Maria Bäcke Defense

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Slides from my discussion of Maria Bäcke's dissertation defense where I was the opponent.

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  • http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/number_of_virtual_world_users_breaks_the_1_billion.phpWhat are the 5 phases of a Hype Cycle?1. "Technology Trigger"The first phase of a Hype Cycle is the "technology trigger" or breakthrough, product launch or other event that generates significant press and interest. 2. "Peak of Inflated Expectations"In the next phase, a frenzy of publicity typically generates over-enthusiasm and unrealistic expectations. There may be some successful applications of a technology, but there are typically more failures. 3. "Trough of Disillusionment"Technologies enter the "trough of disillusionment" because they fail to meet expectations and quickly become unfashionable. Consequently, the press usually abandons the topic and the technology. 4. "Slope of Enlightenment"Although the press may have stopped covering the technology, some businesses continue through the "slope of enlightenment" and experiment to understand the benefits and practical application of the technology. 5. "Plateau of Productivity"A technology reaches the "plateau of productivity" as the benefits of it become widely demonstrated and accepted. The technology becomes increasingly stable and evolves in second and third generations. The final height of the plateau varies according to whether the technology is broadly applicable or benefits only a niche market.Virtual worlds have reached a stage where new users continue to build, even though the media has moved on to fan the fires of Facebook and Twitter, says Douglas Thompson, CEO of Remedy Communications, a Toronto marketing firm. Second Life says the time spent on the site by users increased 21 percent in 2009. Most paying customers on Second Life are purely social, but it still boasts 1,400 business-related organizations as users. Thompson says traffic on Metanomics, his company’s Second Life video presence, has picked up in the past year, with 50 percent of new users coming from small or medium-size companies. “People no longer ask what an avatar is,” says Thompson. “We can thank Jim Cameron for that.”Read more: Entrepreneurs Doing Business by Avatar - Personal Finance - Employment - SmartMoney.comhttp://www.smartmoney.com/Personal-Finance/Employment/Entrepreneurs-Doing-Business-by-Avatar/#ixzz0pp1H6D7N
  • As modeling and simulation technology improves, more and more real world items will be successfully designed in collaborative spaces that can be leveraged both by corporations and ad hoc groups. -Cory Ondrejka
  • Relationship of role-player to chosen role especially in terms of boundary between being in character (IC) and as such removed from reality and the move to being out of character (OOC), which instead highlights negotiations of social, sometime make-belief roles. Interested in digital arenas for free play…why free play vs scripted worlds? How does it matter to the RQ?Is it role-play in a new realm or is it the interplay of primary interest?What do we know about this interplay in offline context?Focus is interplay between mv and mf or interaction between players? – p. 52: performance studies investigate interaction that is performed between players, animate as well as inanimate, How people explore and negotiate boundary between being IC and OCC. P. 35 – then why not use identity as lens?But why is this interplay of interest?Specific focus? Grandmother…
  • Relationship of role-player to chosen role especially in terms of boundary between being in character (IC) and as such removed from reality and the move to being out of character (OOC), which instead highlights negotiations of social, sometime make-belief roles. Interested in digital arenas for free play…why free play vs scripted worlds? How does it matter to the RQ?Is it role-play in a new realm or is it the interplay of primary interest?What do we know about this interplay in offline context?Focus is interplay between mv and mf or interaction between players? – p. 52: performance studies investigate interaction that is performed between players, animate as well as inanimate, How people explore and negotiate boundary between being IC and OCC. P. 35 – then why not use identity as lens?But why is this interplay of interest?Specific focus? Grandmother…
  • Schechner says that performance is a continuum. P.44 but then he says that make-believe vs make-belief is a dichotomy p. 11 …which is it? And does it matter?
