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Material designing


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Material designing

  1. 1. Material Designing
  2. 2. General Objective: To elaborate and use different teaching materials in order to enrich English classes and to be able to help students learn the language more effectively.
  3. 3. The most basic piece of pair equipment in a classroom. It supports the class with diagrams tables and written information. Basic prequisites: 1. Start with a clean board. 2. Write legibly. 3. Use the right implement. (chalk, color, etc.) Board
  4. 4. <ul><li>Planning board work: </li></ul><ul><li>Board can be sectioned into areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Leave a section free for things that crop up in your lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>H model: </li></ul><ul><li>pictures </li></ul><ul><li>writing </li></ul><ul><li>tables </li></ul><ul><li>vocabulary </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Boards show how organized is your work. </li></ul><ul><li>3 sectioned board: </li></ul><ul><li>Material for development of the class. </li></ul><ul><li>Improptu work. </li></ul><ul><li>Notes and reminders. </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent material. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Using and erasing the board: </li></ul><ul><li>use the board while you’re speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>get students involved with board information. </li></ul><ul><li>avoid turning your back and talking to the board. </li></ul><ul><li>write and draw simple and clear. </li></ul><ul><li>give a certain period of time, for students to copy </li></ul><ul><li>the notes. </li></ul><ul><li>check students work. </li></ul><ul><li>clean the board . </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Real objects </li></ul><ul><li>for presenting vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>for presenting new structures. </li></ul><ul><li>to help students get into characters when acting out a dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>or doing a role play. </li></ul><ul><li>as props for dialogue or story role play (money). </li></ul><ul><li>aids for various games. </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestion: keep a box in a corner of your room with different </li></ul><ul><li>Kinds of material for an interesting class. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage: they add some significant reality to the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>They’re specially useful and important for teaching children. </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced class: use realia to describe objects in detail (size, </li></ul><ul><li>Function, etc.) </li></ul>Realia
  9. 12. This material has the advantage that it can be prepared at home and be more attractive than the board, they also cut down greatly on time. Flashcards can be double sided with picture on one side and the word on the other side or opposites. Word flashcards are used for structure practice (unscramble the word or sentence) use pocket charts for this activity. The disadvantage is that they can’t be used again, most of the time. The solution is to make reusable flashcards by covering them with contact paper and using water markers on them (if necessary). Flashcards
  10. 13. How to Make Flash Cards <ul><li>Begin by determining what type of information you want the flashcards to help you learn. Some popular choices include vocabulary words and definitions, math facts, and trivia questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare your paper or card stock. Index cards make this simple, though you may like to cut the cards in half to save paper. </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>Write the first part of the information on one side of the card. For example, you could write 1+1= for a math problem, or the vocab word you want to study. If you are using the flashcards to learn trivia, write the question on the card. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn the card over and write the answer to the question, math problem, or the definition of the word. This information will let you check your answers as you study using the flash cards. </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>They are one of the most useful visual aids available for teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>provide a variety of options to be used. </li></ul><ul><li>stimulating and colorful. </li></ul><ul><li>easily accessible. </li></ul><ul><li>cheap and easy to find. </li></ul><ul><li>Magazine pictures can be organized categorizing and </li></ul><ul><li>classifying the pictures as you need them. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two kinds of visuals: </li></ul><ul><li>Visuals to talk with: Board. </li></ul><ul><li>Visuals to talk about: Magazines. </li></ul>Magazine Pictures
  13. 16. Visuals that are big enough to be observed by all the class they are designed to be used in a more permanent way than flashcards. Can be used for academic ojectives, discipline or integration. (birthday, weather, growth chart colors, months, etc.) Wall Chart
