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Chapter 4
The Components
of the System
Unit
Chapter 4 Objectives
Differentiate among various styles
of system units
Differentiate among various styles
of system units
Identify chips, adapter cards, and other
components of a motherboard
Identify chips, adapter cards, and other
components of a motherboard
Describe the components of a processor and how
they complete a machine cycle
Describe the components of a processor and how
they complete a machine cycle
Identify characteristics of various personal
computer processors on the market today
Identify characteristics of various personal
computer processors on the market today
Define a bit and describe how a series of bits
represents data
Define a bit and describe how a series of bits
represents data
Explain how programs transfer in
and out of memory
Explain how programs transfer in
and out of memory
Differentiate among the various
types of memory
Differentiate among the various
types of memory
Describe the types of expansion slots and
adapter cards
Describe the types of expansion slots and
adapter cards
Explain the differences among a serial port, a parallel
port, a USB port, a FireWire port, and other ports
Explain the differences among a serial port, a parallel
port, a USB port, a FireWire port, and other ports
Describe how buses contribute to a
computer’s processing speed
Describe how buses contribute to a
computer’s processing speed
Identify components in mobile computers
and mobile devices
Identify components in mobile computers
and mobile devices
Next
Understand how to clean a system unitUnderstand how to clean a system unit
The System Unit
What is the system unit?
p. 184 Fig. 4-1 Next
 Case that contains
electronic components
of the computer used
to process data
 Sometimes called
the chassis
The System Unit
What are common components inside the system unit?
p. 185 Fig. 4-2 Next
 Memory
 Adapter cards
 Sound card
 Video card
 Ports
 Drive bays
 Power supply
power supply
ports
drive bays
processor
memory
sound card
video card
 Processor
The System Unit
What is the motherboard?
p. 186 Fig. 4-3 Next
 Main circuit
board in system
unit
 Contains adapter
cards, processor
chips, and
memory chips
 Also called
system board
Click to view Web Link,
click Chapter 4, Click Web Link
from left navigation,
then click Motherboards below
Chapter
The System Unit
What is a chip?
p. 186 Next
 Small piece of semi-conducting material on which
integrated circuits are etched
 Integrated circuits contain many microscopic pathways
capable of carrying electrical current
 Chips are packaged so they can be attached to a
circuit board
ProcessorProcessor
ControlControl
UnitUnit
ArithmeticArithmetic
Logic Unit (ALU)Logic Unit (ALU)
ArithmeticArithmetic
Logic Unit (ALU)Logic Unit (ALU)
Processor
What is the central processing unit (CPU)?
p. 187 Fig. 4-4 Next
InputInput
DevicesDevices
StorageStorage
DevicesDevices
OutputOutput
DevicesDevices
 Interprets and carries
out basic instructions
that operate a computer
MemoryMemoryDataData InformationInformation
InstructionsInstructions
DataData
InformatioInformatio
nn
InstructionsInstructions
DataData
InformatioInformatio
nn
ControlControl
UnitUnit
 Control unit directs and
coordinates operations in
computer
 Arithmetic logic unit
(ALU) performs
arithmetic, comparison,
and logical operations
 Also called the processor
Processor
Control Unit
Memory
ALU
Processor
What is a machine cycle?
p. 188 Fig. 4-5 Next
Step 1. Fetch
Obtain program instruction
or data item from memory
Step 2.
Decode
Translate
instruction into
commands
Step 4. Store
Write result to memory
Step 3. Execute
Carry out command
 Four operations of the CPU comprise a machine cycle
Processor
What is pipelining?
p. 189 Fig. 4-6 Next
 CPU begins fetching second instruction before
completing machine cycle for first instruction
 Results in faster processing
Stores locationStores location
from where instructionfrom where instruction
was fetchedwas fetched
Processor
StoresStores
instruction while it isinstruction while it is
being decodedbeing decoded
What is a register?
p. 189 Next
Stores dataStores data
while ALUwhile ALU
computes itcomputes it
Stores resultsStores results
of calculationof calculation
 Temporary high-speed storage area that holds
data and instructions
Processor
What is the system clock?
