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use of traditional building materials


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This slide is about what kind of traditional building materials are use in construction.........

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use of traditional building materials

  2. 2. Traditional Material =Traditionally materials were chosen for building based on factors such as local availability and function,1. Wood 2. Stone and pebble 3.Thatch4. Earth Breathing buildings Traditional buildings are usually built of stone, brick, timber and earth (cob or wattle and daub) held together with earth or lime-based mortars. These materials are absorbent and allow moisture to penetrate the fabric and then evaporate away harmlessly when conditions are favourable. For this reason, traditional buildings are said to ‘breathe'. In such buildings, dampness is controlled by the building's ability to allow moisture to evaporate. The wind and sun aid the evaporation of water from the external surfaces whilst internal air movement through the roof covering, walls, windows and other openings helps moisture evaporate from internal surfaces. As long as the moisture can evaporate freely, the traditional performance of the structure will function as intended and the walls of the building will remain acceptably dry. Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. natural and artificial materials and products used for the construction and repair of buildings and struct ures. The many different purposes and operatingconditions of buildings and structures account for the variety of demands placed on building materials and for the great diversity of available materials. Two basic categories of building materials are recognized: general- purpose materials, such as cement, concrete, and timber, used in the construction ofvarious types of s tructures, and special- purpose materials, such as acoustic, insulating, and refractory materials. Depending on the degree of preparationbefore use, building materials are conventionally classified as building materials proper, su ch as binders and aggregates, and structural components,
  3. 3. which are prefabricated units and elements to be installed in buildings at the construction site, such as reinforced-concrete panels, toilet stalls, and doorand window units. Industrialization and the expansion of modern construction have led to an increased share of prefabric ated structural components in the total productionvolume of building materials. The greater output of b uilding materials in the form of almost totally prefabricated items makes it possible to increase laborpro ductivity, decrease costs, and accelerate construction work Naturally occurring substances Brush Brush structures are built entirely from plant parts and were used in primitive cultures such as Native Americans pygmy peoples in Africa. These are built mostly with branches, twigs and leaves, and bark, similar to a beaver's lodge. These were variously named wikiups, lean-tos, and so forth. An extension on the brush building idea is the wattle and daub process in which clay soils or dung, usually cow, are used to fill in and cover a woven brush structure. This gives the structure more thermal mass and strength. Wattle and daub is one of the oldest building techniques. Many older timber frame buildings incorporate wattle and daub as non load bearing walls between the timber frames. Ice and snow Snow and occasionally ice were used by the Inuit peoples for igloos and snow is used to built a shelter called a quinzhee. Ice has also been used for ice hotels as a tourist attraction in northern climates. Mud and clay Sod buildings in Iceland Clay based buildings usually come in two distinct types. One being when the walls are made directly with the mud mixture, and the other being walls built by stacking air-dried building blocks called mud bricks. Other uses of clay in building is combined with straws to create light clay, wattle and daub, and mud plaster. Wet-laid clay wall Wet-laid, or damp, walls are made by using the mud or clay mixture directly without forming blocks and drying them first. The amount of and type of each material in the mixture used leads to different
  4. 4. styles of buildings. The deciding factor is usually connected with the quality of the soil being used. Larger amounts of clay are usually employed in building with cob, while low-clay soil is usually associated with sod house or sod roof construction. The other main ingredients include more or less sand/gravel and straw/grasses. Rammed earth is both an old and newer take on creating walls, once made by compacting clay soils between planks by hand; nowadays forms and mechanical pneumatic compressors are used Soil, and especially clay, provides good thermal mass; it is very good at keeping temperatures at a constant level. Homes built with earth tend to be naturally cool in the summer heat and warm in cold weather. Clay holds heat or cold, releasing it over a period of time like stone. Earthen walls change temperature slowly, so artificially raising or lowering the temperature can use more resources than in say a wood built house, but the heat/coolness stays longer. People building with mostly dirt and clay, such as cob, sod, and adobe, created