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Construction Materials

Presentación de los materiales de construcción de Ana Mª López Barroso y Rocío Espinosa Portero (3º E)

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Construction Materials

  2. 2. Index: <ul><li>Materials used in constuction </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Construction machines </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental impact of buildings </li></ul>
  3. 3. Materials used in construction <ul><li>Materials used in construction are those that are employed in the edification. In construction we can exploit different types of materials: </li></ul><ul><li>· Petrous or stony materials </li></ul><ul><li>· Aglomerative materials </li></ul><ul><li>· Concrete </li></ul><ul><li>· Ceramic materials </li></ul><ul><li>· Other materials </li></ul>
  4. 4. Petrous or stony materials <ul><li>Compact rocks: they are blocks of limestone, marble, granite, slate, sandstone, etc... </li></ul><ul><li>Disintegrated rocks: they are fragments of rocks of variable size. In construction we use: </li></ul><ul><li>> Clay: it can absorb water. </li></ul><ul><li>> Arids or fragments of the disgregation of rocks. They can be sand, gravel,... </li></ul>
  5. 5. Aglomerative rocks <ul><li>When they are mixed with water they turn pasty and when they solidify they adquire lightnessg </li></ul><ul><li>· Lime : to obtain this material we heat limestone. </li></ul><ul><li>· Gypsum : it is mineral in powder and, when we add water to it, we use it to cover walls or roofs. There are three types: </li></ul><ul><li>> Black with impurities. </li></ul><ul><li>> White without impurities. </li></ul><ul><li>> Plaster. </li></ul><ul><li>· Cement : it´s the most used aglomerant. There are a lot of types (metallurgical,...). The most employed is Portland cement, which is made up of a mix of limestone and clay and it is cooked in a rotative oven. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Concrete <ul><li>It is a mixture of arids, aglomerants and water. There are different types of concrete, but the most used are: </li></ul><ul><li>Regular concrete: it includes powdered cement mixed with water. </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular concrete: it is concrete produced by the addition of an air entraining agent to the concrete or a lightweight aggreggate like expanded clay pellets or cork granules. </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclopean concrete: it is made up of cement, water and big arids (of more of 30 cm of diameter). </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced concrete: inside of it there is an armor made up of steel bars that can be tense before the concrete solidifies, or after. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ceramic materials <ul><li>They are pieces fabric with molded clay and cooked in an oven. The process of elaboration: </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing and molding: clay and water are mixed together and then it is molded. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooked in oven: the molded material is heated inside ovens with differents temperatures so it doesn´t break. </li></ul><ul><li>There are different types of ceramic materials: </li></ul><ul><li>Bricks: they are pieces of cooked clay. There are two types, thin bricks and ordinary bricks. </li></ul><ul><li>Tiles: they are square or rectangular pieces. We used them for the tiled of walls. </li></ul><ul><li>Roof tiles: they are employed in roofs and covers. </li></ul><ul><li>Porcelain: it is covered with varnish. It is used in baths,... </li></ul>
  8. 8. Other materials <ul><li>Metals; those we use in construction are: </li></ul><ul><li>> Steel. </li></ul><ul><li>> Aluminium. </li></ul><ul><li>> Copper. </li></ul><ul><li>Woods: it is very use in doors, floors,... </li></ul><ul><li>Plastics: their use is more common now. They are used in cables, plugs, insulators, outlets,... </li></ul><ul><li>Glass: they are used in windows, doors, decoration,... </li></ul>
  9. 9. Building constructiong <ul><li>The construction of a building is a long and complex process that is compound of several phases, and a lot of material is employed. The different phases are: </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of the land: by clearing-up the field, demolition and nivelation. </li></ul><ul><li>Cimentation: it the placement of the base of the building. It is underground and the main elements used are blocks, piles,… </li></ul>
  10. 10. Building construction <ul><li>Structure elevation: we build the stilts and the shields. Some metallic structures are made up of steel beams, but most of structures are made up of reinforced concrete. </li></ul><ul><li>Water covering: it consists of the building of the roof, which depends a lot of the climate of the place. The most employed materials are zinc plates, slate and tiles. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Building construction <ul><li>Pavements placement: above the plates of each floor we place marble, wood,… </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation of walls: it consists of the construction of walls and partitions that close and divide the different floors. For this phase we use ordinary bricks. </li></ul><ul><li>Placement of instalacion: water, electricity, gas, television,… They are made up by specialised workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Finished works: the consits of the fines jobs that specialised workers do too. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Construction machines <ul><ul><li>In construction several types of machines are used: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diggers and loaders. They are used in excavation and land's movements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cranes are used for hoisting heavy materials. They consist of three parts: the tower, the feather and the counterweight. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Construction machines <ul><li>Lorries transport materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Bulldozers are used in the nivelation of the field and rollers are employed to compact the land. </li></ul><ul><li>To prepare the concrete we use a concrete mixer. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Environmental impact of buildings (I) <ul><li>A building causes an environmental impact since the construction materials are obtained. </li></ul><ul><li>In Europe, a 40% of the energy used is employed in the construction sector, and most of the energy is spent in heating of buildings, and a big part of materials are employed in construction too. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Environmental impact of buildings (II) <ul><li>The way a person uses the energy spent in the building influence a lot in the environmental impact. </li></ul><ul><li>The uncontrolled construction of building affects a lot in the natural habitat. There are a lot of cases of illegal buildings or building corruption. </li></ul>