p. 189 Next
Each tickEach tick
is ais a
clock cycleclock cycle
Pace of systemPace of system
clock isclock is clock speedclock speed
Most clock speeds areMost clock speeds are
in the gigahertz (GHz)in the gigahertz (GHz)
range (1 GHz = onerange (1 GHz = one
billion ticks of systembillion ticks of system
clock per second)clock per second)
Processor speed canProcessor speed can
also be measured inalso be measured in
mmillions ofillions of iinstructionsnstructions
pperer ssecondecond (MIPS)(MIPS)
 Controls timing of all computer operations
 Generates regular electronic pulses, or ticks, that set
operating pace of components of system unit
Click to view Web Link,
click Chapter 4, Click Web Link
from left navigation,
then click Clock Speed below
Chapter
Processor
Which processor should you select?
p. 191 Fig. 4-7 Next
 The faster the processor, the more expensive the computer
Celeron
Itanium or Xeon
Pentium family
1.3 GHz and up
3.0 GHz and up
2.4 GHz to 3.0 GHz
Up to 2.4 GHz
2.2 GHz and up
Intel Processor Desired Clock Speed
Processor
What are heat sinks, heat pipes, and
liquid cooling?
p. 193 Fig. 4-9 Next
 Heat sink—component
with fins that cools
processor
 Heat pipee—smaller
device for notebook
computers
 Liquid cooling—uses a
continuous flow
of fluids to transfer heat away
Processor
What is parallel processing?
p. 194 Fig. 4-10 Next
Control ProcessorControl Processor
Processor 1Processor 1
MemoryMemory
Processor 2Processor 2
MemoryMemory
Processor 3Processor 3
MemoryMemory
Processor 4Processor 4
MemoryMemory
Results combined
 Using multiple
processors
simultaneously to
execute a
program faster
 Requires special
software to divide
problem and
bring results
together
Data Representation
How do computers represent data?
p. 194 Fig. 4-11 Next
 Recognize only two
discrete states: on or off
 Use a binary system to
recognize two states
 Use Number system with
two unique digits: 0 and
1, called bits (short for
binary digits)
 Most computers are digital
Data Representation
What is a byte?
p. 195 Fig. 4-12 Next
 Eight bits grouped together as a unit
 Provides enough different combinations of 0s and 1s
to represent 256 individual characters
 Numbers
 Uppercase
and lowercase
letters
 Punctuation
marks
 Other
Data Representation
What are three popular coding systems to represent data?
p. 195 Fig. 4-13 Next
 ASCII—American Standard Code for Information Interchange
 EBCDIC—Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
 Unicode—coding scheme capable of representing all
world’s languages
ASCII Symbol EBCDIC
00110000 0 11110000
00110001 1 11110001
00110010 2 11110010
00110011 3 11110011
Data Representation
How is a letter converted to binary form and back?
p. 196 Fig. 4-14 Next
Step 1.
The user presses
the capital letter
D (shift+D key)
on the keyboard.
Step 2.
An electronic signal for the
capital letter D is sent to the
system unit.
Step 3.
The signal for the capital letter D
is converted to its ASCII binary
code (01000100) and is stored in
memory for processing.
Step 4.
After processing, the binary
code for the capital letter D is
converted to an image, and
displayed on the output device.
Memory
What is memory?
p. 196 Fig. 4-15 Next
 Electronic components that
store instructions, data, and
results
 Consists of one or
more chips on
motherboard or
other circuit board
 Each byte stored
in unique location
called an address,
similar to seats in a concert
hall
Memory
How is memory measured?
p. 197 Fig. 4-16 Next
Term Abbreviation Approximate Size
Kilobyte KB or K 1 thousand bytes
Megabyte MB 1 million bytes
Gigabyte GB 1 billion bytes
Terabyte TB 1 trillion bytes
 By number of bytes available for storage
Memory
What is random access memory (RAM)?
p. 198 Next
The more RAM aThe more RAM a
computer has, thecomputer has, the
faster it respondsfaster it responds
Also calledAlso called
main memorymain memory
or primaryor primary
storagestorage
Most RAM isMost RAM is
volatilevolatile, it is lost, it is lost
when computer’swhen computer’s
power ispower is
turned offturned off
Memory chips that can beMemory chips that can be
read from and writtenread from and written
to by processorto by processor
Click to view Web Link,
click Chapter 4, Click Web Link
from left navigation,
then click RAM below Chapter
Must beMust be
re-energizedre-energized
constantlyconstantly
Do not have toDo not have to
be re-energizedbe re-energized
as often asas often as
DRAMDRAM
MostMost
commoncommon
typetype
Faster andFaster and
more reliablemore reliable
than DRAMthan DRAM
chipschips
Memory
What are two basic types of RAM chips?
