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Interconnections in
The Open Ecosystem
Karen Cangialosi
Dept of Biology
Keene State College
Keene, NH USA
@karencang
#QBioEd19
International Year of the Reef 2008, poster by NOAA
Open
Science
Open
Pedagogy
OER
Open Source
Software
Open Access
Publishing
Open Data
OPEN
EDUCATION
Open Ecosystem by Karen Cangialosi [CC BY 4.0]
OpenStax Biology text
• In a study of 3,000 public college/university
students, HALF of the students left without a
degree, but with crippling debt.
• 23% of low-income sophomores worked a job
between the hours of 10:00pm and 8:00am.
• A year at a public university ranges from 16-
25% of a middle-class family’s annual income.
Modified from Slide by Robin DeRosa [CC BY 4.0]
Sara Goldrick-Rab, Jed Richardson and Anthony
Hernandez, 2017, the Wisconsin HOPE lab
http://wihopelab.com/publications/Hungr
y-and-Homeless-in-College-Report.pdf
Survey of 33,000 students at 74 community colleges in 24 states
• 67% are Food Insecure
• 50% are Housing Insecure
• 13-14% are Homeless
• Prevalent in all regions of the country
Image: The Economist
From The Economist
Slide by Robin DeRosa [CC BY 4.0]
22,000 students in the study
Open Educational Resources by Ron Mader [CC BY 2.0]
• Free
OER
• Increase in course throughput rates
• Improve end-of-course grades and
decrease DFW rates for all students
• Reduction in DFW rates for minority and
Pell eligible students
• Lower course withdrawal rates
• Higher % of students completing course
with a C or better
Compilation of results from many studies from
colleges/universities in the United States and Canada
Students in Courses using
OER compared to non-OER
OpenStax.org
Bio.LibreTexts.org
The Many Flavors of OER
• “Traditional” OER as textbook (e.g.
OpenStax)
• Ancillary materials: test banks, etc.
• Curated links on websites
• Open Google Docs
• Open Videos
• Case studies
• Open Labs, simulations, animations
• Open Source software/tools
• Open Access published articles
• Open Datasets
• Open Lab notebooks, Methods
repositories
• and more…
Popsicles by Colored Pencil Magazine [CC BY 2.0]
Open Data as OER
“Open Data is an umbrella term describing
openly-licensed, interoperable, and reusable
datasets which have been created and made
available to the public...”
- Javiera Atenas and Leo Havemann
Qubeshub.org/qubesresources/oer
• At Keene State College, we use OER and other free
resources for nearly ALL Biology courses. We have
collectively saved our students about $250,000 over
the last 4 years.
• Many Colleges and Universities have already saved
students MILLIONS of dollars in textbooks costs.
Free as in “Free Beer”
Photo by Elliot Bledsoe [CC BY 2.0]
Free But Not Open
Creative Commons
licenses explained
©Foter (adapted by
Jisc) via Foter blog
CC BY-SA
The Open
License
Not just “free”,
but Open.
“Using OER the same way we used commercial
textbooks misses the point. It’s like driving an airplane
down the road.” – David Wiley
• Reuse
• Revise
• Remix
• Redistribute
• Retain
FREE as in Freedom (the 5 R’s)
Open Educational Resources by Ron Mader [CC BY 2.0]
• Digital
• Multimedia
• Downloadable
• Adaptable
• Current
• Public
• Openly Licensed
• Free
OER
Open Pedagogy
• Learners contribute to, not just
consume knowledge
• Community and collaboration
• Connection to the wider public
• Student Agency, Learner-driven
• Critical approach to the use of tools
and technology
‘Floor at domains17’ by Karen Cangialosi [CC BY 4.0]
Modified from content by Robin DeRosa
Open Pedagogy
is about
Access and Agency
Learning
Structure
Design
Knowledge
Knowledge
Creation
Knowledge
Sharing
Community
Participation &
Collaboration
food, gas,
laptops,
captions,
safety, ETC.
Student-Created OEROEROpenPedagogy
Student-Created OER
Students can create ancillary materials for OER textbooks
OER doesn’t have to look like a typical textbook
Students can be involved in the production of any of this
• “Traditional” OER as textbook (e.g.
OpenStax)
• Ancillary materials: test banks, etc.
• Curated links on websites
• Open Google Docs
• Open Videos
• Case studies
• Open Labs, simulations, animations
• Open Source software/tools
• Open Access published articles
• Open Datasets
• Open Lab notebooks, Methods
repositories
• and more… Popsicles by Colored Pencil Magazine [CC BY 2.0]
Domain of One’s Own
https://kscopen.org/
“Contribute to, not just consume from, the knowledge commons”
-Robin DeRosa
Audience Beyond the Professor
• Students create, remix and
openly license work that is
shared with others.
