Classical Greece


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Chapter 5 - Classical Greece

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  • The city-state or Polis was the main political unit in ancient Greece -A polis was made up of a city and its surrounding countryside which included numerous villages
  • The polis were often no larger than 20,000 citizens and on a fortified hilltop, called an acropolis, male citizens gathered to conduct business -This is the most famous of the Acropolis’ found in Athens Greece -Greeks identified themselves more with their city-state than with their share Greek culture which made it easy for the Greeks to compete and fight one another for control of the region
  • The Mycenaeans were Indo-Eurpeans that migrated to the Greek penisula around 2000 B.C. They built their main city of Mycenae on a rocky ridge surrounded by a 20 foot thick wall. It could withstand almost any attack The warrior kings ruled the city and the surrounding villages and farms. Mycenaean palace-forts dotted the southern part of Greece These warrior Kings won their enormous wealth by controlling local production and commercial trade. Their armies were in constant search of plunder. The early Mycenaeans were from the Bronze age (2000-1100 BC). Their invasion of Crete most likely prevented the Minoans from rebuilding following the cataclysmic earthquake and follow-on volcanic eruptions. From the contact the Mycenaeans saw the value of the culture and made much of it part of their own. Particularly the saw the value of seaborne trade.
  • Mycenaean kings fought a 10 year battle with the city-state of Troy. Legends were based on the story of the kidnap of the beautiful wife of a Greek King but Archeologists and historians believe this 10 year war was fought for control of crucial waterways in the Aegean Sea to control trade and wealth. Around 1200 BC the Mycenaean civlization collapses. Sea raiders attack Mycenaean cities, destroying many of the palace-fortresses. Not long after, a peoples known as the Dorians invade the countryside. The Dorians were far less advanced. Trade and the economy collapses. The Dark Age of Greek history begins as it appears they have forgotten the art of writing during this Dorian Age. There will be no recorded history for the next 400 years
  • During the Dorian age only the wealthy could afford bronze weapons. Iron later replace bronze and was more common and therefore cheaper The new army of the Greeks now was made up of common citizens-merchants, artisans, and small landowners Foot soldiers were known as hoplites. The stood in the fearsome phalanx formation—side by side, holding a spear in one hand and shield in another. No ruler ignored the power of the citizen soldier. The third form of government, the tyrant, were powerful individuals who appealed to citizens of the city-state who felt they had no voice in government.
  • Many of these city-states were similar to the river-valley civilizations where they were ruled by kings and Queens in a form of government called monarchy. Under a monarch, there also were wealthy landowners called aristocrats As the Greeks became more wealthy through trade throughout the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas, a wealthy merchant class emerged. They became dissatisfied with the monarchy and aristocrats and sometimes took power and shared it with the nobility. They formed an oligarchy government ruled by a few powerful people. In many city states, poor and disenfranchised citizens, citizens who felt they had no voice in control of the city-states, typically unemployed farmers and debt-ridden artisans and merchants, gave their support to powerful individuals called tyrants who seized power of the city-state and ruled as dictators
  • Athens lay to the north of Sparta. Athens went through a power struggle like other city-states between the rich and poor. But the Athenians avoided civil war by embracing democracy, the fourth type of Greek government. --democracy in Athens was rule by the people Not everyone participated. Only free adult males. Women, slaves and foreigners were excluded Women had a lesser role than in Sparta and focused primarily on child rearing Tyrants first tried to seize power in Athens but were foiled by the Athenian peasants. In return the peasants wanted laws to protect them against rich landowners and nobles. Draco’s code however, included the practice of debt slavery where farmers who owed debts to rich landowners were forced to work as the landowner’s slaves. Draco’s reforms just caused more conflict between rich and poor. Solon “the reformer” outlawed debt slavery and allowed all citizens to participate in Athenian government. Cleisthenes created the council of 500 that proposed the laws put to the Assembly for debate in voted. The council members were chosen by lot (at random). This was a limited democracy because it included only about 1 of every 5 citizens.