p. 199 Next
StaticStatic
RAMRAM
(SRAM)(SRAM)
DynamicDynamic
RAMRAM
(DRAM)(DRAM)
Newer Type: Magnetoresistive RAM (MRAM)
Memory
Where does memory reside?
p. 199 Fig. 4-18 Next
 Resides on small circuit
board called memory
module
 Memory slots on
motherboard hold memory
modules
memory chip memory slot
dual inline memory module
Memory
p. 199 Next
How much RAM does an application require?
 Depends on the types of
software you plan to
use
 For optimal
performance, you
need more than
minimum specifications
Memory
How much RAM do you need?
p. 200 Fig. 4-19 Next
 Depends on type of applications you intend to run
on your computer
RAM
Use
256 MB to 1 GB 512 MB to 1 GB 2 GB and up
• Home and business
users managing
personal finance
• Using standard
application software
such as word processing
• Using educational
or entertainment
CD-ROMs
• Communicating with
others on the Web
• Users requiring more advanced
multimedia capabilities
• Running number-intensive
accounting, financial, or
spreadsheet programs
• Using voice recognition
• Working with videos, music, and
digital imaging
• Creating Web sites
• Participating in video conferences
• Playing Internet games
• Power users creating
professional Web sites
• Running sophisticated
CAD, 3D design, or
other graphics-intensive
software
Memory
What is cache?
p. 201 Fig. 4-20 Next
 L1 cache built into processor
 L2 cache slower but has larger capacity
 L2 advanced transfer cache is faster,
built directly on processor chip
 L3 cache is separate from processor
chip on motherboard (L3 is only
on computers that use L2 advanced
transfer cache)
 Helps speed computer processes by storing frequently used
instructions and data
 Also called memory cache
Click to view Web Link,
click Chapter 4, Click
Web Link from left
navigation, then click
Cache below Chapter
Memory
What is read-only memory (ROM)?
p. 201 Next
Memory chips that storeMemory chips that store
permanent datapermanent data
and instructionsand instructions
Nonvolatile memoryNonvolatile memory, it is not, it is not
lost when computer’slost when computer’s
power is turned offpower is turned off
Three types:Three types:
FirmwareFirmware——
Manufactured withManufactured with
permanently writtenpermanently written
data, instructions,data, instructions,
or informationor information
EEPROMEEPROM
((eelectricallylectrically
eerasablerasable pprogrammablerogrammable
rread-ead-oonlynly mmemory)—emory)—
Type of PROMType of PROM
containing microcodecontaining microcode
programmerprogrammer
can erasecan erase
PROMPROM
((pprogrammablerogrammable
rread-ead-oonlynly
mmemory)—emory)—
Blank ROMBlank ROM
chip onto whichchip onto which
a programmera programmer
can write permanentlycan write permanently
Memory
What is flash memory?
p. 202 Fig. 4-21 Next
Step 1.
Purchase and download MP3 music tracks
from a Web site. With one end of a special
cable connected to the system unit, connect
the other end into the MP3 player.
Step 2.
Instruct the computer to copy the MP3 music track
to the flash memory chip in the MP3 player.
Step 3.
Plug the headphones into the MP3
player, push a button on the MP3
player, and listen to the music through
the headphones.
MP3 Player
Flash memory chip
Flash memory card
From computer
To headphones
 Nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and rewritten
 Used with PDAs, digital cameras, smart phones, music players, digital
voice recorders, printers, Internet receivers, and pagers
Click to view Web Link,
click Chapter 4, Click Web Link
from left navigation,
then click Flash Memory
below Chapter 4
Memory
What is CMOS?
p. 203 Next
Uses battery
power to retain
information when
other power is
turned off
Stores date,
time, and
computer’s
startup
information
Complementary
metal-oxide
semiconductor
memory
Used in some
RAM chips, flash
memory chips, and
other types of
memory chips
Memory
What is access time?
p. 203 Figs. 4-22-4-23 Next
 Amount of time it takes processor
to read data from memory
 Measured in nanoseconds (ns),
one billionth of a second
 It takes 1/10 of a second to blink
your eye; a computer can perform
up to 10 million operations in same amount of
time
Term Speed
Millisecond One-thousandth of a second
Microsecond One-millionth of a second
Nanosecond One-billionth of a second
Picosecond One-trillionth of a second
Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards
What is an adapter card?
