Introduction of ICT


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ICT, Digital Governance, Competitiveness Report of 2013

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Introduction of ICT

  1. 1. The new Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have been a driving force of the globalized world in which we find ourselves today. Do ICTs have a role in helping to turn the global situation around?
  2. 2. Internationally, the spread and appropriation of ICTs is a key globalization driver and knowledge carrier. In these circumstances, societies need to build communications systems and manage them well, develop infrastructure and the capacity to use it, and implement good policy and regulation. In the right environments, both business and non-profit enterprise are effective in rapidly expanding
  3. 3. Marshall McLuhan coined the term ‘global village’ in 1962, was referring to the removal of space and time barriers in human communication as a result of the communication revolution taking place. Today, we are living in a global village in every sense of the term.
  4. 4. The use of ICTs assist in sharing information more effectively and delivering better services to the public. Wisely deployed, ‘ICTs, can potentially impact almost every sector, making development budgets, private sector and commitments from development partners go further in terms of cost effectiveness, impact and reach’ (UNDP 2005,p. 1).
  5. 5. ICTs help to increase transparency and accountability and decrease corruption. They promote economic growth by improving the interface with business and empowering citizens to participate in advancing good governance.
  6. 6. ICTs also help to accelerate the pace of sustainable human development and to increase the effectiveness of new and more responsive solutions in the fields of health, education and related MDG focus areas’ (UNDP 2005, p. 1).
  7. 7. There’s a belief that ICT potentially has the capacity towards the improvement of many different aspects of life, from alleviating poverty to strengthening the democratic polity.
  8. 8. A belief that ICT will deliver its potential benefit on specific developmental aims, such as enhancement of livelihoods in rural areas (Duncombe and Heeks 2002), or improved government services (Krishna and Walsham 2005) The Role of ICT and Development
  9. 9. Perspective • The progressive perspective considers ICT as enabling transformations in multiple domains of human activities, but they can be accommodated within the existing international and local social order. • The disruptive perspective is premised on the highly political and controversial nature of development, both as a concept and as an area of policy for international and local action, and reveal conflicts of interest and struggles of power as a necessary part of IS innovation in developing countries
  10. 10. Communication and networking enabled by information and communication technologies (ICTs) are proving to be economically, socially, and politically transformative over time. For example, in both poor and wealthy countries, mobile phone use has been skyrocketing and facilitating the expansion of markets, social business, and public services.
  11. 11. In fact, an entire range of economic services, enabled by mobile phones, has begun to emerge: micro finance and insurance, marketing and distribution (for example, farmers and fishermen connecting with markets, reduced distribution margins, and buyer control
  12. 12. Personal services, and public services (such as telehealth and distance education) and beyond the economic impacts, improvements are being made in other freedoms or dimensions of well-being — personal security, political participation and accountability, social peace, dignity, and opportunity
  13. 13. In the right environments, both business and non-profit enterprise are effective in rapidly expanding connectivity, using low-margin, high-volume business models. Affordable mobile Internet — smart phones and data services — exists today in wealthier societies and could be near universal in the next generation.
  14. 14. These developments are important, where they are thriving. But we should not forget the negative aspects and possibilities of communications- based transformation, such as mobile phones being used to fan violence, cybercrime and terrorism, and our vulnerability to disruption of communication.
  15. 15. Digital E-Governance
  16. 16. Paradigm 1: Politics/Administration Dichotomy, 1900-1926 Paradigm 2: The Principles of Administration, 1926-1937 Paradigm 3: Public Administration as a Political Science, 1950-1970 Paradigm 4: Public Administration as Management, 1956 -1970 Paradigm 5: Public Administration as Public Administration, 1970 Paradigm 6: From Government to Governance, 1990 Period of Orthodoxy Scientific management Bureaucracy POSDECORB The Most Serious Challenge Administrative Behavior Public Management New Public Administration Reinventing Government New Public Management New Public Service Post Modernism The Future Digital (e) Governance Evolution of Paradigm Source PA as a Developing Discipline
  17. 17. • Information is central resource for all activities • In pursuing the democratic/political processing in managing resources, executing functions, measuring performance, and in service delivery, information is the basic ingredient (Isaac-Hency 1997:132) Source:Ginandjar Kartasasmita. (2013)