  • Sparta was a city-state in the Peloponnesus. It dominated its neighbor Messenia and conquered it bringing back Messenian slaves called helots. The helots outnumbered the Spartans. The helots revolted against the Spartans who brutally crushed the revolt but cause Sparta to build and maintain a very powerful army Spartans were dedicated to forming a strong city-state following the Helot revolt and form an Oligarchy. Two groups ruled Sparta, the assembly, composed of all free adult males elected officials who voted on all major issues. The second group was the Council of Elders, whol proposed the laws that the assembly voted on. Two kings rule over the military
  • Free Citizens descended from the original inhabitants and included the ruling families who owned the land The free noncitizens worked in commerce and industry The helots, near the bottom, were a little higher than slaves Spartan women managed the family estates while the men were away serving the polis. Women in ancient Greece were rarely allowed to take part in sport, except in Sparta, where it was believed that mothers who were tough and strong would produce good Spartan soldiers.
  • His 3 goals 1 strengthen democracy more paid public officials Introduced direct democracy citizens rule directly not chosen by aristocracy Founded the Delian League 2 strengthen empire through : Delian League tribute buildup of navy 3 glory to Athens Turned Delian League into Athenian empire bought gold, ivory, marble Parthenon (447-432 BC)
  • Peloponnesian war was a war fought for control of Greece and had been building for years. Pericles knew that he could not possibly go head to head with the mighty Spartan army. His strategy was to avoid a land battle. Sparta was too far in land to attack from the sea. So Pericles’ strategy was to attack from the sea the source of Sparta’s strength, Sparta’s prosperous allies
  • Classical Greece

    2. 2. Classical Greece Time Line 2000 B.C. Minoan civilization prospers on Crete. 1500 B.C. Mycenaean culture thrives on Greek mainland. About 1200 B.C. Trojan War takes place. 750 B.C. Greek city-states flourish. 479 B.C. Greece triumphs in Persian Wars. 334 B.C. Alexander starts to build his Empire. Classical Greece, 2000 B.C. –300 B.C. 5 CHAPTER Time Line 2000 B.C. 300 B.C.
    3. 3. Chapter overview • A rugged Greek landscape causes the creation of city-states. • They fight one another but unite to fight invaders from Persia • Athens becomes the home of culture, but it’s empire collapses after years of war from Sparta • Alexander conquers Greece, the Persian Empire and Egypt • After His death a new culture blends influences from territories he conquered
    4. 4. Greece is rocky, with high mountains and deep valleys making it difficult to move over the land. • Greeks living in different areas could not be easily united • Good farm land covered only a small portion of Greece and could not support many people. • They did have easy access to the sea • They became excellent sailors • Trade became important • The climate is mild which allowed Greek men to spend much time outdoors • They attended public events • Were active in civic life Landscape Affects Life
    5. 5. Greek City-States POLIS: The city-state was primary political unit in ancient Greece Each city controlled 50 to 500 square miles A polis was made up of a city and its surrounding countryside which included numerous villages Greek’s identified themselves more with their local city-state and less with their shared culture. This created rivalries among them and the Greeks constantly fought one another.
    6. 6. Can you name any Greek City-States?
    7. 7. The Acropolis The polis were often no larger than 20,000 citizens and on a fortified hilltop, called an acropolis, male citizens gathered to conduct business This is the most famous of the Acropolis’ found in Athens, Greece
    8. 8. The Acropolis
    9. 9. Mycenaean Civilization Develops Mycenaeans-from Mycenae (main city) • The Mycenaeans were Indo-Europeans that migrated to the Greek peninsula around 2000 B.C. • They built their main city of Mycenae on a rocky ridge surrounded by a 20 foot thick wall. It could withstand almost any attack • The warrior kings ruled the city and the surrounding villages and farms. Mycenaean palace-forts dotted the southern part of Greece • These warrior Kings won their enormous wealth by controlling local production and commercial trade. Their armies were in constant search of plunder. The early Mycenaeans were from the Bronze age (2000-1100 BC).
