The culture of the Philippines reflects the countrys complex history. It is a blend of the Malayo-Polynesian and Hispanic cultures, with influence from Chinese, Indians, Arabs, and other Asian cultures.The Philippines was first settled by Melanesians, today they preserve a very traditional way of life andculture, although their numbers are few. After them, the Austronesians or more specifically; Malayo-Polynesians, arrived on the islands. Today the Austronesian culture is very evident in the ethnicity,language, food, dance and almost every aspect of the culture. These Austronesians engaged in tradingwith China, India, the Middle East, Borneo, Ryukyu and other places, as a result their cultures have alsoleft a mark on Filipino culture.When the Spanish colonized the islands, after more than three centuries of colonization, they had heavilyimpacted the culture. The Philippines being governed from both Mexico and Spain, had received lots ofHispanic influence. Mexican and Spanish influence can be seen in the language, ethnicity, dance, food,religion, architecture, costumes, festivals, crafts and many other aspects of the culture. After beingcolonized by Spain, the Philippines became a U.S. territory for about 40 years. Influence from the UnitedStates is seen in the wide use of the English language, and the modern pop culture. Contents1 Religion2 Filipino arts o 2.1 Literature o 2.2 Visual arts 2.2.1 Painting 2.2.2 Indigenous art 2.2.3 Kut-kut art 2.2.4 Islamic art o 2.3 Performing arts 2.3.1 Music 2.3.2 Dance o 2.4 Cinema and television o 2.5 Architecture3 Cuisine4 Martial arts5 Education6 Sports o 6.1 Traditional Filipino games7 Indigenous groups
8 Philippine diaspora9 Celebrations o 9.1 Regular holidays o 9.2 Special holidays o 9.3 Festivals10 See also11 References12 Further reading13 External linksReligionMain articles: Religion in the Philippines and Philippine mythologyThe San Agustin Church in Manila was built in 1607. It is the oldest stone church still standing in the Philippines.The Philippines is one of two predominantly Roman Catholic nations in Asia-Pacific, the other being EastTimor. From a census in 2000, Catholics constitute 82.9% (Roman Catholic 80.9%, Aglipayan 2%),with Evangelical Christians at 2.8%, Iglesia Ni Cristo at 2.3%, and other Christian denominations at4.5%. Islam is the religion for 5% of the population, while 1.8% practice other religions. The remaining 0.6 did not specify a religion while 0.1% are irreligious.Before the arrival of the Spaniards and the introduction of Roman Catholicism andWestern culture in the16th century, the indigenous Austronesian people of what is now called the Philippines were adherents of a mixture of shamanistic Animism,Islam, Hinduism and Vajrayana Buddhism.Filipino arts
Main article: Arts of the PhilippinesArts of the Philippines cover a variety of forms of entertainment. Folk art andPrimitive art consist of classicand modern features that flourished as a result of European and Indigenous influences.LiteratureMain article: Literature of the PhilippinesThe literature of the Philippines illustrates the Prehistory and European colonial legacy of the Philippines,written in both Indigenous and Hispanic writing system. Most of the traditional literatures of the Philippineswere written during the Mexican and Spanish period. Philippine literature is writtenin Spanish, English, Tagalog, and/or other native Philippine languages.Visual artsPaintingA Bontoc warrior (c. 1908) showing the characteristic tattoos of some indigenous Filipino cultures.Early Filipino painting can be found in red slip (clay mixed with water) designs embellished on the ritualpottery of the Philippines such as the acclaimedManunggul Jar. Evidence of Philippine pottery-makingdated as early as 6,000 BC has been found in Sanga-sanga Cave, Sulu and Laurente Cave, Cagayan. Ithas been proven that by 5,000 BC, the making of pottery was practiced throughout the country. EarlyFilipinos started making pottery before their Cambodian neighbors, and at about the same time as theThais as part of what appears to be a widespread Ice Age development of pottery technology.Further evidences of painting are manifested in the tattoo tradition of early Filipinos, whom the Portuguese explorer referred to as Pintados or the Painted People of the Visayas. Various designsreferencing flora and fauna with heavenly bodies decorate their bodies in various colored pigmentation.Perhaps, some of the most elaborate painting done by early Filipinos that survive to the present day can