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0CijdlYOSPcWhile many definitions of VWs, these are the characteristics that I find relevant to the study of virtual entrepreneurship. Persistent, computer-simulated, immersive environments ranging from 2D "cartoon" imagery to more immersive 3D environmentworld exists regardless of whether users logged inUsers can manipulate and/or alter existing content or even create customized content Shared space or co-presencenumerous users, or ‘avatars’, simultaneously participate, interact, and share experiences through gestures, text chat, and voiceSocialization/community formation of in-world social groups such as teams, guilds, clubs, cliques, housemates, neighborhoods, etc the world allowed and encouraged
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0CijdlYOSPcWhile many definitions of VWs, these are the characteristics that I find relevant to the study of virtual entrepreneurship. Persistent, computer-simulated, immersive environments ranging from 2D "cartoon" imagery to more immersive 3D environmentworld exists regardless of whether users logged inUsers can manipulate and/or alter existing content or even create customized content Shared space or co-presencenumerous users, or ‘avatars’, simultaneously participate, interact, and share experiences through gestures, text chat, and voiceSocialization/community formation of in-world social groups such as teams, guilds, clubs, cliques, housemates, neighborhoods, etc the world allowed and encouraged
  • Power as continuous development of strategic positions, Freedom must exist for power to be exertedWhat about the boundary in offline settings?
  • But what about role-players who are not part of a community? Who makes the rules?
  • But what about role-players who are not part of a community? Who makes the rules?
  • This slide is from 2007 but still is a good representation of the different kinds of worlds that exist.
  • https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/cGAPUCiKe6LI6l5fM4rFqAComputer-generated, persistent spaceThree-dimensional, immersiveenvironmentExperienced by many people at once/interactivity
  • StructureProcessExperiencefunction
  • StructureProcessExperiencefunction
  • StructureProcessExperiencefunction
  • Generalizability?
  • https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/cGAPUCiKe6LI6l5fM4rFqAComputer-generated, persistent spaceThree-dimensional, immersiveenvironmentExperienced by many people at once/interactivity
  • http://www.industrialgaming.no/Program-EpisodeIV.htmlhttp://www.industrialgaming.no/Program-EpisodeIV.html
  • brings personalized, human interaction to the self-service channel. Bank staff and customers connect in real time, presenting an engaging virtual experience. Collaborative voice-video sessions can be used to walk customers through complex requests. Such interactivity appeals to today’s “always on” customer, while helping banks address staffing issues and the need for greater efficiencies in a world beyond phone-based customer service. With an integrated strategy, banks can maximize email, video, text and even social media channels.
  • RT: traditional leadership further challenged as we move to a world of web 3.0 or the immersive internet…http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ahqjBeknT0
  • http://journals.tdl.org/jvwr/article/view/866
  • Develop more – internal/external - >
  • Develop more – internal/external - >
  • How to regulate behavior in cyberspace…copyright, code, creativity and community, and are powerful, interlinked components that creators use to determine what is and what is not possible in their virtual world. For example, the more a user is restricted in terms of creativity due to the scripting of the virtual world, the more a virtual world creator must use strict computer codes authorizing users to only perform actions provided for within the script of the virtual world. The fifth C is a complementary component: contracts, which creators then use to reinforce control over users.
  • But how did participation as neko impact these findings?
  • Were data collected through ethnography as well? What was character like?
  • http://www.hypergridbusiness.com/2009/05/hypergrid-101-why-its-good-for-business/http://mediagrid.org/groups/technology/OFF.TWG/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ZReLlmr-8k&tracker=False&hd=1Companies still active in sl - http://danielvoyagerblog.wordpress.com/2011/03/24/active-rl-companies-that-have-a-presence-in-sl-2011/Air FranceABCAmazon AMDAmerican Cancer SocietyCNNCisco SystemsDellIBMKelly ServicesNokiaManpowerPhilipsPress DispensarySiemens Innovation Connection
  • Maria Bäcke Defense

    1. 1. Power Games: Rules and Roles in Online Worlds ------ Maria Bäcke Blekinge Institute of Technology maria.backe@bth.se May 27, 2011Opponent: RobinTeiglandStockholm School of Economicsrobin.teigland@hhs.se
    2. 2. Who isMaria?
    3. 3. Here comes the ―Immersive Internet‖O’Driscoll 2009
    4. 4. 4
    5. 5. VWs moving out of “Gartner hype cycle” trough >1 bln Virtual users May 2006 worlds today July 2007http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1447613
    6. 6. > 560 mln VW users under age 15http://www.slideshare.net/nicmitham/kzero-radar-q1-2011?from=ss_embed
    7. 7. …..we’re all on Facebook 24/7. But if I ask my 10 year old cousin, who isaddicted to Stardoll, she does not see why I like Facebook so much since Ican only read what other people sendme. For her it is just natural for all of her friends to be moving around the Stardoll website. - Masters Student at Stockholm School of Economics
    8. 8. Drivers of change Interactivity Increased DiGangi 2010
    9. 9. Research Purpose ―My aim is to understand role-play in a digital realm in a new way, in which two modes of performance, dramatic and social, take place in a digital context online.‖
    10. 10. Research Purpose ―My aim is to understand role-play in a digital realm in a new way, in which two modes of performance, dramatic and social, take place in a digital context online.‖ But how would you explain this to your grandmother?