p. 204 Fig. 4-24 Next
 Enhances system unit or provides connections to
external devices called peripherals
 Also called an expansion card
Click to view Web Link,
click Chapter 4, Click Web Link
from left navigation,
then click Adapter Cards
below Chapter 4
Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards
What is an expansion slot?
p. 204 Fig. 4-25 Next
 An opening, or socket,
on the motherboard
that can hold an
adapter card
 With Plug and Play,
the computer
automatically
configures cards
and other devices
as you install them
Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards
What are PC cards, and flash memory cards?
p. 205 Fig. 4-26–4-27 Next
 A PC card adds memory, storage,
sound, fax/modem,
communications, and other
capabilities to notebook computers
 A flash memory card allows users
to transfer data from mobile
devices to desktop computers
 USB Flash drive
Click to view Web Link,
click Chapter 4, Click Web Link
from left navigation,
then click Removable Flash
Memory Devices
below Chapter 4
Ports and Connectors
What are ports and connectors?
p. 206 Fig. 4-28 Next
 Port connects external devices to system unit
 Connector joins cable to peripheral
 Available in one of two genders: male and female
Click to view Web Link,
click Chapter 4, Click Web Link
from left navigation,
then click Ports and Connectors
below Chapter 4
Ports and Connectors
What are different types of connectors?
p. 207 Fig. 4-29 Next
Ports and Connectors
What is a serial port?
p. 207 Fig. 4-30 Next
 Transmits one bit of data at a
time
 Connects slow-speed devices,
such as mouse, keyboard,
modem
Ports and Connectors
What is a parallel port?
p. 208 Fig. 4-31 Next
 Connects devices that can
transfer more than one bit at
a time, such as a printer
Third USB
device connects
to second USB
device, and so on
Third USB
device connects
to second USB
device, and so on
Second USB
device connects
to first USB
device
Second USB
device connects
to first USB
deviceFirst USB
device connects
to USB port
on computer
First USB
device connects
to USB port
on computer
Single USB port can
be used to attach
multiple peripherals
in a daisy chain
Single USB port can
be used to attach
multiple peripherals
in a daisy chain
PCs typically have
six to eight USB ports
on front or back of
the system unit
PCs typically have
six to eight USB ports
on front or back of
the system unit
Ports and Connectors
What are USB ports?
p. 208 Next
USB (universal serial bus) port can connect
up to 127 different peripherals together
with a single connector type
USB (universal serial bus) port can connect
up to 127 different peripherals together
with a single connector type
Ports and Connectors
What are FireWire ports?
p. 209 Next
 Connects multiple types of devices that require
faster data transmission speeds
 Allows you to connect up to 63 devices together
Ports and Connectors
What are special-purpose ports?
p. 209 Fig. 4-32 Next
 MIDI (Musical
Instrument Digital
Interface) port
 SCSI (small
computer system
interface) port
 IrDA (Infrared Data
Association) port
 Bluetooth port
 Allow users to attach specialized peripherals or transmit data
to wireless devices
Buses
What is a bus?
p. 211 Fig. 4-35 Next
 Channel that allows devices
inside computer to
communicate with each other
 System bus connects processor
and RAM
 Bus width determines number
of bits transmitted at one time
 Word size is the number of
bits processor can interpret
and execute at a given time
Click to view Web Link,
click Chapter 4, Click Web Link
from left navigation,
then click Buses below
Chapter 4
Buses
What is an expansion bus?
p. 212 Next
 Allows processor to communicate with peripherals
FireWire
Bus
PCI
Bus
AGP
Bus
USB
Bus
Bays
What is a bay?
p. 212 Fig. 4-36 Next
 Open area inside
system unit used to
install additional
equipment
 Drive bays typically
hold disk drives
External peripherals
might use an AC
adapter, which is an
external power supply
Power Supply
What is a power supply?
p. 213 Next
Converts
AC Power
into
DC Power
Fan keeps
system unit
components
cool
Mobile Computers and Devices
What is a mobile computer?
p. 213 Fig. 4-37 Next
 Notebook, weighing between 2.5 and 8 pounds, or
mobile device such as a PDA
Mobile Computers and Devices
What ports are on a notebook computer?