be manifested among the arts and architecture of the Maranao who are well known for the Naga Dragonsand the Sarimanok carved and painted in the beautiful Panolong of their Torogan or Kings House. Filipinos began creating paintings in the European tradition during 17th century Spanish period. Theearliest of these paintings were Church frescoes, religious imagery from Biblical sources, as well asengravings, sculptures and lithographs featuring Christian icons and European nobility. Most of thepaintings and sculptures between the 19th and 20th centuries produced a mixture of religious, political,and landscape art works, with qualities of sweetness, dark, and light.Early modernist painters such as Damián Domingo was associated with religious and secular paintings.The art of Juan Lunaand Felix Hidalgo showed a trend for political statement. The first Philippine nationalartist Fernando Amorsolo used post-modernism to produce paintings that illustrated Philippine culture,nature and harmony. While other artist such as Fernando Zóbel used realities and abstract on his work. Inthe early 1980s, other unique folk artist exist one of these is Elito Circa asamangpintor the famous Filipinofolk painter. He uses his own hair to make his paintbrushes, and signs his name with his own blood onthe right side of his paintings. He developed his own styles without professional training or guidance frommasters.Indigenous artThe Itneg people are known for their intricate woven fabrics. The binakol is a blanket which featuresdesigns that incorporate optical illusions. Woven fabrics of the Gadang people usually have bright redtones. Their weaving can also be identified by beaded ornamentation. Other peoples such as the Ilongotmake jewelry from pearl, red hornbill beaks, plants, and metals.The Lumad peoples of Mindanao such as the Blaan, Mandaya, Mansaka and Tboli are skilled in the artof dyeing abaca fiber.Abaca is a plant closely related to bananas, and its leaves are used to make fiberknown as Manila hemp. The fiber is dyed by a method called ikat. Ikat fiber are woven into cloth withgeometric patterns depicting human, animal and plant themes.Kut-kut artA technique combining ancient Oriental and European art process. Considered lost art and highlycollectible art form. Very few known art pieces existed today. The technique was practiced by theindigenous people of Samar Island between early 1600 and late 1800 A.D. Kut-kut is an exotic Philippineart form based on early century techniques—sgraffito, encaustic and layering. The merging of theseancient styles produces a unique artwork characterized by delicate swirling interwoven lines, multi-layered texture and an illusion of three-dimensional space.Islamic artIslamic art in the Philippines have two main artistic styles. One is a curved-line woodcarving andmetalworking called okir, similar to the Middle Eastern Islamic art. This style is associated with men. Theother style is geometric tapestries, and is associated with women. The Tausug and Sama–Bajau exhibittheir okir on elaborate markings with boat-like imagery. The Marananaos make similar carvings onhousings called torogan. Weapons made by Muslim Filipinos such as the kampilan are skillfully carved.Performing artsMusicMain article: Music in the Philippines
The Philippine Palabuniyan Kulintangmusicians performing the Kulintanginstruments which is the music oftheMaguindanao people.The early music of the Philippines featured a mixture of Indigenous, Islamic and a variety of Asian soundsthat flourished before the European and American colonization in the 16th and 20th centuries. Spanishsettlers and Filipinos played a variety of musical instruments,including flutes, guitar, ukelele, violin, trumpets anddrums. They performed songs and dances tocelebrate festive occasions. By the 21st century, many of the folk songs and dances have remained intactthroughout the Philippines. Some of the groups that perform these folk songs and dances arethe Bayanihan, Filipinescas, Barangay-Barrio, Hariraya, the Karilagan Ensemble, and groups associatedwith the guilds of Manila, and Fort Santiago theatres. Many Filipino musicians have risen prominencesuch as the composer and conductor Antonio J. Molina, the composer Felipe P. de Leon, known for hisnationalistic themes and the opera singer Jovita Fuentes.Modern day Philippine music features several styles. Most music genres are contemporary suchas Filipino rock, Filipino hip hop and other musical styles. Some are traditional such as Filipino folk music.DanceA Chavacano dance in Philippine Hispanic tradition.Philippine folk dances include the Tinikling and Cariñosa. In the southern region of Mindanao, Singkil is apopular dance showcasing the story of a prince and princess in the forest. Bamboo poles are arranged in a tic-tac-toe pattern in which the dancers exploit every position of these clashing poles. Guide toPhilippine Cultural and Folk DancesCinema and televisionMain article: Cinema of the Philippines