    11. 11. Make- Make- Vs.believe belief Make- Make- believe belief
    12. 12. My strategy course at SSE
    13. 13. Make-believe or make-belief?
    14. 14. DefinitionsWhat is power?What are trajectories of power?
    15. 15. Assumptions? Role-players need to feel emotionally safe so need rules Rules enable magic circle boundary of make-believe vs make-belief dichotomy Role-playing communities need to be administered and maintained through rules and rule enforcement Power is influential in this process
    16. 16. Assumptions? Role-players need to feel emotionally safe so need rules Rules enable magic circle boundary of make-believe vs make-belief dichotomy Role-playing communities need to be administered and maintained through rules and rule enforcement Power is influential in this process What do we already know? - Offline settings - Online communities - Identity
    17. 17. Why Second Life?
    18. 18. Why not other virtual worlds withcommunities, e.g., EveOnli ne, World of Warcraft, Entropia Universe?
    19. 19. Nekos Caledon Why/how did you choose these four? Midian Gor
    20. 20. Data collectionCan you fill in the empty boxes?
    21. 21. How didbeing/performing aNeko influence your data collection?
    22. 22. What are yourresearch questions?
    23. 23. Research questions What is the level of analysis? − Individual? − Interplay between individuals? − Role-playing community? What is the focus of analysis? − Make-belief vs make-believe within individual? − Online vs offline identity? − Interplay between individuals in community? − Interplay between leader and community? − Interplay between community and LL?
    24. 24. DiscussionsNeko −What is a Neko? Japanese Neko vs. western Neko, Sexy Neko, Herding Nekos Midian − What should role-play be like? Sim managers. Who decides? Gor − Is Gor Philosophy fantasy role-play or example to live by? What happens to those who get caught in mixing of fantasy and reality?Caledon −What should Second Life be like? Are we going to stay on this platform? Situation for programmers/scriptors and content creators
    25. 25. Approaches to play - Schechner  Structure − Relationships among events within play act, each act consists of sub acts, distinct behaviour units make up coherent whole, i.e. gameplay gestalt  Process − How play acts are generated and what are their phases of development  Experience − What are the feelings and moods of the players and observers? How do these affect playing? What are different experiences? How do they change over time? How is it “good” or not?  Function − What purpose do play acts serve? How do they affect learning, growth, creativity, aggression, values, or other “uses” of play.Adapted from emma.westecott@newport.ac.uk
    26. 26. CONCLUSIONMake-Believe and Make-Belief Performances − Linden Lab decisions affect four role-play communities in various ways − Performative utopias — the exit argument: ”if you don’t agree, please leave” − Creating fiction — sustaining boundary between make-believe and make-belief, in character and out of character, dramatized and social − Power and performance — constructions of gender and hierarchy, creating “reality” of your choice, virtual becoming actual − Performative layers — social and dramatic role-play on different levels, online as well as offline, online make-belief social sphere where negotiations of power take place
    27. 27. CONCLUSIONMake-Believe and Make-Belief Performances − Linden Lab decisions affect four role-play communities in various ways − Performative utopias — the exit argument: ”if you don’t agree, please leave” − Creating fiction — sustaining boundary between make-believe and make-belief, in character and out of character, dramatized and social − Power and performance — constructions of gender and hierarchy, creating “reality” of your choice, virtual becoming actual − Performative layers — social and dramatic role-play on different levels, online as well as offline, online make-belief social sphere where negotiations of power take place Generalizability?
    28. 28. Causality?A ? B
    29. 29. Tension?A ? B
    30. 30. Comparing communities Is there a pattern?