p. 214 Fig. 4-38 Next
Mobile Computers and Devices
What ports and slots are on a tablet PC?
p. 214 Fig. 4-39 Next
Putting It All Together
What are suggested processor, clock speed, and RAM
requirements based on the needs of various types of users?
p. 215 Fig. 4-40 Next
Keeping Your Computer Clean
Over time, the system unit collects dust – even in a clean
environment
p. 216 Fig. 4-41 Next
 Preventative maintenance requires a few basic
products:
Video: Clean Your PC
Cleaning out the interior of your PC can increase its life and
prevent disaster
low quality
(click to start)
high quality
(click to start)
Next
Summary of the Components of the System
Unit
Components of the system unitComponents of the system unit
How memory stores data, instructions,
and information
How memory stores data, instructions,
and information
Sequence of operations that occur when a
computer executes an instruction
Sequence of operations that occur when a
computer executes an instruction
Comparison of various personal computer
processors on the market today
Comparison of various personal computer
processors on the market today
Chapter 4 Complete
How to clean a system unitHow to clean a system unit

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System unit

  • 1. Chapter 4 The Components of the System Unit
  • 2. Chapter 4 Objectives Differentiate among various styles of system units Differentiate among various styles of system units Identify chips, adapter cards, and other components of a motherboard Identify chips, adapter cards, and other components of a motherboard Describe the components of a processor and how they complete a machine cycle Describe the components of a processor and how they complete a machine cycle Identify characteristics of various personal computer processors on the market today Identify characteristics of various personal computer processors on the market today Define a bit and describe how a series of bits represents data Define a bit and describe how a series of bits represents data Explain how programs transfer in and out of memory Explain how programs transfer in and out of memory Differentiate among the various types of memory Differentiate among the various types of memory Describe the types of expansion slots and adapter cards Describe the types of expansion slots and adapter cards Explain the differences among a serial port, a parallel port, a USB port, a FireWire port, and other ports Explain the differences among a serial port, a parallel port, a USB port, a FireWire port, and other ports Describe how buses contribute to a computer’s processing speed Describe how buses contribute to a computer’s processing speed Identify components in mobile computers and mobile devices Identify components in mobile computers and mobile devices Next Understand how to clean a system unitUnderstand how to clean a system unit
  • 3. The System Unit What is the system unit? p. 184 Fig. 4-1 Next  Case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data  Sometimes called the chassis
  • 4. The System Unit What are common components inside the system unit? p. 185 Fig. 4-2 Next  Memory  Adapter cards  Sound card  Video card  Ports  Drive bays  Power supply power supply ports drive bays processor memory sound card video card  Processor
  • 5. The System Unit What is the motherboard? p. 186 Fig. 4-3 Next  Main circuit board in system unit  Contains adapter cards, processor chips, and memory chips  Also called system board Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Motherboards below Chapter
  • 6. The System Unit What is a chip? p. 186 Next  Small piece of semi-conducting material on which integrated circuits are etched  Integrated circuits contain many microscopic pathways capable of carrying electrical current  Chips are packaged so they can be attached to a circuit board
  • 7. ProcessorProcessor ControlControl UnitUnit ArithmeticArithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)Logic Unit (ALU) ArithmeticArithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)Logic Unit (ALU) Processor What is the central processing unit (CPU)? p. 187 Fig. 4-4 Next InputInput DevicesDevices StorageStorage DevicesDevices OutputOutput DevicesDevices  Interprets and carries out basic instructions that operate a computer MemoryMemoryDataData InformationInformation InstructionsInstructions DataData InformatioInformatio nn InstructionsInstructions DataData InformatioInformatio nn ControlControl UnitUnit  Control unit directs and coordinates operations in computer  Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic, comparison, and logical operations  Also called the processor