    10. 10. • Fortified city of Mycenae --steep rocky ridge --walled city
    11. 11. Trojan War Trojan War - 1200 BC 10 yr war • Mycenaeans vs Troy • Trojans kidnapped Helen, wife of Greek King • The Trojan Horse was famous in this war • The poem “The ILIAD” tells of the war of Troy • Historians: battle for waterway control in Aegean Mycenaean Collapse – 1200 B.C. • Around 1200 BC the Mycenaean civilization collapses. Sea raiders attack Mycenaean cities, destroying many of the palace-fortresses.
    12. 12. Citizen-Soldiers • Greeks valued their military • Iron made weapons affordable to ordinary citizens • The new army of the Greeks now was made up of common citizens-merchants, artisans, and small landowners • Soldiers are known as Hoplites • They stood in the fearsome phalanx formation—side by side, holding a spear in one hand and shield in another. Phalanx (FAY-lanks) army formation
    13. 13. Religion in Greek Society • The people of ancient Greece shared stories called myths about the gods, goddesses, and heroes in which they believed. • Each god or goddess was worshipped as a deity and ruled over certain areas of the Greeks’ lives. • Greeks had a God for nearly everything. • These exciting stories explained natural phenomena that could not be explained by science in the ancient world. • Examples: Lightning, reflections, echoes, fire, death, etc.
    14. 14. Political Systems in Greek City-States Governments: 4 types • (1) monarchy - king or monarch • (2) oligarchy - small group of elites • (3) Tyrants - Gained control by appealing to poor and discontent citizen- soldiers • (4) Democracy - rule by the people King Phillip II of Macedonia
    15. 15. Athens Builds a Limited Democracy Why democracy in Athens? • In Athens, there was power struggle between the rich and the poor. But the Athenians avoided civil war by embracing new government reforms. • One particular reform was the idea of democracy around 460 BC. • Athenians opened the assembly where laws were discussed and approved to all Athenian citizens • Not everyone participated. Only free adult males. Women, slaves and foreigners were excluded • In Greek the word demos means people, and kratia means power.
    16. 16. Athenian Democracy • Later reforms would include the “Council of 500”. • These members were elected officials that proposed laws and advised the assembly (similar to the Senate)
    17. 17. Sparta Builds a Military State Sparta in Peloponnesus • Sparta is located on Peloponnesus, a peninsula in southern Greece • Rival kingdoms cause Sparta to build and maintain a powerful army Government • oligarchy • (1) Assembly: Elected officials voted on major issues • (2) Council of Elders: proposed laws • Two Kings ruled the military
    18. 18. Spartan Society Class System • Citizen landowners (free) ruled • Non-citizen workers (usually foreigners, free) • Helots (low class) • Slaves • At one time, Sparta had 25,000 citizens and 500,000 slaves • Education – boys’ entered into military programs called the agoge • Training begins at 7y/o • Boys were beaten, starved • Taught to put Sparta before family • Women— Spartan women had no formal education, ran the farms/businesses so their husbands were free to serve in the army, participated in sports
    19. 19. The Persian Wars • The Greeks and the Persians were long rivals and have a great history of wars fought between them. • Persians had conquered Greek lands around 520 B.C. • Ionia in Anatolia (modern day Turkey) • The Ionians revolted against the Persians. Athens supported the Greek colonies along Anatolia and sent aid to them. King Darius crushed the revolt and sought revenge against Athens. • Thus started the Persian Wars.
    20. 20. The Battle of Marathon • Darius plans to destroy Athens. • An army of 25,000 Persians set sail. • The Persians landed at Marathon where 10,000 Greeks waited in their phalanxes. • The Athenians were greatly outnumbered. • Although they were highly outnumbered, the Persians were no match for the disciplined Athenian phalanx and the Persians were defeated.
    21. 21. Did You Know? • According to legend, following the Battle of Marathon, a young runner name Pheidippides ran back to Athens to tell them of the Persian defeat. • He ran non-stop for 26 miles from Marathon to Athens. • Upon reaching Athens he proclaimed, “Nike!” (victory) and then fell dead. • This is why modern day marathons are run at 26.2 miles.