    31. 31. Comparing goals for actors/role-playing Individualism Challengers/lea Explorers rnersHobby: Serious: ―Live ―Play to to live‖ play‖ Socializers Leaders Collectivism
    32. 32. Play as performance the performance the the actor ―game‖ & audienceAdapted from emma.westecott@newport.ac.uk
    33. 33. Dynamics of role-playing communities the performance the the actor―game‖ & audience
    34. 34. Exploring the tensions the performance Rule Goal conflict conflict When does the ―game‖ start/stop? the the actor―game‖ & audience Value conflict
    35. 35. What do your findings mean….. Methodologically − For cyber-ethnographers? Theoretically − For performance studies? − For game studies − For community studies? − For other studies? Practically − For role-playing community leaders? − For platform providers, eg Linden Lab? What do we know now that we did not know before?
    36. 36. Building skills in virtual environments My CV •Leading a virtual team of 30 individuals from across the globe•Creating and successfully executing strategies under pressure •Managing cross-cultural conflictwithout face-to-face communication
    37. 37. Practicing international entrepreneurship
    38. 38. http://www.industrialgaming.no/Program-EpisodeIV.html
    39. 39. Virtual collaborationMerck’s Global R&D NVWN Monthly Project MeetingWelch et al 2010 http://freshtakes.typepad.com/sl_communicators/20 06/09/ibms_second_lif.html ProViWo: Professional Collaboration and Productivity in Virtual Worlds, http://vmwork.net/proviwo/
    40. 40. HP rolls out virtual banking with Avaya’s Web.alivehttp://www.hypergridbusiness.com/2011/04/hp-rolls-out-virtual-banking-with-avayas-web-alive/
    41. 41. “Clearly, if social activity migrates to synthetic worlds, economic activity will go there as well.” Castranova, 2006 US $3 bln in virtual good sales in 2009 to grow to US $12 bln in 2012http://www.flickr.com/photos/rodenberger/5085364909/in/pool-popartlab/#/photos/rodenberger/5085364909/in/pool-1240578@N23/
    42. 42. US$ 635,000 for an asteroid! •US$ 500,000 profit in 5 years by Jon ―Neverdie‖ Jacobs •Entropia Universe with GDP >US$ 440 mlnhttp://blogs.forbes.com/oliverchiang/2010/11/13/meet-the-man-who-just-made-a-cool-half-million-from-the-sale-of-virtual-property/
    43. 43. From the mobility of goods to the mobility of financial capital to …...the ―mobility‖ of labor? Teigland, JVWR, 2010
    44. 44. Summary Research area and questions − Very timely and relevant research area! − Interesting research question Literature − Performance studies as insightful lens Method − Daring to explore cyber-ethnography Findings − Fascinating insights!! − Implications for many areas
    45. 45. Summary Research area and questions − Very timely and relevant research area! − Interesting research purpose Literature − Performance studies as insightful lens Method − Daring to explore cyber-ethnography Findings − Fascinating insights!! − Implications for many areas
    46. 46. ―We ain’t seen nothin’ yet!‖ Karinda Rhode Photo: Lindholm, Metro aka Robin Teigland robin.teigland@hhs.sePhoto:Nordenskiöld www.knowledgenetworking.org www.slideshare.net/eteigland www.nordicworlds.net RobinTeigland Photo: Lindqvist
    47. 47. Lessig on regulating behavior Laws – dictated by external regulators Norms – accepted behaviors - internal regulators Market – business model Architecture/code - protocols
    48. 48. Future implications What will happen as VWs become more and more realistic?
    49. 49. Neko Within individual − Enables more aspects of personality to emerge IC − OCC learnings impact IC behavior (Villota) Between individuals − Power is distributed
    50. 50. Midian City – Interplay between rules and role-play Within individual − IC skills enable OCC development, eg Steele’s management training Between individuals − Power is centralized. How was new leadership structure developed? − Similar to growth of a firm – more routines, procedures
    51. 51. Gor Interplay between sl and outside of sl
    52. 52. Open source VW platforms
    53. 53. Virtual Worlds on Demand www.kitely.com
    54. 54. Increasing pace of VW/3Di development! For smart "Create Once, phones and Experience tablet PCs Everywhere” Expanding uses VWs on stick Seamlessness Browser-based between VWs VWs/hyperlinked 3Dhttp://www.hypergridbusiness.com/2009/05/hypergrid-101-why-its-good-for-business/http://mediagrid.org/groups/technology/OFF.TWG/

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