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  2. 2. Chinese architecture refers to a style of architecture that has taken shape in East Asia over many centuries. The architecture of China is as old as Chinese civilization.  The structural principles of Chinese architecture have remained largely unchanged, the main changes being only the decorative details. The structural principles of Chinese architecture have remained largely unchanged, the main changes being only the decorative details. Since the Tang Dynasty, Chinese architecture has had a major influence on the architectural styles of Korea, Vietnam, and Japan.
  3. 3. In China, a vast land spanning many degrees of latitude with complicated terrain, climate varies radically.  China has a variety of temperature and rainfall zones, including continental monsoon areas. In winter most areas become cold and dry, in summer hot and rainy. China climates differ from region to region because of the country's extensive and complex topography.  In the south of the Nanling Mountains, rains are prolific and the temperature is high all year round. In the Yangtze and Huaihe river valleys in the central part of China, there are four distinctive seasons
  4. 4. Many people in China are farmers. Many grow rice. China grows more food than any other country. The Chinese also grow tea and soy beans. Many Chinese shop every day in open air markets to get the freshest foods for their family's dinner. Chinese people think it is very important to be polite and kind to others. The family is very important to the Chinese. Children listen and obey their parents and older people are loved and respected. The Chinese people believe the air is most densely charged with vital energy called chi at daybreak, and for thousands around the island the day starts with dawn exercises in parks. Individuals or groups gather to jog, dance, practice the gentle slow-motion of tai chi chuan or the vigorous gymnastics of kung-ku.
  5. 5. Imperial Palaces Imperial Palaces were originally built to showcase the extravagant lifestyles of the emperors, as well as to provide a centralized location for demonstrating imperial political control. The imperial palaces were built on a grand scale, sparing no expense to display the majesty and dignity of the imperial power of the time. Each imperial palace is a testament to the history and glory of Chinese culture. These glorious structures clearly demonstrate the creative essence and imperial traditions of the Chinese people.
  6. 6. Pagodas Pagodas are actually native to India. These octagonal towers were introduced to China along with the introduction and integration of Buddhism. The design of the traditional Indian pagoda changed as the structure was integrated into Chinese culture.
  7. 7. City Walls Many Chinese cities are surrounded by a set of walls. The inner wall is termed the cheng and the outer wall is the guo.  The term chengguo is used to describe the entirety of the ancient city walls. Moats often surrounded the walls and these moats were termed chi. The inner city was named the geng. Within the walls surrounding the city were gates. At least 2 or 3 gates, with towers over the gates, opened up to the outside world. Large cities offered more gates.  For example, the walls surrounding Beijing contained 9 gates during the Ming and Qing Dynasties.
  8. 8. At each of the four corners of the wall, watch towers were constructed. The mamian was a set of ramps that extended out from the wall.  The mamian provided access for cavalry, horses, and wheeled transport entering or exiting the city.
  9. 9. China's most famous city walls: Xi'an Ancient City Wall Pingyao City Wall Nanjing Ancient City Wall
  10. 10. The origin of pagodas, like that of Buddhism, can be traced to India.  The relation between Buddhism and pagodas is explained in Buddhist literature, which says that pagodas were originally built for the purpose of preserving the remains of Sakyamuni, the founder of Buddhism. In Sanskrit pagoda (or stupa) meant tomb. Before the pagoda was introduced to China,
  11. 11. Structures of Pagodas Different structures have been used in the building of pagodas, depending on the building materials. The structure and method of construction of a wooden pagoda are similar to those of a palace, temple, multistoreyed building or pavilion made of wood, i.e., traditional beam or bracket system. It is usually composed of a frame, rafters, sheathing, eaves and roof. A pagoda made of bricks and stones, like other brick and stone buildings, is constructed by methods such as piling up bricks or stone blocks and making archways.
  12. 12. Metal pagodas are made by moulding and casting metals. Though the building materials and methods of construction differ, the basic structure does not change drastically. A pagoda is composed of the following major parts:
  13. 13. Underground Palace Most ancient buildings in China were built on solid ground. Usually nothing was built underground.  The pagoda, however, was unique in having an underground palace, called the dragon palace or the dragon cave.  This special structure is not found in other buildings, such as palaces, temples or multistoreyed buildings.  It was added to a Buddhist pagoda to preserve Buddhist relics.
  14. 14. According to a survey, Buddhist relics were not buried underground in India, but kept inside the pagodas BaseFor instance, the two oldest pagodas in China the pagoda at Songyue Temple of the Northern Wei Dynasty and the Four-Door Pagoda in Licheng of the Sui Dynasty both have very simple, low bases made
  15. 15. Body The body, or main part, of a pagoda varies depending on the style of architecture. The classification of pagodas was based on the style of the body of the pagoda.... Steeple Every pagoda is surmounted by a steeple, sometimes pointed and sometimes ball-shaped. They vary greatly in style and building materials. The most commonly used building materials for steeples are...
  16. 16. CHINESE PAGODAS OF BRICK, STONE AND WOOD During the Tang dynasty in China (618-907 CE), Buddhist pagodas began to be made from stone and brick. Stone was more versatile and more attainable than wood. Stone also withstood harsh conditions, such as weather and fire far better than lumber Rather than immediately replacing the wooden structure with stone, however, the Chinese slowly incorporated the material into their architectural patterns. In the beginning, only the base of the pagoda was built with stone. The walls, roofs and spires on top were still made with wood.
  17. 17. CHINESE PAGODAS OF BRICK, STONE AND WOOD Changes to the actual pagoda structure were made during this period as well. Previously, each level of the building was smaller than the size of a basic building.  The ceiling was low, and the windows small. The levels were now heightened, made to accomodate an actual person standing as opposed to one leaning over.  The rooms were more versatile, and there were more of them. On every level of most pagodas during this period, there was a room for each outside wall of the pagoda.  They were now built with six or even eight sides instead of the basic four sided structure. Each level then, had six or eight rooms as well. The pagoda as a building began to match the everyday Chinese architectural styles.