for election or sendingrepresentative. Nevertheless, in a hidden state with vastpopulation, direct democracy is not possible. But in some cantons ofSwitzerland direct democracy is still partially in vogue.
It heightens the control that citizens can exercise overtheir own destinies, as it is the only pure form ofdemocracy.It creates a better-informed and more politicallysophisticated citizenry, and thus it has educationalbenefits.It enables the public to express their own views andinterests without having to rely-on self-serving politicians.It ensures that rule is legitimate in the sense that peopleare more likely to accept decisions that they have madethemselves
It is a limited and in direct form of democracy.The administrative system where the citizens do notparticipate in the administration directly but run theadministration through the elected representatives is called theIndirect or Representative Democracy.It is a limited in that popular participation in government isfrequent and brief, being restricted to the act of voting everyfew years.It is indirect in that the public do not exercise powerthemselves; they merely select those who will rule on theirbehalf.In Indirect Democracy the elected representatives activelyparticipate in administration.The elected representatives remain responsible to the peoplefor their activities.In the modern democratic states Indirect Representativedemocracy is in vogue.
It offers a practicable form of democracy (direct popularparticipation is achievable only in small communities).It relieves ordinary citizens of the burden of decision-making, thus making possible a division of labour inpolitics.It allows the government to be placed in the hands ofthose with better education expert knowledge and greatexperience.It maintains stability by distancing ordinary citizens frompolitics, thereby encouraging them to acceptcompromise.
1) Democratic administration attention is given to the interest of thepeople.2) The representatives are elected by the people and, as they areaccountable for their activities, they are conscious of the welfare ofthe people.3) In democratic system all the citizens can equally take part inpolitical activities.4) This principle of equality is the characteristic of democracy.5) Democracy safeguards the fundamental rights of the citizens.6) There is sufficient opportunity and independence of the citizens forthe development of their personality.7) In this system the people actively take part in administration andpolitical consciousness is created in them.8) To realize the problem of the country by taking part in developmentactivities, discussions and criticism of government policies andactivities, patriotism grows among the citizens.
Many political scientists consider democracy as the administration ofthe incompetent.When the people elect their representative they cannot elect competentand expert persons due to their ignorance and want of education.As a result, to form a good government or to introduce improvedadministrative system is not possible.In democracy importance is given to quantity than quality.Due to majority, many wrong and faulty decisions are taken.Sometimes, since ignorant and common people conduct democracy, thisadministrative system does not help the growth of art, literature andscience
• A democratic system of administration where the Head of the state gets powerthrough heredity and remains the head only in name is known as the ConstitutionalMonarchy.• In this system the real power remains in the hands of the elected representatives ofthe people, as in Great Britain where the monarch reigns but does not rule.• The monarch is a titular head of state.• A constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts ashead of state within the parameters of a written (i.e., codified), unwritten (i.e., un-codified) or blended constitution.• It differs from absolute monarchy in that an absolute monarch serves as the solesource of political power in the state and is legally not bound by any constitution.Most constitutional monarchies employ a parliamentary system in which theMonarch may have strictly Ceremonial duties or may have ReservePowers, depending on the constitution, have a directly or indirectly elected primeminister who is the head of government and exercises effective political power. Inthe past, constitutional monarchs have co-existed with fascist and quasi-fascistconstitutions (Fascist Italy, Francoist Spain) and with military dictatorships.
A republican form of government is a type of government in which thecitizens of a country have an active role in the affairs of thegovernment, and the government is not headed by a hereditary rulersuch as a king.This definition leaves a lot of room for wiggle room, many governmentsaround the world are considered to be run along the lines of arepublican form of government, ranging from dictatorships torepresentative democracies.Many people think that the republican form of government is aparticularly strong and effective form of government.
1) A parliamentary system of government in which the governmentgoverns in and through the assembly or parliament, thereby ‘fusing’the legislative and executive branches .2) The democratic system of administration where the administration isconducted by the council of ministers and, the council of ministersremain ,responsible for their activities to the legislature is called thecabinet form of government or parliamentary form of government.3) In this administrative system the real administrators are the CabinetMinisters.4) The head of the council of ministers is the Prime Minister.5) The cabinet form of government is there in Great Britain, India andCanada.6) The Prime Minister and the other ministers are the members of theparliament.7) The ministers are collectively responsible to the legislature for theirpolicies and activities.8) The council of ministers will remain in power till the Legislature supportthem.9) If the majority of the members of the Legislature brings the vote of noconfidence against the ministers they resign.