  • 8. Processor Control Unit Memory ALU Processor What is a machine cycle? p. 188 Fig. 4-5 Next Step 1. Fetch Obtain program instruction or data item from memory Step 2. Decode Translate instruction into commands Step 4. Store Write result to memory Step 3. Execute Carry out command  Four operations of the CPU comprise a machine cycle
  • 9. Processor What is pipelining? p. 189 Fig. 4-6 Next  CPU begins fetching second instruction before completing machine cycle for first instruction  Results in faster processing
  • 10. Stores locationStores location from where instructionfrom where instruction was fetchedwas fetched Processor StoresStores instruction while it isinstruction while it is being decodedbeing decoded What is a register? p. 189 Next Stores dataStores data while ALUwhile ALU computes itcomputes it Stores resultsStores results of calculationof calculation  Temporary high-speed storage area that holds data and instructions
  • 11. Processor What is the system clock? p. 189 Next Each tickEach tick is ais a clock cycleclock cycle Pace of systemPace of system clock isclock is clock speedclock speed Most clock speeds areMost clock speeds are in the gigahertz (GHz)in the gigahertz (GHz) range (1 GHz = onerange (1 GHz = one billion ticks of systembillion ticks of system clock per second)clock per second) Processor speed canProcessor speed can also be measured inalso be measured in mmillions ofillions of iinstructionsnstructions pperer ssecondecond (MIPS)(MIPS)  Controls timing of all computer operations  Generates regular electronic pulses, or ticks, that set operating pace of components of system unit Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Clock Speed below Chapter
  • 12. Processor Which processor should you select? p. 191 Fig. 4-7 Next  The faster the processor, the more expensive the computer Celeron Itanium or Xeon Pentium family 1.3 GHz and up 3.0 GHz and up 2.4 GHz to 3.0 GHz Up to 2.4 GHz 2.2 GHz and up Intel Processor Desired Clock Speed
  • 13. Processor What are heat sinks, heat pipes, and liquid cooling? p. 193 Fig. 4-9 Next  Heat sink—component with fins that cools processor  Heat pipee—smaller device for notebook computers  Liquid cooling—uses a continuous flow of fluids to transfer heat away
  • 14. Processor What is parallel processing? p. 194 Fig. 4-10 Next Control ProcessorControl Processor Processor 1Processor 1 MemoryMemory Processor 2Processor 2 MemoryMemory Processor 3Processor 3 MemoryMemory Processor 4Processor 4 MemoryMemory Results combined  Using multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program faster  Requires special software to divide problem and bring results together
  • 15. Data Representation How do computers represent data? p. 194 Fig. 4-11 Next  Recognize only two discrete states: on or off  Use a binary system to recognize two states  Use Number system with two unique digits: 0 and 1, called bits (short for binary digits)  Most computers are digital
  • 16. Data Representation What is a byte? p. 195 Fig. 4-12 Next  Eight bits grouped together as a unit  Provides enough different combinations of 0s and 1s to represent 256 individual characters  Numbers  Uppercase and lowercase letters  Punctuation marks  Other
  • 17. Data Representation What are three popular coding systems to represent data? p. 195 Fig. 4-13 Next  ASCII—American Standard Code for Information Interchange  EBCDIC—Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code  Unicode—coding scheme capable of representing all world’s languages ASCII Symbol EBCDIC 00110000 0 11110000 00110001 1 11110001 00110010 2 11110010 00110011 3 11110011
  • 18. Data Representation How is a letter converted to binary form and back? p. 196 Fig. 4-14 Next Step 1. The user presses the capital letter D (shift+D key) on the keyboard. Step 2. An electronic signal for the capital letter D is sent to the system unit. Step 3. The signal for the capital letter D is converted to its ASCII binary code (01000100) and is stored in memory for processing. Step 4. After processing, the binary code for the capital letter D is converted to an image, and displayed on the output device.