    22. 22. Greece vs. Persia • 10 years later following the Persian defeat at Marathon, Darius’ son, Xerxes, mounts a massive army (100k-300k) and marches towards Athens. • Xerxes is dedicated to finishing what his father could not, destroying Athens. • At this time, the Greeks were not one nation but still many independent city states that constantly fought one another.
    23. 23. Greece vs. Persia • Athens calls for aid while it mounts its own army to defend itself. • Few Greeks respond. • Xerxes marches his army towards Athens but is blocked at the Thermopylae Pass where 7,000 Greeks, including 300 Spartans stand in the way. • The battle lasts 3 days and the Greeks inflict heavy losses on the Persians before they are finally defeated.
    24. 24. Greece vs. Persia • Xerxes continues his march towards Athens. • The Athenians are forced to flee and their city is burnt to the ground. • The Greeks eventually make a naval stand at Salamis and destroy Xerxes’ navy. • The Spartans then defeat the Persians once and for all at Plataea (pluh-tee-uh)
    25. 25. The Persian Wars Timeline First Battle Second Battle Third Battle Fourth Battle Battle at Marathon 490 BC Athenians Confrontation at Thermopylae 480 BC Persians Salamis 480 BC Athenians Plataea Plain 479 BC Spartans
    26. 26. Outcome of the Persian Wars • With the Persian threat ended, all Greek city-states felt a new sense of confidence and freedom. • Athens became the leader of an alliance of 140 city- states called the Delian League that drove the Persians from the territories surrounding Greece and ushered in the golden era for Athens. Delian League
    27. 27. A Leader for Athens • During Greece’s Golden Age, democratic ideas and Greek culture flourished • Athens chose Pericles as it’s leader • Served for more than 3 decades • He took many steps to make Athens better and he had 3 main goals that were successful
    28. 28. Pericles’ Three Goals for Athens Strengthen Athens’ democracy: Increased number of paid officials, increased citizen participation Hold and strengthen empire: Built navy through Delian League’s funds, protected overseas trade Glorify Athens: Brought gold, ivory and marble to Athens. Hired artists, built architectural projects and the Parthenon Pericles’ Goals
    29. 29. The three goals of Pericles: 1. He wanted Athens to be more democratic: he created more positions in government and paid a salary. Poor people could hold these jobs 2. He wanted to make Athens stronger: the city was the head of a group of more than 140 Greek city-states called the Delian League. He used the league’s money to make sure they had the strongest navy in the Mediterranean. 3. He wanted to make Athens beautiful: he used the Delian League money to fund a great building program for his city: Parthenon, Statue of Athena
    30. 30. The Peloponnesian War • Peloponnesian war was a war fought between Sparta and Athens for control of Greece. • Tension had been building for many years. • Sparta did not like how prosperous Athens had become through the Delian League • The war lasts 27 years. • Fought to control the Greek region and the prosperous trade.
    31. 31. Spartans and Athenians Go to War - Sparta: Strengths - Strong land-based army - Advantage: Athenian navy could not attack Sparta was too far inland - Athens - Strong navy - Attack Sparta’s allies - Sparta marches on Athens - Pericles brings citizens into city behind walls - Sparta burns countryside (food) - Athens would be spared as long as ships sailed into harbor
    32. 32. The War Ends • The war would not go well for Athens. • Athens suffers 2 major disasters. • A terrible plague strikes the city killing a large portion of the people, including Pericles • Athens suffers several military defeats, including a loss of most all its navy in a battle with Sparta’s ally Syracuse • Athens finally surrenders and Athen’s Golden Age is over.
    33. 33. In the time of uncertainty after Athens defeat several great philosophers appeared • They tried to understand human life • Socrates: believed deeply in truth and justice, but many people did not trust him. He was accused of corrupting the youth of Athens, convicted of treason and forced to drink poison. • Plato: a pupil of Socrates, he studied roles and class in Greek society. He recorded many of his ideas and became an important thinker in his own right • Aristotle: a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great, he wrote books that summarized all things known to the Greeks at that time. He also invented a way of thinking logically and his work was very influential for Aristotle
    34. 34. A Weakened Greece • Following the Peloponnesian War, the Greek city-states were weakened from years of fighting. • To the north of Greece lay a small territory called Macedonia. • The Greeks looked down upon the Macedonians because they lacked the great culture of Greece. • The Macedonians were tough fighters and they had a strong ruler named Phillip II.