  18. 18. The Role of Internet • Internet is a network or networks of one to one, one to many, many to many, and many to one, local, national and global information and communication technologies with relatively open standards, and protocols and comparatively low barriers to entry. Source:Ginandjar Kartasasmita. (2013)
  19. 19. Opportunities and Risk • Management in the public sector is being altered and maybe altered even more fundamentally in the future by rapid advances in technology in particular, information, communications technology (ICT) Source:Ginandjar Kartasasmita. (2013)
  20. 20. The information age has been driven and dominated by technopreneurs — a small army of ‘geeks’ who have reshaped our world faster than any political leader has ever done…. We now have to apply these technologies for saving lives, improving livelihoods and lifting millions of people out of squalor, misery and suffering. In short, the time has come to move our focus from the geeks to the meek. (Sir Arthur C. Clarke)
  21. 21. Kenichi Ohmae’s (1990) metaphor of a ‘Borderless World’ and Thomas Friedman’s (2005) concept of a ‘Flat World’ might sound a bit stale to some. But in the current global crisis, one could argue to the contrary — that they are absolutely right.
  22. 22. Moreover, Servaes’s (2000) view that strengthening the educational sector through the use of technology is a necessary precondition to meeting the challenges of a global world seems to ring more true today than it did at the beginning of the millennium.
  23. 23. In its 2001 Global Technology Index, the Philippines slipped from its 1999 ranking of 32 and 38 out of 49 attributed “mainly to the decline of the number of computers per capita, weak deployment of cellular access and small population of internet users.” ICTs in the Philippines
  24. 24. ICTs in the Philippines • In 2002, the Philippines ranked 76th out of the 165 countries indexed by ICT diffusion 22 in a 2004 study conducted by UNCTAD. This is an outstanding improvement from its rank of 126th in 1995, but it is worthy to note that the Philippines has held its 2002 ranking since 1999.
  25. 25. • In 2003-2004 a new type of public sphere more participatory and intentional’, we have seen ICTs completely transform our lives, including the way politics and governance are played out. This started in Asia with the now famous ‘coup de text’ in the Philippines
  26. 26. The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013
  27. 27. Measuring Competitiveness For more than three decades, the World Economic Forum’s annual Global Competitiveness Reports have studied and benchmarked the many factors underpinning national competitiveness.
  28. 28. Many determinants drive productivity and competitiveness. Understanding the factors behind this process has occupied the minds of economists for hundreds of years, engendering theories ranging from Adam Smith’s focus on specialization and the division of labor to neoclassical economists’ emphasis on investment in physical capital and infrastructure..
  29. 29. More recently, to interest in other mechanisms such as education and training, technological progress, macroeconomic stability, good governance, firm sophistication, and market efficiency, among others. While all of these factors are likely to be important for competitiveness and growth, they are not mutually exclusive—two or more of them can be significant at the same time, and in fact that is what has been shown in the economic literature.
  30. 30. 12 Pillars of Competitiveness Philippine Ranking 1. Institutions 94 3.57 2. Infrastructure 98 3.19 3. Macroeconomic Environment 36 5.33 4. Health and Primary Education 98 5.31 5. Higher Education and Learning 64 4.30 6. Goods Market Efficiency 86 4.17
  31. 31. Philippine Ranking 7. and Market Efficiency 103 4.019 8. Financial Market Development 58 4.25 9. Technological Readiness 79 3.63 10. Market Size 35 4.62 11. Innovation 49 4.23 12. Business Sophistication 94 2.97 12 Pillars of Competitiveness
  32. 32. Stages in Development a. GDP per capita thresholds b. Basic requirements c. Efficiency enhancers d. Innovation and sophistication factors 64 3.60 61 4.17 80 4.35 65 4.23 Philippine Ranking
  33. 33. Global Competitiveness Index 2012–2013 1. Switzerland 1 5.72 2. Singapore 2 5.67 3. Finland 3 5.55 4. Sweden 4 5.53 5. Netherlands 5 5.50
  34. 34. Global Competitiveness Index 2012–2013 6. Germany 6 5.48 7. United States 7 5.47 8. United Kingdom 8 5.45 9. Hong Kong 9 5.41 10. Japan 10 5.40 Philippines 65 4.23
  35. 35. Stages in Development a. GDP per capita thresholds b. Basic requirements c. Efficiency enhancers d. Innovation and sophistication factors Philippines: Transition from stage 1 to stage 2 (17 economies)
  36. 36. Source: The Global Competitiveness Report 2012-2013 The GCI Heat Map
  37. 37. • Facebook • Twitter • Blog • Youtube • hackers
  38. 38. Facebook users (million users 2012) World 1,100 Asia Pacific 390 Philippines 29.79
  39. 39. Mobile phones in the Philippines  The Philippines has 106.4 M mobile subscribers and 10.8 internet users Added: 03/13/2012 from eMarketer Published: 03/13/201  Mobile penetration is 94% while is 32% and social media is 28% from eMarketer Published: 03/13/2012
  40. 40. Digital Divide Of those in the Philippines with internet access, search is used by 56% Media and Entertainment central to daily life in the Philippines Source: 07/29/2010 from Synovate Published: 07/29/2010