  • 19. Memory What is memory? p. 196 Fig. 4-15 Next  Electronic components that store instructions, data, and results  Consists of one or more chips on motherboard or other circuit board  Each byte stored in unique location called an address, similar to seats in a concert hall
  • 20. Memory How is memory measured? p. 197 Fig. 4-16 Next Term Abbreviation Approximate Size Kilobyte KB or K 1 thousand bytes Megabyte MB 1 million bytes Gigabyte GB 1 billion bytes Terabyte TB 1 trillion bytes  By number of bytes available for storage
  • 21. Memory What is random access memory (RAM)? p. 198 Next The more RAM aThe more RAM a computer has, thecomputer has, the faster it respondsfaster it responds Also calledAlso called main memorymain memory or primaryor primary storagestorage Most RAM isMost RAM is volatilevolatile, it is lost, it is lost when computer’swhen computer’s power ispower is turned offturned off Memory chips that can beMemory chips that can be read from and writtenread from and written to by processorto by processor Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click RAM below Chapter
  • 22. Must beMust be re-energizedre-energized constantlyconstantly Do not have toDo not have to be re-energizedbe re-energized as often asas often as DRAMDRAM MostMost commoncommon typetype Faster andFaster and more reliablemore reliable than DRAMthan DRAM chipschips Memory What are two basic types of RAM chips? p. 199 Next StaticStatic RAMRAM (SRAM)(SRAM) DynamicDynamic RAMRAM (DRAM)(DRAM) Newer Type: Magnetoresistive RAM (MRAM)
  • 23. Memory Where does memory reside? p. 199 Fig. 4-18 Next  Resides on small circuit board called memory module  Memory slots on motherboard hold memory modules memory chip memory slot dual inline memory module
  • 24. Memory p. 199 Next How much RAM does an application require?  Depends on the types of software you plan to use  For optimal performance, you need more than minimum specifications
  • 25. Memory How much RAM do you need? p. 200 Fig. 4-19 Next  Depends on type of applications you intend to run on your computer RAM Use 256 MB to 1 GB 512 MB to 1 GB 2 GB and up • Home and business users managing personal finance • Using standard application software such as word processing • Using educational or entertainment CD-ROMs • Communicating with others on the Web • Users requiring more advanced multimedia capabilities • Running number-intensive accounting, financial, or spreadsheet programs • Using voice recognition • Working with videos, music, and digital imaging • Creating Web sites • Participating in video conferences • Playing Internet games • Power users creating professional Web sites • Running sophisticated CAD, 3D design, or other graphics-intensive software
  • 26. Memory What is cache? p. 201 Fig. 4-20 Next  L1 cache built into processor  L2 cache slower but has larger capacity  L2 advanced transfer cache is faster, built directly on processor chip  L3 cache is separate from processor chip on motherboard (L3 is only on computers that use L2 advanced transfer cache)  Helps speed computer processes by storing frequently used instructions and data  Also called memory cache Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Cache below Chapter
  • 27. Memory What is read-only memory (ROM)? p. 201 Next Memory chips that storeMemory chips that store permanent datapermanent data and instructionsand instructions Nonvolatile memoryNonvolatile memory, it is not, it is not lost when computer’slost when computer’s power is turned offpower is turned off Three types:Three types: FirmwareFirmware—— Manufactured withManufactured with permanently writtenpermanently written data, instructions,data, instructions, or informationor information EEPROMEEPROM ((eelectricallylectrically eerasablerasable pprogrammablerogrammable rread-ead-oonlynly mmemory)—emory)— Type of PROMType of PROM containing microcodecontaining microcode programmerprogrammer can erasecan erase PROMPROM ((pprogrammablerogrammable rread-ead-oonlynly mmemory)—emory)— Blank ROMBlank ROM chip onto whichchip onto which a programmera programmer can write permanentlycan write permanently
  • 28. Memory What is flash memory? p. 202 Fig. 4-21 Next Step 1. Purchase and download MP3 music tracks from a Web site. With one end of a special cable connected to the system unit, connect the other end into the MP3 player. Step 2. Instruct the computer to copy the MP3 music track to the flash memory chip in the MP3 player. Step 3. Plug the headphones into the MP3 player, push a button on the MP3 player, and listen to the music through the headphones. MP3 Player Flash memory chip Flash memory card From computer To headphones  Nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and rewritten  Used with PDAs, digital cameras, smart phones, music players, digital voice recorders, printers, Internet receivers, and pagers Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Flash Memory below Chapter 4
  • 29. Memory What is CMOS? p. 203 Next Uses battery power to retain information when other power is turned off Stores date, time, and computer’s startup information Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor memory Used in some RAM chips, flash memory chips, and other types of memory chips
  • 30. Memory What is access time? p. 203 Figs. 4-22-4-23 Next  Amount of time it takes processor to read data from memory  Measured in nanoseconds (ns), one billionth of a second  It takes 1/10 of a second to blink your eye; a computer can perform up to 10 million operations in same amount of time Term Speed Millisecond One-thousandth of a second Microsecond One-millionth of a second Nanosecond One-billionth of a second Picosecond One-trillionth of a second