homes that have been built for centuries in western and northern Europe, Asia, as well as the rest of the world, and continue to be built, though on a smaller scale. Some of these buildings have remained habitable for hundreds of years. Structural clay blocks and bricks : adobe, mudbrick and compressed earth block Mud-bricks, also known by their Spanish name adobe are ancient building materials with evidence dating back thousands of years BC. Compressed earth blocks are a more modern type of brick used for building more frequently in industrialized society since the building blocks can be manufactured off site in a centralized location at a brickworks and transported to multiple building locations. These blocks can also be monetized more easily and sold. Structural mud bricks are almost always made using clay, often clay soil and a binder are the only ingredients used, but other ingredients can include sand, lime, concrete, stone and other binders. The formed or compressed block is then air dried and can be laid dry or with a mortar or clay slip. Sand Sand is used with cement, and sometimes lime, to make mortar for masonry work and plaster. Sand is also used as a part of the concrete mix. An important low-cost building material in countries with high sand content soils is the Sand Crete block, which is weaker but cheaper than fired clay bricks Stone or rock Rock structures have existed for as long as history can recall. It is the longest lasting building material available, and is usually readily available. There are many types of rock throughout the world, all with differing attributes that make them better or worse for particular uses. Rock is a very dense material so it gives a lot of protection too; its main drawback as a material is its weight and awkwardness. Its energy density is also considered a big drawback, as stone is hard to keep warm without using large amounts of heating resources.
  5. 5. Dry-stone walls have been built for as long as humans have put one stone on top of another. Eventually, different forms of mortar were used to hold the stones together, cement being the most commonplace now. The granite-strewn uplands of Dartmoor National Park, United Kingdom, for example, provided ample resources for early settlers. Circular huts were constructed from loose granite rocks throughout the Neolithic and early Bronze Age, and the remains of an estimated 5,000 can still be seen today. Granite continued to be used throughout the Medieval period (see Dartmoor longhouse) and into modern times. Slate is another stone type, commonly used as roofing material in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world where it is found. Stone buildings can be seen in most major cities; some civilizations built entirely with stone such as the Egyptian and Aztec pyramids and the structures of the Inca civilization. Thatch Toda tribe hut Thatch is one of the oldest of building materials known; grass is a good insulator and easily harvested. Many African tribes have lived in homes made completely of grasses and sand year-round. In Europe, thatch roofs on homes were once prevalent but the material fell out of favour as industrialization and improved transport increased the availability of other materials. Today, though, the practice is undergoing a revival. In the Netherlands, for instance, many new buildings have thatched roofs with special ridge tiles on top.
  6. 6. Wood and timber A wood-framed house under construction in Texas, United States The Gliwice Radio Tower (the second tallest wooden structure in the world) in Poland (2012). Wood has been used as a building material for thousands of years in its natural state. Today, engineered wood is becoming very common in industrialized countries. Wood is a product of trees, and sometimes other fibrous plants, used for construction purposes when cut or pressed into lumber and timber, such as boards, planks and similar materials. It is a generic building material and is used in building just about any type of structure in most climates. Wood can be very flexible under loads, keeping strength while bending, and is incredibly strong when compressed vertically. There are many differing qualities to the different types of wood, even among same tree
  7. 7. species. This means specific species are better suited for various uses than others. And growing conditions are important for deciding quality. "Timber" is the term used for construction purposes except the term "lumber" is used in the United States. Raw wood (a log, trunk, bole) becomes timber when the wood has been "converted" (sawn, hewn, split) in the forms of minimally-processed logs stacked on top of each other, timber frame construction, and light-frame construction. The main problems with timber structures are fire risk and moisture-related problems In modern times softwood is used as a lower-value bulk material, whereas hardwood is usually used for finishing’s and furniture. Historically timber frame structures were built with oak in western Europe, recently Douglas fir has become the most popular wood for most types of structural building. Many families or communities, in rural areas, have a personal woodlot from which the family or community will grow and harvest trees to build with or sell. These lots are tended to like a garden. This was much more prevalent in pre-industrial times, when laws existed as to the amount of wood one could cut at any one time to ensure there would be a supply of timber for the future, but is still a viable form of agriculture. Man-made substances Fired bricks and clay blocks A pile of fired bricks. Clay blocks (sometimes called clay block brick) being laid with an adhesive rather than mortar Bricks are made in a similar way to mud-bricks except without the fibrous binder such as straw and are fired ("burned" in a brick clamp or kiln) after they have air-dried to permanently harden them. Kiln fired clay bricks are a ceramic material. Fired bricks can be solid or have hollow cavities to aid in