• Student work lives on past the
end of the semester (if they
want it to).
Non-Disposable Assignments
2017 class
• Students create
content on their
domain spaces
2019 class
• Add content from
domain spaces
• Curate and edit
content from
2017 & 2019;
create pressbook
2017 Alumni
• Further edit
Pressbook Content
• Add new content
• Write the intro, title
• Reorganize chapters
Beyond the walls of the classroom
Web annotation: Community & Collaboration
Wiki Education Foundation (wikiedu.org)
[CC BY SA]
Creating/Editing Wikipedia Articles
Medical students at the
University of California
San Francisco School of
Medicine edit
Wikipedia articles
http://mediashift.org/2016/05/why-you-and-your-students-should-work-to-improve-wikipedia/
“… students engage
with and understand
the politics of editing,
including how ‘truth’ is
negotiated by those
who have access to the
tools that shape it.”
– Robin DeRosa
“Our students
are not just
going on the
web, they are
constructing it.”
-Martha Burtis
"This is How The Web is Made“ by cogdogblog
https://flickr.com/photos/cogdog/16248316055
[CC BY 2.0]
Twitter
Research Gate
Linked-InUsing Social Media for developing a
Personal Learning Network; Connecting
with Peers, Professionals and Academics
#KSCBio
“ I got into several conversations with
professionals about how to save our planet
and things that need to be done in order to
make that happen.… I found myself
enjoying being on twitter for a purpose
other than entertainment.”
-Keene State Biology student
Students write about local contamination sites and potential
consequences to humans and wildlife
#SciComm
Open Pedagogy as Public Service
• Open Science
• Open Data
• Citizen Science
• Science Communication
• Open Access Publication
Open Pedagogy
“Anxiety" by ASweeneyPhoto CC (BY-NC)
More than 60% of college students (in a study of 88,000)
said they had experienced “overwhelming anxiety” in the
past year, according to a 2018 report from the American
College Health Association.
Over 40% said they felt so depressed they had difficulty
functioning.
Source: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/21/education/learning/mental-health-counseling-on-
campus.html
An atmosphere that places greater value on
“achievement” than on learning
Standardized tests and assessments that suck the
life out of learning
Surveillance systems that track, monitor, punish,
and insist on compliance
“a stay of execution”
“students just know how to work the system”
“students will cheat if they can get away with it”
“they are grade-grubbers”
“they don’t know anything we taught them at the 100 level”
Stop Blaming Students
Students can work with faculty to:
• Create Content
• Write the syllabus
• Write the attendance policy
• Create learning outcomes
• Determine what goes on during class
• Design assignments
• Decide what work they want to make public
or openly license
• Determine how they will be graded
Trust, Power, and Agency
Student Anxiety,
Financial stress,
Powerlessness
Open Pedagogy:
Student Trust, Agency,
and Empowerment
Open Pedagogy:
Students Create and
Share knowledge
Other Systemic
Problems:
-Economic
-Environmental
-Social and
Cultural
Systemic issues in
Education:
-Standardization
-Grades-Focus
-Surveillance
-High Cost
OER:
Cost Savings
“When my students gain access to knowledge, I want it to be part of a larger
invitation: we trust that you have important lessons to teach the world, and we trust
that the knowledge you access today will be changed by your perspective, that you
will open doors to new ideas that we, your current teachers, never could have
taught you.” – Robin DeRosa, University of the Margins
The Pedagogy of Open Science
Open Pedagogy in Science
By G.emmerich [CC BY-SA 3.0]
= teaching students the value and
practices of opening up scientific work
= using Open Pedagogy practices in
STEM courses
By G.emmerich [CC BY-SA 3.0]
• Transparency in experimental methodology,
observation, and collection of data
• Public availability and reusability of
scientific data
• Public accessibility and transparency of
scientific communication
• Using web-based tools to facilitate scientific
collaboration
From What, exactly, is Open Science?
Posted on July 28, 2009 by Dan Gezelter
A Global Scientific Revolution
Why Open Science?