The advent of the cinema of the Philippines can be traced back to the early days offilmmaking in 1897when a Spanish theater owner screened imported moving pictures.Mila del Sol starred in one of the earliest Filipino movies, Giliw Ko(1939), along with Fernando Poe, Sr..The formative years of Philippine cinema, starting from the 1930s, were a time of discovery of film as anew medium of expressing artworks. Scripts and characterizations in films came from popular theatershows and Philippine literature.In the 1940s, Philippine cinema brought the consciousness of reality in its film industry. Nationalistic filmsbecame popular, and movie themes consisting primarily of war and heroism and proved to be successfulwith Philippine audiences. The 1950s saw the first golden age of Philippine cinema, with the emergence of more artistic andmature films, and significant improvement in cinematic techniques among filmmakers. The studio systemproduced frenetic activity in the Philippine film industry as many films were made annually and severallocal talents started to gain recognition abroad. Award-winning filmmakers and actors were firstintroduced during this period. As the decade drew to a close, the studio system monopoly came undersiege as a result of labor-management conflicts. By the 1960s, the artistry established in the previousyears was in decline. This era can be characterized by rampant commercialism in films.The 1970s and 1980s were considered turbulent years for the Philippine film industry, bringing bothpositive and negative changes. The films in this period dealt with more serious topics following the Martiallaw era. In addition, action, western, drama, adult and comedy films developed further in picture quality,sound and writing. The 1980s brought the arrival of alternative or independent cinema in the Philippines.The 1990s saw the emerging popularity of drama, teen-oriented romantic comedy, adult, comedy and action films.The Philippines, being one of Asias earliest film industry producers, remains undisputed in terms of thehighest level of theater admission in Asia. Over the years, however, the Philippine film industry has registered a steady decline in movie viewership from 131 million in 1996 to 63 million in 2004. From ahigh production rate of 350 films a year in the 1950s, and 200 films a year during the 1980s, the Philippine film industry production rate declined in 2006 to 2007. The 21st century saw the rebirth ofindependent filmmaking through the use of digital technology and a number of films have once againearned nationwide recognition and prestige.
ArchitectureCalle Crisologo in Vigan, Ilocos Sur, showing typical Hispanic architectureThe Nipa hut (Bahay Kubo) is the mainstream form of housing. It is characterized by use of simplematerials such as bamboo and coconut as the main sources of wood.Cogon grass, Nipa palm leaves andcoconut fronds are used as roof thatching. Most primitive homes are built on stilts due to frequent floodingduring the rainy season. Regional variations include the use of thicker, and denser roof thatching inmountain areas, or longer stilts on coastal areas particularly if the structure is built over water. Thearchitecture of other indigenous peoples may be characterized by an angular wooden roofs, bamboo inplace of leafy thatching and ornate wooden carvings.The Spaniards introduced stones as housing and building materials. The introductionof Christianity brought European churches, and architecture which subsequently became the center ofmost towns and cities. Spanish architecture can be found inIntramuros, Vigan, Iloilo, Jaro and other partsof the Philippines. Islamic and other Asian architecture can also be seen depicted on buildings suchas mosques and temples.The Coconut Palace is an example of Philippine Architecture.Contemporary architecture has a distinctively Western style although pre-Hispanic housing is stillcommon in rural areas. American style suburban-gated communities are popular in the cities, includingManila, and the surrounding provinces.CuisineMain article: Philippine cuisineFilipinos cook a variety of foods influenced by Western and Asian cuisine. The Philippines is considered amelting pot of Asia.Eating out is a favorite Filipino past time. A typical Pinoy diet consists at most of six meals a day;breakfast, snacks, lunch, snacks, dinner, and again a midnight snack before going to sleep. Rice is astaple in the Filipino diet, and is usually eaten together with other dishes. Filipinos regularly use spoonstogether with forks and knives. Some also eat with their hands, especially in informal settings, and wheneating seafood. Rice, corn, and popular dishes such as adobo (a meat stew made fromeither pork or chicken), lumpia (meat or vegetable rolls), pancit (a noodle dish), and lechón (roasted pig)are served on plates.