Governments are formed as a result of assemblyelections, based on the strength of party representation; thereis no separately elected executive.The personal of government are drawn from theassembly, usually from the leaders of the party or parties thathave majority control.The government is responsible to the assembly in the sensethat it rests on the assembly’s confidence and can be removed(generally by the lower chamber), if it loses that confidence.The government can, in most cases ‘dissolve’ theassembly, meaning that electoral terms are usually flexible inwithin a maximum limit.Parliamentary executives are generally collective is that theyaccept at least the formal principle of cabinet government.As the head of government (usually a prime minister) is aparliamentary officer, there is a separate head of state: aconstitutional monarch or a non-executive president.
A presidential system of government is characterized by a constitutional andpolitical separation of powers between the legislative and the executivebranches of government . Presidential form of government is that form of government in which theadministration is not accountable to the Legislature. President is the real Executive. The president is elected by the direct or indirect votes of the people. In the United States of America, presidential form of government isprevalent. In this system all the powers are vested in the hands of the president. The president is not a member of the Legislature. He is elected by thepeople for a fixed term. The Legislature cannot pass a vote of no-confidence against him. He canonly be removed by impeachment. The president appoints the ministers and they are responsible to him. Hecan dismiss any minister at any time. Executive power is thus vested in an independently elected president who isnot directly accountable to or removes by the assembly.
The executive and the legislature are separately elected, and each isinvested with a range of independent constitutional powers.There is a formal separation of the personnel of the legislative, meaning andthe executive branches(except in semi-presidential systems)The executive is not constitutionally responsible to the legislative andcannot be removed by it(except possibly through impeachment).The president or executive cannot ‘dissolve’ the legislative, meaning thatthe electoral terms of both branches are fixed.Executive authority is concentrated in the hands of the president, thecabinet and ministers being merely advisers responsible to the president.The roles of head of state and head of government (chief executive) arecombined in the office of the presidency- the president wears ‘two hats’.
In this system the government iscomparatively stable.The president cannot be removedexcept through impeachment.As a result, long term developmentplans can be taken and it ispossible to execute them.At times of emergency this systemis helpful as the president can takea quick decision.He does not have to take advicefrom anybody.In this system there is completeseparation of power.So, the Executive, Legislative andJudiciary departments areindependent of each other and canwork freely. The Head of the state is the realExecutive. As the president and the ministersare not responsible to thelegislature, they many turn to beautocratic and irresponsible. Sometimes conflict between theExecutive and the Legislaturearises. As the Legislature is not under thecontrol of the president, he cannotpass law at the time of necessityand it hampers his administration.
A unitary government is a government in which all the powersof the state are concentrated in the hands of the CentralGovernment sanctioned by the constitution.There are smaller units of government such as stats orprovinces but they do not have the authority to makeindependent decisions.The Local Governments derive their powers from the CentralGovernment.In this system, the constitution does make arrangements forthe distribution of power between the local and the centralgovernments. In Bangladesh there is unitary government.For the convenience of administration of unitary governmentthe state is divided into some parts.In these parts local governments are formed.To squeeze or expand the power of the government dependson the will of the central government.
Formal power or authority is located at the national center, and other localunits do not exercise any political powers independently of the centralauthority.The local or regional units of government exercise powers and authority thatare delegated to them by the center and may also be withdrawn by it.The central government may at any time redraw or abolish the boundaries oflocal or regional units.The actions and policies of the central government control and override thepolicies and actions of sub-national levels of government.
In the system of Unitary form ofgovernment, the samelaw, policies and the sameadministration prevail in thecountry under one government.Under this system theadministration becomes strongand the national unity isintegrated.As all the powers are in thehands of onegovernment, greater skill andefficiency is reflected both in thedomestic and Internationalaffairs.In the unitary system of governmentthe local governments have nopower.They carry on administrationdepending on the will of the centralgovernment.Very often the central governmentdoes not know the local problemsand grievances.So, the laws passed by the centralgovernment may not be usefulaccording to the needs and demandsof the local government.
In the system of administration where the constitution distributes thepowers between the Central Government and the ProvincialGovernment, it is called the Federal Government.This system is there in India and in the United States of America.In the system there are two types of [government: the Centralgovernment, and the state government.The constitution distributes power between the Central and the StateGovernment.The subjects concerning the total interest of the states remain underthe Central Government and the subjects concerning the localinterest remain its The State or Provincial Government.In the matters of regional administration the State Governmentenjoys self-government.In this system of administration the constitution is written and it isrigid.Federalism is based on the notion of shared sovereignty, in whichpower is distributed between the central or peripheral levels ofgovernment.