• Science now is slow, wasteful, locked away
• Ruled by commercial interests
• Reproducibility crises, questionable research practices
• Make scientific practice more effective by increasing collaboration,
transparency of the review process, inclusivity
• Increase our range and extent of knowledge, amplify collective intelligence,
increase cognitive diversity
• Real breakthroughs need to come through diverse teams of collaborators who
share data, not individual superstars
• Declining funding for basic science and for higher education, increasing
corporatization of academia, decreasing public trust
Open Protocols
https://www.protocols.io/
OER Open Notebook Science Network
http://onsnetwork.org/
KSC Intro biology students create wiki
pages to use as their open lab
notebook
Open Pedagogy/Open Science
Student shares methods and data from
her independent research project
Open Pedagogy/Open Science
Faculty-Student Co-authored and Open Access Research Article
CC BY NC ND
Open Pedagogy/Open Science
Open Pedagogy
Classroom
Open Science
Research Lab
Open Access
Communication
Open Data
Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycling in the Open Ecosystem
Open
Data
Open
Science
Open
Access
Publishing
OER
Open
Pedagogy
Open
Source
Software
Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycling in The Open Ecosystem
By Karen Cangialosi [CC BY 4.0]
(modified from Chesapeake Bay
Waterbird Food Web CC 0)
From Data Feminism, D’Ignazio and Klein, MIT Press Open
“What if we imagined
teaching data as a
place to start creating
the connected,
collective, caring
world that we want
to see?”
-Catherine D’Ignazio and
Lauren Klein
https://bookbook.pubpub.org/data-feminism
Kwantlen Polytechnic University (KPU) and Montgomery College,
International Partnership
“Open is a Process, Not a Panacea”
-Robin DeRosa
“On the one hand, open
promises to improve access to
education and the well-being of
livelihoods through practices
that enable the sharing of
educational content … On the
other hand, it can unwittingly
reproduce many of the existing
inequities of the systems it
seeks to change.”
Can we decolonize OER/Open?
Taskeen Adam, Maha Bali, Cheryl
Hodgkinson-Williams, Tannis Morgan
Who gets counted in our
datasets? Who is missing?
Datafication: Is data-driven
decision making benefitting the
public or amplifying inequities?
Surveillance Capitalism and the
Data Economy: How is our data
used? Who has control over our
data? Who is profiting?
Data.world
Data is not ideologically neutral
Science is not ideologically neutral
Education is not ideologically neutral
Except where otherwise noted, this work by Karen Cangialosi is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Follow me on twitter @karencang
Can we resist the market-driven values
that are reducing our institutions of
higher education to sites for workforce
training, and instead practice the critical
pedagogies that our students desperately
deserve, and that may inspire them to
radically transform the world in ways that
we cannot yet imagine?

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Interconnections in the Open Ecosystem

  • 1. Interconnections in The Open Ecosystem Karen Cangialosi Dept of Biology Keene State College Keene, NH USA @karencang #QBioEd19 International Year of the Reef 2008, poster by NOAA
  • 2. Open Science Open Pedagogy OER Open Source Software Open Access Publishing Open Data OPEN EDUCATION Open Ecosystem by Karen Cangialosi [CC BY 4.0]
  • 4.
  • 5. • In a study of 3,000 public college/university students, HALF of the students left without a degree, but with crippling debt. • 23% of low-income sophomores worked a job between the hours of 10:00pm and 8:00am. • A year at a public university ranges from 16- 25% of a middle-class family’s annual income. Modified from Slide by Robin DeRosa [CC BY 4.0]
  • 6. Sara Goldrick-Rab, Jed Richardson and Anthony Hernandez, 2017, the Wisconsin HOPE lab http://wihopelab.com/publications/Hungr y-and-Homeless-in-College-Report.pdf Survey of 33,000 students at 74 community colleges in 24 states • 67% are Food Insecure • 50% are Housing Insecure • 13-14% are Homeless • Prevalent in all regions of the country
  • 8. Slide by Robin DeRosa [CC BY 4.0] 22,000 students in the study
  • 9. Open Educational Resources by Ron Mader [CC BY 2.0] • Free OER
  • 10. • Increase in course throughput rates • Improve end-of-course grades and decrease DFW rates for all students • Reduction in DFW rates for minority and Pell eligible students • Lower course withdrawal rates • Higher % of students completing course with a C or better Compilation of results from many studies from colleges/universities in the United States and Canada Students in Courses using OER compared to non-OER
  • 13. The Many Flavors of OER • “Traditional” OER as textbook (e.g. OpenStax) • Ancillary materials: test banks, etc. • Curated links on websites • Open Google Docs • Open Videos • Case studies • Open Labs, simulations, animations • Open Source software/tools • Open Access published articles • Open Datasets • Open Lab notebooks, Methods repositories • and more… Popsicles by Colored Pencil Magazine [CC BY 2.0]
  • 14. Open Data as OER “Open Data is an umbrella term describing openly-licensed, interoperable, and reusable datasets which have been created and made available to the public...” - Javiera Atenas and Leo Havemann
  • 16. • At Keene State College, we use OER and other free resources for nearly ALL Biology courses. We have collectively saved our students about $250,000 over the last 4 years. • Many Colleges and Universities have already saved students MILLIONS of dollars in textbooks costs.