A roasted pig known as the Lechón, one of the Philippines most popular dishes.Other popular dishes brought from Spanish and Southeast Asian influences includeafritada, asado, chorizo, empanadas, mani (roasted peanuts), paksiw (fish or pork, cooked in vinegar andwater with some spices like garlic and pepper), pan de sal(bread rolls), pescado frito (fried or grilledfish), sisig, torta (omelette), kare-kare (ox-tail stew), kilawen, pinakbet (vegetable stew), pinapaitan,and sinigang (tamarindsoup with a variety of pork, fish, or prawns). Some delicacies eaten by someFilipinos may seem unappetizing to the Western palate include balut (boiled eggwith a fertilized ducklinginside), longanisa (sweet sausage), and dinuguan (soup made from pork blood).Popular snacks and desserts such as chicharon (deep fried pork or chicken skin),halo-halo (crushed icewith evaporated milk, flan, and sliced tropical fruit), puto(white rice cakes), bibingka (rice cakewith butter or margarine and salted eggs),ensaymada (sweet roll with grated cheese ontop), polvoron (powder candy), andtsokolate (chocolate) are usually eaten outside the three main meals.Popular Philippine beverages include San Miguel Beer, Tanduay Rhum, coconut arrack, and tuba.Every province has its own specialty and tastes vary in each region. In Bicol, for example, foods aregenerally spicier than elsewhere in the Philippines. Patis, suka, toyo, bagoong, and banana catsup arethe most common condiments found in Filipino homes and restaurants. Western fast food chains suchas McDonalds, Wendys, KFC, and Pizza Hut are a common sight in the country.Martial artsMain article: Filipino martial artsFilipino martial arts is a term used to describe the numerous martial art forms that originated inthe Philippines, similar to howSilat describes the martial arts practiced in Asia. Filipino martial artsinclude Eskrima (emphasizes weapon-based fighting, also known as Arnis and in the West sometimesas Kali), Panantukan (empty-handed techniques), and Pananjakman (the boxing component of Filipinomartial arts).EducationMain articles: Education in the Philippines and Higher education in the PhilippinesEducation in the Philippines has been influenced by Western and Eastern ideology and philosophy fromthe United States, Spain, and its neighbouring Asian countries. Philippine students enter public school atabout age four, starting from nursery school up to kindergarten. At about seven years of age, students
enter elementary school (6 to 7 years). This is followed by high school (5 years). Students then take thecollege entrance examinations (CEE), after which they enter college or university (3 to 5 years). Othertypes of schools include private school, preparatory school, international school, laboratory high school,and science high school. Of these schools, private Catholic schools are the most famous. Catholicschools are preferred in the Philippines due to their religious beliefs. Most Catholic schools are unisex.The uniforms of Catholic schools usually have an emblem along with the school colors.The school year in the Philippines starts in June and ends in March, with a two-month summer break fromApril to May, two-week semestral break in October and Christmas and New Years holidays.In 2005, the Philippines spent about US$138 per pupil compared to US$1,582 in Singapore, US$3,728 in Japan, and US$852 inThailand.SportsMain article: Sports in the PhilippinesA professional basketball game being played in the country. Basketball has regarded many Filipinos, as the most popularsport in the Philippines. Arnis, a form of martial arts, is the national sport in the Philippines. Among the most popular sportsinclude basketball, boxing, football, billiards, chess, ten-pin bowling, volleyball, horse racing,and cockfighting. Dodgeball and badminton are also popular.Filipinos have gained international success in sports. These are boxing, football,billiards, ten-pin bowling,and chess. Popular sport stars include Manny Pacquiao,Flash Elorde, and Francisco Guilledo inboxing, Paulino Alcántara in football, Carlos Loyzaga, Robert Jaworski, and Ramon Fernandez inbasketball, Efren Reyes andFrancisco Bustamante in billiards, Rafael Nepomuceno in ten-pinbowling, Eugene Torre in chess, and Mark Munoz in MMA.The Palarong Pambansa, a national sports festival, has its origin in an annual sporting meet of publicschools that started in 1948. Private schools and universities eventually joined the national event, whichbecame known as the "Palarong Pambansa" in 1976. It serves as a national Olympic Games for students,competing at school and national level contests.The year 2002 event included football, golf, archery, badminton, baseball,chess, gymnastics, tennis, softball, swimming, table tennis, taekwondo, track and field, and volleyball.Traditional Filipino gamesMain article: List of traditional Filipino games