  14. 17. A POSTER SHOULD BE <ul><li>readable, </li></ul><ul><li>Readability is a measure of how easily the ideas flow from one item to the next. Text that has lots of grammatical problems, complex or passive sentence structure, and misspellings is &quot;hard to read&quot;. </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>legible, </li></ul><ul><li>If a text is legible, it can be deciphered. A common error in poster presentations is use of fonts that are too small to be read from 6-10 feet away, a typical distance for reading a poster. </li></ul><ul><li>well organized, and </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial organization makes the difference between reaching 95% rather than just 5% of your audience: time spent hunting for the next idea or piece of data is time taken away from thinking about the science. </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>succinct. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies show that you have only 11 seconds to grab and retain your audience's attention so make the punchline prominant and brief. </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>Newspaper articles are used in groups of students to </li></ul><ul><li>enrich their vocabulary and challenge their reading skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent use of newspaper articles as reading tool can make </li></ul><ul><li>students enjoy reading and make it a habit. </li></ul><ul><li>Sugested activities: </li></ul><ul><li>matching titles. </li></ul><ul><li>role-play </li></ul><ul><li>analysis: social impact </li></ul><ul><li>retell or rewrite a story </li></ul><ul><li>propose a title. </li></ul>Newspaper Articles
  18. 21. <ul><li>invaluable aid to the language learner. </li></ul><ul><li>most commonly used piece of equipment after the board. </li></ul><ul><li>used for listening activities. </li></ul><ul><li>language laboratory. </li></ul><ul><li>sound stories. </li></ul><ul><li>text book tapes. </li></ul><ul><li>written work, vocabulary building. </li></ul><ul><li>jigsaw, listening, working in teams, with parts of the story </li></ul><ul><li>in each cassette </li></ul><ul><li>Listening skill requires a great deal of concentration, so continuous </li></ul><ul><li>listening time has to be limited. Stop the tape and ask questions. </li></ul>Tape Recorder
  19. 22. <ul><li>Another usage is for recording students in the class </li></ul><ul><li>to diagnose problem areas more easily. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage of audiocassettes: there’s no visual </li></ul><ul><li>support to comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning the tape recorder: </li></ul><ul><li>direct the sound to students. </li></ul><ul><li>check if all students listen. </li></ul><ul><li>extra speakers on walls improve sound quality . </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>Used to accustom students to a voice other than yours. </li></ul><ul><li>to provide concreted drills. </li></ul><ul><li>to expose them to different accents. </li></ul><ul><li>Audio cassettes should be recorded: </li></ul><ul><li>Clear, at an appropiate speed, realistic. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember to strike a balance between convinence and </li></ul><ul><li>quality. </li></ul>Audio Cassettes
  21. 24. Can be used for presenting a new theme (engage), give a background to a topic, playing various forms of dialogues, instructions. Video loosses it’s impact when overused. Students intelectual skills to focus diminish. Disadvantage of videos: it isn’t as clear as the original when it is a copy. Video
  22. 25. Video cameras has two main uses: 1. Teacher records students doing an activity and diagnose problems. 2. Students record their own video interview advertisement weather or news report, etc. In the planning and execution of these activities great deal of language is learned. To use a video camera you must : know how to use it properly. Another problem might be that some students don’t take the situation seriously and start playing in front of a camera, or a student get stuck behind the camera and doesn’t participate.
  23. 26. <ul><li>It use in English Language Teaching is growing </li></ul><ul><li>all the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Main uses: </li></ul><ul><li>word processor. </li></ul><ul><li>as a tool for material specially designed for </li></ul><ul><li>teaching English as a second language (games, </li></ul><ul><li>CD’s, filmclips). </li></ul><ul><li>encyclopedia. </li></ul><ul><li>internet interaction and investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>tests. </li></ul>Computers
  24. 27. <ul><li>projects tranparencies onto a screen. </li></ul><ul><li>can be prepared ahead of time. </li></ul><ul><li>can use water pens to be rubbed out or spirit-based to </li></ul><ul><li>make it permanent. </li></ul><ul><li>can be photacopied. </li></ul><ul><li>it is very useful with large classes as the teacher can face the </li></ul><ul><li>students as she writes. </li></ul><ul><li>less messy than chalk. </li></ul><ul><li>material can be kept and used again. </li></ul><ul><li>you can use one part of the transparency and cover the </li></ul><ul><li>other part. </li></ul><ul><li>can go back and forth through the trasparencies as you read. </li></ul><ul><li>can get your material organized and ordered. </li></ul>Overhead Projector
  25. 28. <ul><li>Things that you need to become an expert: </li></ul><ul><li>Get the image the right size and focus. </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting your information attractively. </li></ul><ul><li>To produce good transparencies: </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t write within 3cm from the edges. </li></ul><ul><li>Put a lined paper under the transparency. </li></ul><ul><li>Write big enough so that students can see. </li></ul><ul><li>Use different coloured pens. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t overfill your page. </li></ul>
  27. 30. <ul><li>It’s the most useful tool for students. </li></ul><ul><li>Good dictionaries are those that help the students </li></ul><ul><li>to produce language rather than only giving the </li></ul><ul><li>meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>They should have: </li></ul><ul><li>clear presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>definitions written so students can understand </li></ul><ul><li>them, good typical examples of use. </li></ul>The Dictionary