  • 17. Free as in “Free Beer” Photo by Elliot Bledsoe [CC BY 2.0]
  • 18. Free But Not Open
  • 19. Creative Commons licenses explained ©Foter (adapted by Jisc) via Foter blog CC BY-SA The Open License Not just “free”, but Open.
  • 20. “Using OER the same way we used commercial textbooks misses the point. It’s like driving an airplane down the road.” – David Wiley
  • 21. • Reuse • Revise • Remix • Redistribute • Retain FREE as in Freedom (the 5 R’s)
  • 22. Open Educational Resources by Ron Mader [CC BY 2.0] • Digital • Multimedia • Downloadable • Adaptable • Current • Public • Openly Licensed • Free OER
  • 23.
  • 24. Open Pedagogy • Learners contribute to, not just consume knowledge • Community and collaboration • Connection to the wider public • Student Agency, Learner-driven • Critical approach to the use of tools and technology ‘Floor at domains17’ by Karen Cangialosi [CC BY 4.0] Modified from content by Robin DeRosa
  • 25. Open Pedagogy is about Access and Agency Learning Structure Design Knowledge Knowledge Creation Knowledge Sharing Community Participation & Collaboration food, gas, laptops, captions, safety, ETC.
  • 28. Students can create ancillary materials for OER textbooks
  • 29. OER doesn’t have to look like a typical textbook
  • 30. Students can be involved in the production of any of this • “Traditional” OER as textbook (e.g. OpenStax) • Ancillary materials: test banks, etc. • Curated links on websites • Open Google Docs • Open Videos • Case studies • Open Labs, simulations, animations • Open Source software/tools • Open Access published articles • Open Datasets • Open Lab notebooks, Methods repositories • and more… Popsicles by Colored Pencil Magazine [CC BY 2.0]
  • 31. Domain of One’s Own https://kscopen.org/
  • 32.
  • 33. “Contribute to, not just consume from, the knowledge commons” -Robin DeRosa
  • 34. Audience Beyond the Professor
  • 35. • Students create, remix and openly license work that is shared with others. • Student work lives on past the end of the semester (if they want it to). Non-Disposable Assignments
  • 36. 2017 class • Students create content on their domain spaces 2019 class • Add content from domain spaces • Curate and edit content from 2017 & 2019; create pressbook 2017 Alumni • Further edit Pressbook Content • Add new content • Write the intro, title • Reorganize chapters Beyond the walls of the classroom
  • 37. Web annotation: Community & Collaboration
  • 38.
  • 39. Wiki Education Foundation (wikiedu.org) [CC BY SA] Creating/Editing Wikipedia Articles
  • 40. Medical students at the University of California San Francisco School of Medicine edit Wikipedia articles
  • 41. http://mediashift.org/2016/05/why-you-and-your-students-should-work-to-improve-wikipedia/ “… students engage with and understand the politics of editing, including how ‘truth’ is negotiated by those who have access to the tools that shape it.” – Robin DeRosa
  • 42. “Our students are not just going on the web, they are constructing it.” -Martha Burtis "This is How The Web is Made“ by cogdogblog https://flickr.com/photos/cogdog/16248316055 [CC BY 2.0]
  • 43. Twitter Research Gate Linked-InUsing Social Media for developing a Personal Learning Network; Connecting with Peers, Professionals and Academics #KSCBio
  • 44. “ I got into several conversations with professionals about how to save our planet and things that need to be done in order to make that happen.… I found myself enjoying being on twitter for a purpose other than entertainment.” -Keene State Biology student
  • 45. Students write about local contamination sites and potential consequences to humans and wildlife #SciComm Open Pedagogy as Public Service
  • 46. • Open Science • Open Data • Citizen Science • Science Communication • Open Access Publication Open Pedagogy
  • 47. “Anxiety" by ASweeneyPhoto CC (BY-NC) More than 60% of college students (in a study of 88,000) said they had experienced “overwhelming anxiety” in the past year, according to a 2018 report from the American College Health Association. Over 40% said they felt so depressed they had difficulty functioning. Source: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/21/education/learning/mental-health-counseling-on- campus.html
  • 48. An atmosphere that places greater value on “achievement” than on learning Standardized tests and assessments that suck the life out of learning Surveillance systems that track, monitor, punish, and insist on compliance
  • 49. “a stay of execution” “students just know how to work the system” “students will cheat if they can get away with it” “they are grade-grubbers” “they don’t know anything we taught them at the 100 level” Stop Blaming Students
