Roger Cailloisfun: the activity is chosen for its light-hearted characterseparate: it is circumscribed in time and placeuncertain: the outcome of the activity is unforeseeablenon-productive: participation does not accomplishanything usefulgoverned by rules: the activity has rules that aredifferent from everyday lifefictitious: it is accompanied by the awareness of adifferent reality
Play formsAgon, or competition. E.g. Chess is an almost purelyagonistic game.Alea, or chance. E.g. Playing a slot machine is analmost purely aleatory game.Mimicry, or mimesis, or role playing.Ilinx (Greek for "whirlpool"), or vertigo, in the sense ofaltering perception. E.g. taking hallucinogens, ridingroller coasters, children spinning until they fall down
Social actions vs playsmooth border between game/play and socialactions"an Action is social if the acting individualtakes account of the behavior of others and isthereby oriented in its course" (M. Weber)
Game mechanics... are constructs of rules and feedback loops intendedto produce enjoyable gameplay. They are the buildingblocks that can be applied and combined to gamifyany non-game context.http://gamification.org/wiki/Game_Mechanics
7 ways games rewardthe brain (T. Chatfield)Use Experience Bars to Measure ProgressProvide Multiple Long/Short-Term AimsReward Effort - Dont Punish MistakesLink Actions to ConsequencesInclude an Element of UncertaintyInclude Peer CollaborationEngage Players by Doling Out the Rewards at the
FlowFlow is the mental state of operation in which a personin an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energizedfocus, full involvement, and success in the process ofthe activity.Proposed by Mihály Csíkszentmihályi, the positivepsychology concept has been widely referencedacross a variety of fields. (Wikipedia)
Components of flow1. Clear goals (expectations and rules are discernibleand goals are attainable and align appropriately withones skill set and abilities). Moreover, the challengelevel and skill level should both be high.2. Concentrating, a high degree of concentration on alimited field of attention (a person engaged in theactivity will have the opportunity to focus and to delvedeeply into it).
Components of flow3. A loss of the feeling of self-consciousness, themerging of action and awareness. Action withawareness fades into action alone.4. Distorted sense of time, ones subjective experienceof time is altered.5. Direct and immediate feedback (successes andfailures in the course of the activity are apparent, sothat behavior can be adjusted as needed).6. Balance between ability level and challenge (theactivity is neither too easy nor too difficult).
Components of flow7. A sense of personal control over the situation oractivity.8. The activity is intrinsically rewarding, so there is aneffortlessness of action.9. A lack of awareness of bodily needs (to the extentthat one can reach a point of great hunger or fatiguewithout realizing it)10. Absorption into the activity, narrowing of the focusof awareness down to the activity itself, actionawareness merging. Action with awareness fades intoaction alone.
Gamers?50% of gamers are reported as being female, 30% areover 45, and in the U.S. there are 40 million activesocial gamers (who play at least 1 hour a week), andthere are over 200 million gamers on Facebook.(2011 Los Angeles Games Conference)
Acting Win Harass Hack Challange Create Cheat Killers Achievers ComparePlayers World Like View Help Share Socializers Explorers Comment Vote Review Greet Interacting
Acting Win Harass Hack Challange Create Cheat Killers Achievers ComparePlayers World Like View Help Share Socializers Explorers Comment Vote Review Greet Interacting Test: apply this to social networks
ActingAchievers Killers World PlayersExplorers Socializers Interacting
What not to omitDaniel Pink and Sebastian Deterding
Mindset to start?43 Things That Customers Think Are Funhttp://www.billyinc.com/tumblr/pdf/cheatsheets/43FunQuickSheet.pdf
Does it works? Page%views%(in"millions)" Ave.%no.%monthly%visits% Ave.%&me%spent%on%site%(mins)# 5" 22# 16" 14# 9" 2" Pre(gamiﬁca/on" Post(gamiﬁca/on" Pregamiﬁca.on" Postgamiﬁca.on" Pre.gamiﬁca3on# Post.gamiﬁca3on# Merchandise+sales! +47%$ Pre$sales$ Post$sales$see Gamiﬁcation: How effective is it? (Findlay, Alberts)
10.000 hours?Malcolm Gladwell and Jane McGonigal
What games teach usmake us happykeep us motivatedmake senseencourage community
Course forward:GoogleGabe ZichermanAmy Jo KimByron ReevesJane McGonigalJesse Schell
Gamification Critics“It’s a modern-day form of manipulation. And like allcognitive manipulation, it can help people and it canhurt people. And we will see both.”– danah boyd, researcher, Microsoft and Harvard’sBerkman Centerexample: Sina Weibo