In a Federal system the unit or ProvincialGovernments maintain national unitykeeping their separate entity.The federal system of administration is apolitical contrivance.Powers are distributed between thecentral and the Provincial Governmentby the constitution so; the burden ofworks of the central government islessened.As a result, the skill of both thegovernments increases.Besides, as there is the distribution ofspecific powers, the central governmentdoes not interfere with theadministration of the provincialgovernment to become autocratic.In this system of administration thestate governments create laws fortheir own necessity andconvenience; so there is nosimilarity in law and administrationin different state governments.In the different parts of the samestate different types of laws arepromulgated.In both the governments conflictregarding right corps up.As the powers are divided betweenthe two governments the centralgovernment becomes weak in manyrespects.
To conduct the statecraft the government has to performdifferent functions. These are generally divided into threetypes. These are to create laws, conducting administrationand judgment. To perform these functions well, thegovernment has three organs or departments.These organs are :• (1) Legislature• (2) Executive• (3) Judiciary
The Legislature is an important organ of the government which varies fromcountry to country.This organ creates laws for conducting administration of the State and toperform judicial duties.Every state has legislature.Different states have different names of the legislature.The name of the legislature of the United State of America is Congress. InGrate Britain its name is Parliament and in Bangladesh it is NationalAssembly.The legislature may be unicameral or bicameral.In bicameral legislature there are Upper House and Lower House.The Legislature of Great Britain is bicameral.The Legislature of Bangladesh is unicameral.
UNICAMERALISM BICAMERALISMPermits speedy action Provides a check on hasty and ill-consideredlegislationAvoids obstruction of the will of thepeopleAvoids despotism of a Single ChamberPermits clarity of responsibility of thecabinetHelps public opinion to crystallize byinterposing delayReduces duplication Reflects the popular willAvoids possibility of conflict Housesbetween two chambersHelp divide the work loadIs less expensive Does useful and careful revisionPopularly elected by the people Allows representation to differentClasses and groupsOne house maintains the uniformityin the countryAccounts for their necessity in afederation
• The department which takes the responsibility of conducting theadministration of the government is known as the ExecutiveDepartment. The functions of the Executive Department are to executethe laws passed by the Legislature. In the broad sense, the Executivedepartment is formed combining all the employees from the presidentto the village chawkiders. In the narrow sense the President and themembers of the Council of Ministers form the Executive Department.There are several types of executives.They can be grouped under three heads:• 1-)Nominal and Real• 2-)Parliamentary and Presidential• 3-) Singular and Plural or Collegial.
I. NOMINAL & REAL: a nominal or a real executive head can take part both in a parliamentarysystem. Nominal executive means that a man, as the king of Malaysia or elected as the presidentof Bangladesh or Turkey is the head of the executive in theory but not in reality. the executivepower lies in the hand of nominal executive but in reality it is exercised by the prime minister.II. PARLIAMENTARY & PRESIDENTIAL: Power is vested in the office of the prime minister whois the leader of the majority party in legislature. With the Presidential Executive the realexecutive power lies in the office of the president who is directly elected by the people . The firstone is also known as the prime ministerial system and the second one is called the presidentialsystem . In the USA, the highest executive member of the state is the president while inMalaysia, Canada and in the U.K. the real top executive is called the prime minister. In eachsystem, there is a Head of State who is the chairman of the advisory board while the head ofgovernment is the chairman of an active committee or party. Each branch has its ownclassification and specific name.an example.. In Malaysia, the head of the state is the king whilethe head of government is the prime minister, In U.K , the head of state is monarch but head ofgovernment is Prime minister.III. SINGULAR&PLURAL: the single executive means that the executive power is vested in oneperson. In this type of executive, responsibility is undivided. For example : the president of theUnited states of America is a single executive. On the other hand, the plural or collegial executivemeans that the executive power is vested in council of members: each member is roughly equal instatus and none is subordinate to the other.
The department of the government that performs the functions of judgment according tolaw is called the Judicial Department.The Judicial Department is necessary to punish the criminal and to protect the rights ofthe people.The Judicial Department establishes justice in the state and passes sentence to the lawviolators. The Judicial department is formed with all the courts of the country.The main function of the Judicial Department is to carry on judgment applying theprevalent laws, of the country.Another function of this department is to explore the laws and to pass sentence.When the prevalent law is not adequate to carry on judgment with the help of theprevalent laws, the Judges do that according to their individual sense ofjustice, intelligence and good conscience.Sometimes the Executive Department takes advice from the Supreme Court.Sometime the" court, by proclamation of orders and prohibition; secure the right of thepeople.Besides, the Judicial Department also does the functions of appointing the guardian of theminors, supervision of the under trial property of the deceased persons, granting licenseetc.The independence of Judiciary is indispensably necessary to make the democraticadministrative system more effective and for good administration of the state.