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Containers, Docker, and Microservices: the Terrific Trio

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One of the upsides of Microservices is the ability to deploy often,at arbitrary schedules, and independently of other services, instead of requiring synchronized deployments happening on a fixed time.

But to really leverage this advantage, we need fast, efficient, and reliable deployment processes. That's one of the value propositions of Containers in general, and Docker in particular.


Docker offers a new, lightweight approach to application portability.It can build applications using easy-to-write, repeatable, efficient recipes; then it can ship them across environments using a common container format; and it can run them within isolated namespaces which abstract the operating environment, independently of the distribution,versions, network setup, and other details of this environment.

But Docker can do way more than deploy your apps. Docker also enables you to generalize Microservices principles and apply them on operational tasks like logging, remote access, backups, and troubleshooting.This decoupling results in independent, smaller, simpler moving parts.

Published in: Technology

Containers, Docker, and Microservices: the Terrific Trio

  1. 1. Containers, Docker, and Microservices
  2. 2. Jérôme Petazzoni (@jpetazzo) Grumpy French DevOps - Go away or I will replace you with a very small shell script Runs everything in containers - Docker-in-Docker - VPN-in-Docker - KVM-in-Docker - Xorg-in-Docker - ...
  3. 3. Jérôme Petazzoni (@jpetazzo) Built and scaled dotCloud PAAS with 106 services (I counted them!) - some examples: hosts, nats, containers, builds, snapshots, metrics, billing, user permissions, infrastructure management, logs, ...
  4. 4. outline
  5. 5. Outline Why microservices? What's the challenge? How does Docker help? Getting started with stacks of containers
  6. 6. why microservices
  7. 7. What is a microservice architecture? Break big application down into many small services Example: e-commerce - web front-end - catalog of products - inventory/stock management - shipping calculator - payment processor - billing/invoicing - recommendation engine - user profiles
  8. 8. Why is this useful? Use different stacks for different services (can be seen as both good and bad!) Replace (e.g. refactor) individual services easily (service boundary enforces API separation) Decouples deployment; requires less coordination (deploy early, deploy often; more agility) Helps implementing Jeff Bezos' “two-pizza rule” (many small teams overperform a single big team) More effective “ownership” of services
  9. 9. what's the challenge?
  10. 10. Issues we will not address today Fast, efficient RPC calls - ZeroRPC - Cap'n Proto - XMLRPC - SOAP - Dnode - REST - Queues (like AMQP), for long-running/async operations
  11. 11. Issues we will not address today How to break application down in small parts - this is not always easy - try to get help from people who have already done it - but: it helps to achieve a better architecture (I promise)
  12. 12. Issues we could address today Our app is now spread across multiple services Those services might (will) end up on many machines Some of those services might (will) be scaled out Consequences: - our services will have to discover each other's location - we will have to learn about load balancing
  13. 13. Issues we will address today We're deploying 42 microservices instead of 1 app We want to be able to deploy often Obvious consequence: our deploy process must rock - it must be fast - it must be reliable - it must be automated
  14. 14. how does Docker help?
  15. 15. the big picture
  16. 16. Docker's mission build, ship, and run any application, anywhere
  17. 17. Say again? Build: package your application in a container Ship: move that container from a machine to another Run: execute that container (i.e. your application) Any application: anything that runs on Linux Anywhere: local VM, cloud instance, bare metal...
  18. 18. build
  19. 19. Dockerfile FROM ubuntu:14.04 MAINTAINER Docker Team <education@docker.com> RUN apt-get update RUN apt-get install -y nginx RUN echo 'Hi, I am in your container' >/usr/share/nginx/html/index.html CMD [ "nginx", "-g", "daemon off;" ] EXPOSE 80
  20. 20. ship
  21. 21. Docker Hub Image name should be <username>/<reponame> e.g.: jpetazzo/web docker push docker pull
  22. 22. Docker Hub Image name should be <username>/<reponame> e.g.: jpetazzo/web docker push docker pull It's magic!
  23. 23. run
  24. 24. Execution is fast and lightweight Let's look at a few benchmarks
  25. 25. Benchmark: container creation $ time docker run ubuntu echo hello world hello world real 0m0.258s Disk usage: less than 100 kB Memory usage: less than 1.5 MB
  26. 26. Benchmark: infiniband
  27. 27. Benchmark: boot OpenStack instances
  28. 28. Benchmark: memory speed
  29. 29. Let's start a few containers Just for run. Eh, for fun.
  30. 30. any app
  31. 31. If it runs on Linux, it will run in Docker Web apps API backends Databases (SQL, NoSQL) Big data Message queues And more
  32. 32. If it runs on Linux, it will run in Docker Firefox-in-Docker Xorg-in-Docker VPN-in-Docker Firewall-in-Docker Docker-in-Docker KVM-in-Docker
  33. 33. anywhere
  34. 34. anywhere* *Limitations may apply.
  35. 35. Docker has official support for: Intel 64 bits (x86_64) code Recent kernels (3.8 and above) Coming soon: Windows Containers (If you have questions about this, ask Microsoft!)
  36. 36. “Rumors” say that people also run on: Intel 32 bits ARM 32 and 64 bits MIPS Power8 Older kernels (please don't) Note: the main issue is that the Docker Hub registry is not arch-aware, and images are not compatible.
  37. 37. CONTAINERS They're stable, they said. Stack them, they said.
  38. 38. running stacks of containers
  39. 39. First steps Online tutorial (in browser, JS based, zero install) http://www.docker.com/tryit/ boot2docker (25 MB universal VM image) http://boot2docker.io/ Scary install script curl -sSL https://get.docker.com/ | sh We have ordinary packages too! And most clouds have Docker images
  40. 40. Checklist Install boot2docker Run your first container (echo hello world) Write your first Dockerfile Create your Docker Hub account (free) Push image to Docker Hub Setup automated build Run your first complex app with Fig
  41. 41. Fig Run your stack with one command: fig up Describe your stack with one file: fig.yml Example: run a (one node) Mesos cluster - Mesos master - Mesos slave - Volt framework
  42. 42. master: image: redjack/mesos-master command: mesos-master --work_dir=/mesos ports: - 5050:5050 slave: image: redjack/mesos-slave links: - master:master command: mesos-slave --master=master:5050 --containerizers=docker,mesos volumes: - /sys/fs/cgroup:/sys/fs/cgroup - /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock - /usr/bin/docker:/bin/docker volt: image: volt/volt links: - master:master command: --master=master:5050 ports: - 8080:8080
  43. 43. ?
  44. 44. what's next?
  45. 45. Advanced topics All Things Docker http://blog.docker.com/ Running your own private registry https://github.com/docker/docker-registry Containers and security http://www.slideshare.net/jpetazzo/docker-linux-containers-lxc-and-security https://medium.com/@ewindisch/on-the-security-of-containers-2c60ffe25a9e Service discovery (look for “ambassador pattern”) … And more!
  46. 46. thank you! questions?
  47. 47. Would You Like To Know More? Get in touch on Freenode #docker #docker-dev Ask me tricky questions jerome@docker.com Get your own Docker Hub on prem sales@docker.com Follow us on Twitter @docker, @jpetazzo

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