  28. 31. <ul><li>All classrooms should have a stock of dictionaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used: </li></ul><ul><li>Students working on a writing task. </li></ul><ul><li>When working out meanings of difficult words. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 main worries: </li></ul><ul><li>Buying innapropiate ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Getting to rely on them too much. </li></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>Used for children to personalize their own </li></ul><ul><li>lexical development. </li></ul><ul><li>develop a sense of child autonomy and self help. </li></ul><ul><li>children can see their self progress identifying their </li></ul><ul><li>growing vocabulary bank. </li></ul><ul><li>help reinforce their vocabulary practiced in the </li></ul><ul><li>course. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be made through the school year. </li></ul>Personal Dictionaries
  30. 33. SONGS <ul><li>help give practice in language while keeping the class lively and interesting. </li></ul><ul><li>will depend on the age, interests, and learning level of the students. </li></ul><ul><li>for children, for example should contain a repetitive motif where possible. </li></ul><ul><li>for intermediate levels and/or students may have love, home, holidays, patriotism, etc. as themes. </li></ul>
  31. 34. RYMES AND SONGS <ul><li>The use of rhymes relies on making information memorable by creating rhymes or songs that are simple, but rhythmic and catchy. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common application of this technique is to put new words to a familiar song, like a nursery rhyme or Christmas song. </li></ul>
  32. 35. SONGS <ul><li>Most songs use rhymes as part of the lyrics, but rhymes alone can also be effective </li></ul>
  33. 36. GAMES <ul><li>A competitive activity that involves certain skills and it is played under a set of rules for the amusement of the players, which compete for points or other advancements that indicate that they are outperforming other players. </li></ul>
  35. 38. Games and Simulations <ul><li>Games and simulations are often referred to as experimental exercises because they provide unique opportunities for students. </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation: A conscious attempt to represent a real life situation in which participants take on roles that would enable them to see how a particular situation might unfold. </li></ul>
  36. 39. Similarities between Games and Simulations <ul><li>SIMULATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Transport the participants to another world. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants control their own actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Games </li></ul><ul><li>Are those used in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Should not teach students strategies that involve questionable ethics. </li></ul><ul><li>Should not allow luck or chance to determine the outcome of the game. </li></ul><ul><li>Winning should depend on knowledge of subject-matter and on problem-solving skills (Edens & Gredler, 1990). </li></ul>
  37. 40. Games <ul><li>Curious Owl. Student 1 will ask student 2 How old are you? Student 2 will answer. Student 3 will ask student 4: How old is she? Referring to student 2, student 4 will answer. Student 5 will begin again with How old are you to student 6. </li></ul><ul><li>I’m thinking of : The teacher or student (game leader) will choose an item (number, name, date, month, etc.) from among these, the class has been studying. The teacher or leader will whisper the item to another student so that there will be someone to verify the answer. The teacher or leader will call to guess the correct item. </li></ul>
  38. 41. Games… Add on <ul><li>T he teacher displays a picture, a real object or verval cues. </li></ul><ul><li>Student 1 says: I see a living room </li></ul><ul><li>Student 2 says: I see a living room and a kitchen. </li></ul><ul><li>Student 3 says: I see a living room, a kitchen and a bathroom. And so on… </li></ul>
  39. 42. More games… Simon says <ul><li>Directions given by teacher or student preceded by Simon says, the students are to carry them out . When Simon says does not precede the directions, the students remain motionless. </li></ul>
  40. 43. CARTOONS <ul><li>Why use humor? </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics show that people who rely too much on statistics lead boring, mundane lives with no purpose. Those with a more open mind about instructional techniques, meanwhile, are likely to have spouses who adore them, children who worship them, and employers who look for every opportunity to praise and promote them. </li></ul>
  41. 44. HUMOR <ul><li>Among other benefits, framing instructional material in a humorous way and joking with and about yourself, your profession, and your learners is an excellent way to relieve tension and alleviate stress in the classroom, establish a more human relationship between teachers and students, and potentially increase retention of instructional material. </li></ul>
  42. 45. CARTOONS
  43. 46. CONTENT VERSUS CONTEXT <ul><li>Humor can innervate a lesson regardless of the subject matter being taught </li></ul><ul><li>Humor needs not be specifically relevant to the subject, attracting and maintaining the learners’ attention and interest, and transferring the material in a creative way, makes the educational process more engaging and thus more likely to succeed. </li></ul>
  44. 47. SATIRE Satire, too, can be a powerful instructional aid.