  8. 8. drying and make them lighter and easier to transport. The individual bricks are placed upon each other in courses using mortar. Successive courses being used to build up walls, arches, and other architectural elements. Fired brick walls are usually substantially thinner than cob/adobe while keeping the same vertical strength. They require more energy to create but are easier to transport and store, and are lighter than stone blocks. Romans extensively used fired brick of a shape and type now called Roman Bricks Building with brick gained much popularity in the mid-18th century and 19th centuries. This was due to lower costs with increases in brick manufacturing and fire-safety in the ever crowding cities. The cinder block supplemented or replaced fired bricks in the late 20th century often being used for the inner parts of masonry walls and by themselves. Structural clay tiles (clay blocks) are clay or terracotta and typically are perforated with holes. Fabric The tent is the home of choice among nomadic groups all over the world. Two well-known types include the conical teepee and the circular yurt. The tent has been revived as a major construction technique with the development of tensile architecture and synthetic fabrics. Modern buildings can be made of flexible material such as fabric membranes, and supported by a system of steel cables, rigid or internal, or by air pressure. Papers and membranes Building papers and membranes are used for many reasons in construction. One of the oldest building papers is red rosin paper which was known to be in use before 1850 and was used as an underlayment in exterior walls, roofs, and floors and for protecting a jobsite during construction. Paper was invented late in the 19th century and was used for similar purposes as rosin paper and for gravel roofs. Tar paper has largely fallen out of use supplanted by asphalt felt paper. Felt paper has been supplanted in some uses by synthetic underlayment’s, particularly in roofing by synthetic underlayment’s and siding by house wraps. There are a wide variety of damp proofing and waterproofing membranes used for roofing, basement waterproofing, and geomembranes. Ceramics Fired clay bricks have been used since the time of the Romans. Special tiles are used for roofing, siding, flooring, ceilings, pipes, flue liners, and more. Ceramic materials and products. Ceramic materials and products are prepared by shaping, drying, and firing raw material containing clay. Suchmaterials are used in diverse areas of construction becau se of their greater variety of types, high strength, and durability. They are used for walls (brickand cera mic blocks) and sanitary fixtures and as exterior and interior facings for buildings (ceramic tiles). A por ous aggregate for lightweight concretescalled keramzit is also included in this category.
  9. 9. Natural masonry materials. Natural masonry materials include rocks that have been mechanically pr ocessed, such as facing slabs, stone for blocks, crushed stone, gravel, and quarry stone. The introduction of advanced methods of extracting and proc essing stone, such as diamond sawing and heattreatment, substantially reduces labor requirements a nd costs in the preparation of masonry materials and increases the application of such materials incon struction. Timber and wood products. Timber and wood products are building materials derived mainly from th e mechanical processing of wood, including roundtimber, lumber and semifinished products, parquet, and veneers. Lumber and semifinished products are used in modern construction on a wide scale forv arious carpentry products, built- in building equipment, and such strip products as baseboards, handrails, and overlays. Laminated- wood products holdpromise for future use Inorganic binders. Inorganic binders are primarily powdered materials, such as cements of various ki nds, gypsum plaster, and lime, that form a plasticpaste when mixed with water and then harden. Some of the most important inorganic binders are port-land cement and its varieties. Concretes and mortars. Concretes and mortars are artificial masonry materials with a wide range of physicomechanical and chemical properties, obtained from a mixture of a binder, water, and aggregates. The principal type of concrete is cement c oncrete. Modern construction also uses productsmade of silica concrete. Lightweight concretes are ide al for large, precast structural components and units. Reinforced concrete— a combination ofconcrete with steel reinforcement— is used to increase the flexural strength and tensile strength of structural elements. Concretes and mor