  • 50. Students can work with faculty to: • Create Content • Write the syllabus • Write the attendance policy • Create learning outcomes • Determine what goes on during class • Design assignments • Decide what work they want to make public or openly license • Determine how they will be graded Trust, Power, and Agency
  • 51. Student Anxiety, Financial stress, Powerlessness Open Pedagogy: Student Trust, Agency, and Empowerment Open Pedagogy: Students Create and Share knowledge Other Systemic Problems: -Economic -Environmental -Social and Cultural Systemic issues in Education: -Standardization -Grades-Focus -Surveillance -High Cost OER: Cost Savings
  • 52. “When my students gain access to knowledge, I want it to be part of a larger invitation: we trust that you have important lessons to teach the world, and we trust that the knowledge you access today will be changed by your perspective, that you will open doors to new ideas that we, your current teachers, never could have taught you.” – Robin DeRosa, University of the Margins
  • 53. The Pedagogy of Open Science Open Pedagogy in Science By G.emmerich [CC BY-SA 3.0] = teaching students the value and practices of opening up scientific work = using Open Pedagogy practices in STEM courses
  • 54. By G.emmerich [CC BY-SA 3.0] • Transparency in experimental methodology, observation, and collection of data • Public availability and reusability of scientific data • Public accessibility and transparency of scientific communication • Using web-based tools to facilitate scientific collaboration From What, exactly, is Open Science? Posted on July 28, 2009 by Dan Gezelter A Global Scientific Revolution
  • 55. Why Open Science? • Science now is slow, wasteful, locked away • Ruled by commercial interests • Reproducibility crises, questionable research practices • Make scientific practice more effective by increasing collaboration, transparency of the review process, inclusivity • Increase our range and extent of knowledge, amplify collective intelligence, increase cognitive diversity • Real breakthroughs need to come through diverse teams of collaborators who share data, not individual superstars • Declining funding for basic science and for higher education, increasing corporatization of academia, decreasing public trust
  • 56.
  • 57. Open Protocols https://www.protocols.io/ OER Open Notebook Science Network http://onsnetwork.org/
  • 58. KSC Intro biology students create wiki pages to use as their open lab notebook Open Pedagogy/Open Science
  • 59. Student shares methods and data from her independent research project Open Pedagogy/Open Science
  • 60. Faculty-Student Co-authored and Open Access Research Article CC BY NC ND Open Pedagogy/Open Science
  • 61. Open Pedagogy Classroom Open Science Research Lab Open Access Communication Open Data Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycling in the Open Ecosystem
  • 62. Open Data Open Science Open Access Publishing OER Open Pedagogy Open Source Software Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycling in The Open Ecosystem By Karen Cangialosi [CC BY 4.0] (modified from Chesapeake Bay Waterbird Food Web CC 0)
  • 63. From Data Feminism, D’Ignazio and Klein, MIT Press Open “What if we imagined teaching data as a place to start creating the connected, collective, caring world that we want to see?” -Catherine D’Ignazio and Lauren Klein https://bookbook.pubpub.org/data-feminism
  • 64. Kwantlen Polytechnic University (KPU) and Montgomery College, International Partnership
  • 65. “Open is a Process, Not a Panacea” -Robin DeRosa
  • 66. “On the one hand, open promises to improve access to education and the well-being of livelihoods through practices that enable the sharing of educational content … On the other hand, it can unwittingly reproduce many of the existing inequities of the systems it seeks to change.” Can we decolonize OER/Open? Taskeen Adam, Maha Bali, Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams, Tannis Morgan
  • 67. Who gets counted in our datasets? Who is missing? Datafication: Is data-driven decision making benefitting the public or amplifying inequities? Surveillance Capitalism and the Data Economy: How is our data used? Who has control over our data? Who is profiting? Data.world
  • 68. Data is not ideologically neutral Science is not ideologically neutral Education is not ideologically neutral
  • 69. Except where otherwise noted, this work by Karen Cangialosi is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Follow me on twitter @karencang Can we resist the market-driven values that are reducing our institutions of higher education to sites for workforce training, and instead practice the critical pedagogies that our students desperately deserve, and that may inspire them to radically transform the world in ways that we cannot yet imagine?