    35. 35. Macedonia Takes Control • Philip II decides to invade Greece using his strong army and superior phalanx formation. • Greece is unable to unite and fight off the Macedonians. • Macedonia conquers Greece and Greek independence is over. • Philip II has high ambitions and sets his sights towards the long time Greek enemy of
    36. 36. Alexander’s Rise to Power • Two years after Philip II conquers Greece, he is murdered by an assassin at his daughter’s wedding. • This makes Alexander, Philip’s 20 year old son, the new king of Macedonia and Greece. • Alexander is a brilliant leader and excellent warrior, like his father. • He had been taught well and prepared to carry out his father’s dream of conquering Persia.
    37. 37. Alexander the Conqueror • Alexander invades Persia in 334 BC • He defeats the Persians in many battles • Persian Emperor Darius III flees the battle of Issus in fear • Alexander then defeats Darius III and the Persians once and for all at the Battle of Gaugamela (Iraq). • With his defeat of Persia, Alexander is named King of Asia.
    38. 38. Alexander the Pharaoh? • While conquering Persia, Alexander moved south into the Persian territory of Egypt. • The Egyptians hated the Persians and saw them as oppressors. • The Egyptians welcome Alexander as their liberator and they crown him as their pharaoh, the God King of Egypt.
    39. 39. Alexander the Great • Alexander would continue on his conquest after Persia. • He would push farther and farther east conquering one land after another. • Alexander conquers all the way to the Indus Valley in India. • With every land he conquered, he treated the people with respect and honor, (that is, as long as you didn’t make him angry). • He let them keep traditions and also treated them as equals. • This was not popular amongst his Greek soldiers who felt that they were superior to those they conquered.
    40. 40. Alexander’s Death • By this time, his soldiers grew tired and had low morale. • They had been following Alexander for 7 years by now. • They wanted to return home. • Alexander reluctantly agrees to return home. • On the way back to Greece, Alexander falls ill after a night of drinking and dies in Babylon (Iraq). • Possibly due to sickness from an infection or possibly poisoned by his own men. • Alexander was only 32 years old at the time of his death. "I would rather live a short life of glory than a long one of obscurity."
    41. 41. Alexander’s Conquest
    42. 42. Alexander’s Conquest • Alexander’s conquest took 11 years and over 11,000 miles!
    43. 43. Alexander’s Conquest • For most of Alexander's army these miles were traveled on foot. • There's speculation that some of the grueling miles weren't even necessary, except to confirm Alexander's status as a hero. • For example, in 324 B.C., Alexander decided to march his army through the barren wasteland of the Gedrosian desert in present-day Iran. Some say he could have made this trip easy by sailing his troops through the Persian Gulf instead, but he decided to go through the desert as a challenge. Why? -- because no one had ever successfully brought an army through it.
    44. 44. The Siege of Tyre • Sometimes, battles weren’t even necessary. • Take for example, the famous siege of the island city of Tyre. • Alexander had stopped and wanted to pray at the city’s temples. • When they refused to let him in, this infuriated Alexander. • Without a navy, Alexander had his engineers build a land bridge to the island so his army could attack. • The whole operation took around 9-10 months. • Alexander was so enraged with the Tyrians that he destroyed the city and took its inhabitants as slaves, more than 30,000 of them.
    45. 45. Tyre - Today
    46. 46. Alexander the Great – Quick Facts • Born in Pella, Macedon on July 20th , 356 BC. • Believed he was actually descendants of gods. • Tamed a wild horse at 10 years old. • Was privately tutored by Aristotle and was considered a genius. • Became a military commander at age 14. • Became king at age 20. • Was undefeated in battle. He never experienced a loss.
    47. 47. Alexander’s Empire is Split • Following his death, three of Alexander’s generals divided the empire. • One ruled Macedonia and Greece. • Another took control of Egypt. • The Third became ruler of the lands that used to be the Persian empire.