One Traditional Filipino game is luksong tinik. A very popular game to Filipino children where one has to jump over the tinik and cross to the other side unscathed. Other traditional Filipino games include yo-yo, piko, patintero, bahay kubo, pusoy, and sungka. Tong-its is a popular gambling game. Individuals play the game by trying to get rid of all the cards by choosing poker hands wisely. Sungka is played ona board game using small sea shells in which players try to take all shells. The winner is determined by who has the most shells at the point when all small pits become empty. Filipinos have created toysusing insects such as tying a beetle to string, and sweeping it circular rotation to make an interestingsound. The "Salagubang gong" is a toy described by Charles Brtjes, an American entomologist, whotraveled to Negros and discovered a toy using beetles to create a periodic gong effect on a kerosene can as the beetle rotates above the contraption.Indigenous groupsMain article: Indigenous peoples of the PhilippinesA Negrito woman.The Manobo people, one of the Lumad peoples of Mindanao
The Indigenous peoples of the Philippinesconsist of a large number of Austronesian ethnic groups. Theyare the descendants of the original Austronesian inhabitants of the Philippines, that settled in the islands thousands of years ago, and in the process have retained their Indigenous customs and traditions.In 1990, more than 100 highland peoples constituted approximately 3% of the Philippine population. Overthe centuries, the isolated highland peoples have retained their Indigenous cultures. The folk arts of thesegroups were, in a sense, the last remnants of Indigenous traditions that flourished throughout thePhilippines before the Islamic and Spanish contacts.The highland peoples are a primitive ethnic group like other Filipinos, although they did not, as a group,have as much contact with the outside world. These peoples displayed a variety of native culturalexpressions and artistic skills. They showed a high degree of creativity such as the production of bowls,baskets, clothing, weapons and spoons. These peoples ranged from various groups of Igorot people, agroup that includes the Bontoc, Ibaloi, Ifugao, Isneg, Kalinga and Kankana-ey, who built the RiceTerraces thousands of years ago. They have also covered a wide spectrum in terms of their integrationand acculturation with Christian Filipinos. Other Indigenous peoples include the Lumad peoples of thehighlands of Mindanao. These groups have remained isolated from Western and Eastern influences.Philippine diasporaMain article: Overseas FilipinoAn Overseas Filipino is a person of Filipino origin, who lives outside of the Philippines. This term isapplied to people of Filipino ancestry, who are citizens or residents of a different country. Often, theseFilipinos are referred to as Overseas Filipino Workers.There are about 11 million overseas Filipinos living worldwide, equivalent to about 11% of the total population of the Philippines.Each year, thousands of Filipinos migrate to work abroad through overseas employment agencies andother programs. Other individuals emigrate and become permanent residents of other nations. OverseasFilipinos often work as doctors, nurses, accountants, IT professionals, engineers, architects, entertainers, technicians, teachers, military servicemen, students, caregivers, domestichelpers, and household maids.International employment includes an increasing number of skilled Filipino workers taking on unskilledwork overseas, resulting in what has been referred to as brain drain, particularly in the health andeducation sectors. Also, the employment can result inunderemployment, for example, in cases wheredoctors undergo retraining to become nurses and other employment programs.Celebrations