tars are useddirectly at building sites (cast-in- situ concrete) and also in the factory preparation of structural units (precast reinforced concrete). Asbe stos cementproducts and structural components, obtained from a cement slurry and reinforced with as bestos fiber, are also included in this category. Metals. Rolled steel is the principal metal used in construction. Steel is used for the reinforcement in r einforced concrete, for building frameworks, bridgespans, pipes, and heating apparatus, and as a roofi ng material (roofing steel). Aluminum alloys are also used as structural and finishing materials. Heat-insulating materials. insulating materials are used for insulation in the enclosing structures of buildings, in industrial equipm ent, and in pipes.The materials in this group are available in a large variety of compositions and struct ures. They include mineral wool and mineral wool products, cellularconcretes, asbestos materials, foam glass, expanded perlite and vermiculite, fib erboard, reed board, and Fibrolit (rigid insulation made from a mixture ofwood- wool in portland cement). The use of heat- insulating building materials in enclosing structures permits substantial weight reductions in suchstruct ures and reductions in the overall expenditure of materials and in the energy required to maintain temp eratures in buildings and structures. Someheat- insulating materials are also used as acoustic materials. Organic binders and waterproofing materials. Organic binders and waterproofing materials include bitumens and pitches, as well as asphalt concrete, Ruberoid, tar paper, and other materials that use bitumens or pitches as a base. Polymer binders used to obtain polymer concretes are also included inthis category. Sealing materials in the form of mastic
  10. 10. and elastic packing, for example, Gernit (a porous gasket made from a foam polymer with a hardprote ctive coating), Izol (a sealing mastic), and Po- roizol (a porous, elastic, rubber strip or gasket made from worn- out tires), and waterproof polymer filmsare produced to meet the needs of prefabricated housing const ruction. Polymer building materials. Polymer building materials constitute a large group of materials that use synthetic polymers as a base. They are noted forexcellent mechanical and decorative properties and water and chemical resistance, and they are easy to handle. They are used mainly for floor coverings(l inoleum, rubber linoleum, vinyl tiles), structural and finishing materials (laminated paper plastics, glass- reinforced fiber plastics, chipboard, decorativecoatings), heat-and sound- insulating materials (foam and honeycomb plastics), and strip construction products. Varnishes and paints. Varnishes and paints are finishing materials that use organic and inorganic bin ders as a base and form decorative and protectivecoatings on the surfaces of structures. Synthetic pai nt and varnish materials and water-emulsion paints with polymer binders are widely used. WALLS Timber frame walls There are several variations on this system but generally it consists of timber studs of traditionally about 100mm deep, although sometimes larger now to accommodate more insulation. The outer side usually has a timber based board covered with a breathable but moisture resistant membrane, on the inner face is usually plasterboard and a vapour resistant material (e.g. polythene) with insulation in the middle of the studwork. The external face can be clad with conventional brick (plus a cavity) or the walling can be clad directly or at least on battens with various materials such as tiles, timber boarding, rendering ot other suitable external materials. The system is commonin parts of northern Europe, North America and Australia but it has not been used widely in England although it has been more popular in Scotland. There is still some prejudice against it by a few people but if properly constructed, generally using preservative treated timber, it will be durable, can achieve the normal fire resistancerequirements (whilst ultimately brick and block walls might last longer in a fire, since most intermediate floors and roofs are timber there would be little else left, least of all the occupants) and can achieve an adequate level of sound resistance. On this last point external walls are not required to have any specific sound insulation properties (although in some circumstances such as below a flight path or next to a railway it may be advisable to consider a higher standard), timber frame party walls can be constructed to a similar acoustic standard to blockwork, in fact some tests have shown they can more reliably achieve the required standard. With internal walls and floors a higher standard in timber construction can be achieved using several layers of plasterboard, mineral wool internally, building it as a double stud wall or fixing 'resilient bars' to one or both sides (galvanised steel sections which have a degree of flexibility to absorb sound). Variations on the timber frame wall include using manufactured timber 'I' beams (usually two smaller sections of timber with a thin timber board between) this makes the wall thicker to take more insulation but without needing the extra timber, it further improves the insulation because in the middle of the wall there is more insulation and less timber. Some timber frame systems put the insulation (usually of the rigid foam variety) outside the timber frame. This reduces the likelihood of condensation in the frame as it is kept warm and minimises the amount of insulation needed although can increase the overall wall thickness. Most timber frames for houses and larger buildings have been prefabricated in a factory as panels to varying levels of finish (some include the insulation, services, lining etc., others do not). Some specialist home extension companies have done something similar although some are fabricated on site from the basic timber and boarding particularly were access is a problem or when only on a small scale such as