  45. 48. TEXTBOOKS <ul><li>The most obvious and most common form of material support for language instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>New teachers your first concern is to creatively use the textbook that has been handed to you by your supervisor. Sometimes new teachers, in their zeal for creating wonderful, marvelous written material for their students, neglect the standard textbook prescribed by the school curriculum and fail to see that this resource may actually be quite useful. </li></ul>
  46. 49. <ul><li>If there is no teacher’s edition, then your task becomes one of finding ways to present the content and exercises of the book to your class. </li></ul>
  47. 50. TEXTBOOK EVALUATION CHECKLIST <ul><li>Goals of the course (Will this text help to accomplish your course goals?) </li></ul><ul><li>Background of the students (Does the textbook fit your student’s background) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation or purpose for learning English. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 51. <ul><li>Approach (Does the theoretical approach reflected in the book reflect a philosophy that you and your institution and your students can easily identify with? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory of language </li></ul></ul>
  49. 52. <ul><li>Language skills (Does the book integrate the “four skills” Does the textbook emphasizes skills which the curriculum also emphasizes? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>writing </li></ul></ul>
  50. 53. <ul><li>General content. (Does the textbook reflects what is now known about language and language learning? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Validity—does the textbook accomplish what it is purposed to? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authenticity of language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approppriateness and currency of topics, situations, and contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proficiency level—is it pitched for the right level? </li></ul></ul>
  51. 54. <ul><li>Quality of practice material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercises—is there a variety from controlled to free? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarity of directions—are they clear to both students and teacher? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active participation of students—is this encouraged effectively? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grammatical and other linguistic explanation—inductive or deductive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review material—is there sufficient spiraling and review exercises? </li></ul></ul>
  52. 55. <ul><li>Sequencing (how is the book sequenced?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By grammatical structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By some combination of the above </li></ul></ul>
  53. 56. <ul><li>Vocabulary (Does the book pay sufficient attention to words and word study?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies for word analysis </li></ul></ul>
  54. 57. <ul><li>General sociolinguistic factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A variety of English—American, British, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural content—is there a cultural bias? </li></ul></ul>
  55. 58. <ul><li>Format (Is the book attractive, usable, and durable?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarity of typesetting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of special notation (phonetic symbols, stress/intonation marking, etc.) quality and clarity of illustrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General layout—is it comfortable and not too “busy”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of the book and binding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of editing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Index, table of contents, chapter headings. </li></ul></ul>
  56. 59. <ul><li>Accompanying materials (Are there useful supplementary materials?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workbook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tapes—audio and/or video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posters, flash cards, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of tests </li></ul></ul>
  57. 60. <ul><li>Teachers guide (Is it useful?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helpful methodological guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative and supplementary exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable for non-native speaking teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer keys </li></ul></ul>
  58. 61. TEXT VS TEXTBOOK <ul><li>Texts are any of a wide variety of types of genres of linguistic forms. Text can be spoken or written. Among written texts, the range of possibilities extend from labels and forms and charts to essays and manuals and books. </li></ul><ul><li>Textbooks are one type of text, a book for use in an educational curriculum </li></ul>
  59. 62. PUPPETS <ul><li>Why are puppets useful in the primary EFL classroom? </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used for: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Songs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stories </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roleplay </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pairwork </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  60. 63. Pedagogical and Linguistical aims behind using puppets <ul><li>For motivation: it is fun </li></ul><ul><li>For meaning: listen with a purpose </li></ul><ul><li>For fluency: to communicate, learn new words </li></ul><ul><li>For cross-curricular activities: they can be used in most topic areas of the curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>To teach vocabulary: parts of the face, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>O teach grammar: verbs, nouns, etc. </li></ul>
  61. 64. KINDS OF PUPPETS <ul><li>Hand puppet </li></ul><ul><li>Paper bag puppets </li></ul><ul><li>Worm or caterpillar puppets </li></ul><ul><li>Toilette roll puppets </li></ul><ul><li>Yoghur pot or plastic cup puppet </li></ul><ul><li>Fingere puppets </li></ul><ul><li>Masks </li></ul>