    48. 48. Did You Know? • The Egyptian pharaoh Cleopatra was a descendant of Ptolemy, good friend and general for Alexander. Ptolemy declared himself pharaoh following Alexander’s death. • Therefore, Cleopatra is in fact Greek, not Egyptian.
    49. 49. Alexander’s Influence • After Alexander died his empire was not long lasting but it had important effects • The people of all the different lands that Alexander had conquered blended Greek culture with their own. • This starts a new era of Greek influence known as the Hellenistic Era.
    50. 50. Alexandria, Iskandariya, Bucephala, etc. • For his greater glory, Alexander founded some 70 cities in the lands he conquered and ordered them named after himself. • The most famous, of course, is Alexandria in Egypt. • In India, when his beloved horse Bucephalus died, he ordered a city to be built named Bucephala. • Although Alexander did not conquer North America it's interesting to note that there are nearly two dozen cities and towns here named Alexander or Alexandria.
    51. 51. Alexandria, Iskandariya, Bucephala, etc. • Iskandariya, Iraq • Alexandria Asiana, Iran • Alexandria Ariana, Afghanistan • Alexandria Bucephalous, Pakistan, on the Jhelum • Alexandria on the Caucasus, Afghanistan • Alexandria on the Oxus, Afghanistan • Alexandria Arachosia, Afghanistan now called Kandahar • Alexandria on the Indus, Pakistan • Alexandria Eschate, "the Farthest", Tajikistan • Alinda, Alexandria on the Latmos • Cebrene, formerly Alexandria • Alexandria Troas, Turkey • Merv, Turkmenistan, also called Alexandria
    52. 52. The Hellenistic Era • Alexander’s influence lived on long after his death. • Greek ideas were brought to many countries conquered by Alexander the Great. • Greek customs and culture blended with other local influences in Egypt, Persia and India thus creating a new culture: The Hellenistic Culture. • It flourished throughout Greece, Egypt and Asia.
    53. 53. Greek Influence - Egypt • Temple of Sobek and Haroeris • Egypt
    54. 54. Greek Influence – Persia • The Theatre of Miletus • Turkey • Aphrodisias • Turkey
    55. 55. Greek Influence - India Greek column crowning with Buddha The Greek titan Atlas supporting a Buddhist monument Buddha wearing a Greek toga- like robe. Before the Greeks, he was always portrayed wearing a dhoti loincloth
    56. 56. Alexandria • The center of Hellenistic Culture was the city of Alexandria in Egypt: located on the mouth of the Nile River delta along the Mediterranean Sea. • Alexandria was a large, beautiful city with a large population of people from different countries. • Given its location, it had a large harbor and trade was vibrant.
    57. 57. Alexandria • Alexandria also had a magnificent lighthouse that towered over the harbor providing light to oncoming ships. • It’s famous museum had rooms with works of arts, a zoo and a garden. • It’s magnificent library had ½ a million scrolls of papyrus that contained everything known in the Hellenistic world: It was the first true research library. • Alexandria became a center for science and research. Pharos Lighthouse
    58. 58. Alexandria
    59. 59. Achievements in the Hellenistic Era • Scientists observed the stars and made advances in astronomy. • The theory that the earth was the center of the universe would dominate for the next 14 centuries. • Advances were also made in mathematics • Euclid wrote a book on geometry • Archimedes discovers Pi (diameter) • New schools of philosophy arose • There were several notable achievements in art • Sculptors started to create statues more realistically instead of ideal or perfect form
    60. 60. Colossus at Rhodes • The largest known Hellenistic statue was created on the island of Rhodes. • This statue was dedicated to the Greek sun god Helios. • It was made of bronze and stood more than 100ft. high. • It was said to straddle the harbor entering the city. • It was known as one of the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World before it toppled over in an earthquake in 225 B.C.
    61. 61. Achievements in the Hellenistic Era Disproved the belief that the sun was smaller than Greece, advanced the theory that earth revolves around sun astronomy geometry philosophy art Stoicism, Epicureanism Realism in sculpture, Colossus of Rhodes Euclid’s The Elements, calculation of pi Category Achievements