  11. 11. a part of a loft conversion (often a new gable wall to a loft conversion is in timber, partly as many specialist companies are carpentry based and so can more readily do it themselves and partly because it can often be simpler to build above the brick structure below without necessarily needing new lintels etc). Additional information and names of suppliers of timber based buildings from Post and beam timber walls A variation of the timber frame building is using 'post and beam' where most of the loads are carried on these members which in theory can give more flexibility in layouts with just non load bearing panels between the load bearing posts. There has been a revival of traditional green oak frames plus some of the German systems in particular use this approach but in a more contemporary fashion. There have also been a number of buildings constructed to the 'Segal method' developed by the architect Walter Segal during the 1960's and popular with self builders as it is relatively straightforward using standard materials. Although there are undoubted merits in the system one of their main advantages is the potential flexibility of altering walls, windows etc. around without it being a major structural feat although it is probably in practice rarely done. It is more likely to be for the overall effect it gives, whether it is a traditional oak frame or a more contemporary softwood one. In reality the infill panels may be little different to what could provide a load bearing wall. Structural insulated panels (SIPS) These could be considered a further variation of timber frameas they generally usetimber based boards although in theory it is the use of the insulation in a structural way that basically identifies them. They consist of boarding (most commonly OSB - flakes of timber joined together in a board) with a rigid type of insulation between. They make very strong panels, well insulated (and the insulation is virtually continuous) and with a degree of flexibility where openings are put. They would generally be clad externally and lined internally with plasterboard in a similar manner to conventional timber frame. Steel frame walls Although steel is used in most building systems to support the largest loads this refers specifically to light gauge steelwork which is similar in concept to normal timber frame (stud type) panels with often channel shaped galvanised steel members. The insulation is usually put on the outside of the frame to avoid condensation on the steel by forming cold areas on the walls (often known as cold bridges), due to the lesser insulation properties of steel in comparison with timber. The advantages are broadly similar to timber frame although it could be considered a more stable material (not subject to movement due to moisture) although perhaps lacks some of the eco credentials of timber, however it is readily recyclable. Hemp Crete walls This is a mixture of hemp fibres and lime which whilst there are some prefabricated items made it is generally sprayed or used in a similar way to concrete and placed in formwork (i.e. moulds). As the material has only limited loadbearing properties when used as a wall it would generally have timber members incorporated into it with the material surrounding it to give protection against fire, dampness etc. The material can be made thick enough to comply with current thermal insulation standards and has surprisingly high capabilities to store heat for a fairly lightweight material. It would normally be rendered externally and plastered internally with lime based materials. Hemp is readily grown in this climate (although within certain controls as materials from this family of plants have uses other than building houses!). It is seen as a very eco-friendly technique because of the small amount of energy involved in its manufacture.
  12. 12. Straw bale walls These use the traditional straw bales that are produced as a by product of grain production as the main materials for the walls. They can be used in a similar way to Hemp Crete incorporating a timber frame which might enable the roof to be built at an early stage to protect the straw against rain etc. although it has been used as a loadbearing material by itself. It would often be finished with a lime based renders and plasters. It probably lends itself more to situations where there is a local supply of the material, local authorities in such areas may also be more familiar with its use, a problem with any less common form of construction is that building inspectors etc. may require a lot of additional information to justify its use.