  • 31. Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards What is an adapter card? p. 204 Fig. 4-24 Next  Enhances system unit or provides connections to external devices called peripherals  Also called an expansion card Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Adapter Cards below Chapter 4
  • 32. Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards What is an expansion slot? p. 204 Fig. 4-25 Next  An opening, or socket, on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card  With Plug and Play, the computer automatically configures cards and other devices as you install them
  • 33. Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards What are PC cards, and flash memory cards? p. 205 Fig. 4-26–4-27 Next  A PC card adds memory, storage, sound, fax/modem, communications, and other capabilities to notebook computers  A flash memory card allows users to transfer data from mobile devices to desktop computers  USB Flash drive Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Removable Flash Memory Devices below Chapter 4
  • 34. Ports and Connectors What are ports and connectors? p. 206 Fig. 4-28 Next  Port connects external devices to system unit  Connector joins cable to peripheral  Available in one of two genders: male and female Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Ports and Connectors below Chapter 4
  • 35. Ports and Connectors What are different types of connectors? p. 207 Fig. 4-29 Next
  • 36. Ports and Connectors What is a serial port? p. 207 Fig. 4-30 Next  Transmits one bit of data at a time  Connects slow-speed devices, such as mouse, keyboard, modem
  • 37. Ports and Connectors What is a parallel port? p. 208 Fig. 4-31 Next  Connects devices that can transfer more than one bit at a time, such as a printer
  • 38. Third USB device connects to second USB device, and so on Third USB device connects to second USB device, and so on Second USB device connects to first USB device Second USB device connects to first USB deviceFirst USB device connects to USB port on computer First USB device connects to USB port on computer Single USB port can be used to attach multiple peripherals in a daisy chain Single USB port can be used to attach multiple peripherals in a daisy chain PCs typically have six to eight USB ports on front or back of the system unit PCs typically have six to eight USB ports on front or back of the system unit Ports and Connectors What are USB ports? p. 208 Next USB (universal serial bus) port can connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector type USB (universal serial bus) port can connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector type
  • 39. Ports and Connectors What are FireWire ports? p. 209 Next  Connects multiple types of devices that require faster data transmission speeds  Allows you to connect up to 63 devices together
  • 40. Ports and Connectors What are special-purpose ports? p. 209 Fig. 4-32 Next  MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) port  SCSI (small computer system interface) port  IrDA (Infrared Data Association) port  Bluetooth port  Allow users to attach specialized peripherals or transmit data to wireless devices
  • 41. Buses What is a bus? p. 211 Fig. 4-35 Next  Channel that allows devices inside computer to communicate with each other  System bus connects processor and RAM  Bus width determines number of bits transmitted at one time  Word size is the number of bits processor can interpret and execute at a given time Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Buses below Chapter 4
  • 42. Buses What is an expansion bus? p. 212 Next  Allows processor to communicate with peripherals FireWire Bus PCI Bus AGP Bus USB Bus
  • 43. Bays What is a bay? p. 212 Fig. 4-36 Next  Open area inside system unit used to install additional equipment  Drive bays typically hold disk drives
  • 44. External peripherals might use an AC adapter, which is an external power supply Power Supply What is a power supply? p. 213 Next Converts AC Power into DC Power Fan keeps system unit components cool
  • 45. Mobile Computers and Devices What is a mobile computer? p. 213 Fig. 4-37 Next  Notebook, weighing between 2.5 and 8 pounds, or mobile device such as a PDA
  • 46. Mobile Computers and Devices What ports are on a notebook computer? p. 214 Fig. 4-38 Next
  • 47. Mobile Computers and Devices What ports and slots are on a tablet PC? p. 214 Fig. 4-39 Next
  • 48. Putting It All Together What are suggested processor, clock speed, and RAM requirements based on the needs of various types of users? p. 215 Fig. 4-40 Next
  • 49. Keeping Your Computer Clean Over time, the system unit collects dust – even in a clean environment p. 216 Fig. 4-41 Next  Preventative maintenance requires a few basic products:
  • 50. Video: Clean Your PC Cleaning out the interior of your PC can increase its life and prevent disaster low quality (click to start) high quality (click to start) Next
  • 51. Summary of the Components of the System Unit Components of the system unitComponents of the system unit How memory stores data, instructions, and information How memory stores data, instructions, and information Sequence of operations that occur when a computer executes an instruction Sequence of operations that occur when a computer executes an instruction Comparison of various personal computer processors on the market today Comparison of various personal computer processors on the market today Chapter 4 Complete How to clean a system unitHow to clean a system unit